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II 1 8 T 11 Y 











18 7 0. 

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Kntored tecordlng lo Aet of OnngreM, In th* jut 1870, 

bt juiin oilmabt shea. 

In lb* Cltrk'a Offlot or tbt District Court of lli« Unlt^l BUtM for tb* Soatbani 
Dlitriot of N»w York. 





liUOlv XII. 


Koh.p of our allirti attacL tlio IroquolH. \M,\ atitl imrfldlout act of a Huron cUefto 
(■ri'ttk up th.^ iHWCo an<l liivolvn tli.i Kr.ncli nioni limn ovt-r witJi the JroquoU. 
Il<< umkHH DenoiiviUe boar lh« burthun of hb trracliury. Tho (lov.-rnor of N.'W 
V .'k pruvrntH Uitt C.inUm* from g.'n.liiiK d.-puti.-* to tliat Ki-ntTul Stat., of trml.i 
III N.!\v KrRUCf. HenumpUoH of thu proji*t of «»tabli»hin(^ WHlcnUiry rmhcrli-H 
iil.iiig th.. Hi. Lawrinu-n. Abundanui of WMlfiHli and whal.-H in ibat rivtir. Wlml 
|,nviiit« ibc Frt'Dch prolUlng by tliiw.- Acadian a»a»(t fluh.fri.-i). Ur.-at oflTortH ol 
lb.- KngliHh to dWfrt th« Ab.'na<|uiH from our Intureut. The Chevalier de 
( ulli.-rt* proc.tHlB U) France, and why ? Ho proHenta a memoir to ih.. Omrt ; Ita 
O.nt-MiU*. The KiiiK tliinkH of reiullln;; the Maniuia de Denonvil!;-, and why If 
What induce<l bin MajeHty to r.'8tore the Count de Krontenac to the Kenerol gnv- 
ernment of New Fraiic«. IIIb in^truclions in regard to Uudaon's Bay. Ko- 
co.ninendations bh to Aca.lia. < )r.ler8 concernlnK the as pe<lltion agabiHt New York 
pr..iK)iM,<l by the (MievaUor de Calliere-. I'lan of thia entorpri«e. SU^I* taken to 
inaure buccew. What waa to be done after the conquest of that province. Why 
ii failed. lnatrudic)n« K'Vfn by the Count de Front«nac to Mr. do la Cafflniere, 
cptaiu in the navy, who was to besiege Manhattan by sea. That captain, un- 
obi.' to throw proviaiona or munitiona of war into Port Royal. The Count do 
Frontenm' and the Cbevali-r de Calli. n-a arrive at Montreal, and the condition in lb. y Und it. Irruplb.n of the Ir-xiuois there ; they i)erpetralo unheard-of 
eru.ltlra .uid tak.. uuvuv priKouera. They atUck a fort and take the commandant 
after killing all the garrison. Th.-.v are def.ate.1, Project of theae Indiana in 
making the irrnpti-.n. Denonville and decide to abandon and de- 
umliah Kort CatarcK-mv ;'» nwuiona for n.uintainiug it. 
Ho umke« great preparationa to r.victual it an.l reinforce the garriaon. Hia other 
views on the aulject. lie moves too late. Just «a bis convoy waa on the puintof 
M.rting, !..• U.«rna that latar-rouv ia evacuaUni. New plana of the Chevalier de 
C«llier..« for tb. c,.m,,u..sI of N.w Vmk. What i.r-venta the Court from accepting 


DllHrvilK-'s exi-dili-n to llu<lson'BHay und wlial 'ed to it 

Ilia aucceas. 

lueui. 1/ 11" 1 ,1111 c • ^1 ■ " - — ■ , fri 1 

TheC« uud.rlake t- u.-st Fort Fen.knil from the Lnglisb. Their pious 

I» CiiNTrNTH. 

liri'i'iirntluti fur llii« ciiiirprUf 'i'luv lnU'' 11 Oilnr Aliriiii'|iii'< ilplvf tlio 
Kiii^iwli I'miii I'liiirii'i'ii iitlii-r InrU. Scvrrul of iliinn liullittiH tliliiU nl' riMiKiviiii^ 
wlililii ilii< mliiiiy. I>i'tiiiiivllli<'t iiii'iiioir on till' ni'tiinl inmitluii urNi'w Kr<kii(K< 
ittiil till' niiiiily III lu' ii|i|iliril l<i llif illMinliTH tlmt liml i'ri'|it in. 'I'lio Kiiit( 
wIhIii'm II (IririiHivi' |Mi|ic_v |iiiri<iii'il iukI iIh' hi'IiIitm ({iiiIhtciI lulu Wiwiih. Kmntiv 
niii'N I iliirUt to ^iiln till- Irmiuolii. |{i<[ity ol° tin I'antnuH to tliu prii|iiiMltiiinM niailn 
tiii'lll. Ill' ri'l'-irtiH 111 i;lv>' llillli'iKV' III tht'lr ili'|Mily. li''f;UI«! IIk' I'lilrf uf tliH 
ilr|>ulitliiin liiiil In' II tvitiitiii; III r.'r<|H'i'l In liiiii. A ('iiyuK'u flili't' uiiMWirH tliciu 
In llU lltvil Mllllli', but III Oilll-'TI Witll lltlM. Wlllll I'tllltlnl llli' ilnvrrnnr Urn- 

rrul til iiF-i'iitiii' Holiiiii);litv II toiii' Willi tJKMii TliciittiiwiiKtri'iit with ili<' Irmiii'ini 
wlthimi Kr.'Mi'li liitirv.'iiiiiin, Wlmt iii.iiin'il ih'iii. llll'.iriH ol'dn la Diirniiiavo 
mill till' llliH^.i mirl'H In ilic iimtiiT. Kiitli.'r ili- l'iirliili"'H li'lliT to I'lmnt de 
Frunti'nac on the tuiiux iiuliju<'t, li:< i tT"'-! "ii III'' Uoii'TiiI h iiiiiul, 


I<a Siilo'H projfct 8uliniitti>(l to Mr. dc Si'l);n(>Ial. and approvi'd. ('nMiniiNilon plvcn ItH 
iiilllior IIU nr.nnliii'iit nnil (■<iin|itiiiliiiM. U\h ili'|iiirliiri' t'nnn Huclii'lli'. 
•S|uailrnii piilH Imi'k In Kraiici'. Airain |iiitN to ncn. Pr Hriiiiji'ii ami I41 Siiln 
qiinrn-l. Vi'riu'l limt by do Ui'aiiji'u'H limit. Florida dlHcovrriHl. Mr. di' la Salo 
pnHW'H till' iii'iilhof i!ii' .MlK4|sHi|i|ii wiiliout |ii'n'i'ivlii^ it, lIcrrHclicr St li'Tiiard'H 
lJliy,i>;iinralil wli.Ti' be \va'<. I'.r loHc.-i bin Mli)r('Mlil|). ('(iii:<i'i|iii'ii"i'H of tliiH Iohh. 
I)i' Hraiiji'ii ri'liirii" to Franco. His iniricniiiluct towanlK I.u Sale Hi' IniililM two 
fortH. ('oiin|ilra("y iiftainNt .liMiti'l. Sad |KiHliion of tbu colony. \,a Sulr'H i'Xc<h- 
fllvc g)>viTity and ItM I'niltH. The IndiaiiH buruHs tlin Fn-ncb. l)iH|i<iHillon of tbi- 
t'laniooi iM. ('linrai'ltT of till' Ci-iiIh I'oiintry. Tin' Ayinnis. La Siili' uiubcH to 
m-i'k tbc .\li.-<.'*ii-'iiii]ii by m'u. Several Frmcli inaHsaiTcd by tin- Imlians. Wreck 
of the fri;'ati'. .Nliitlny and plotH In the St. L<iiil8 Ncttli'im-nt. I.,a Siili''i4 ninrch t<i 
till' I'l'iiiH. He loHc'H a part of bin men and falls wick. lb- Hturtw for the Illinois. 
AsHassiimiion of .Nbitaiifiet. anil "if La ShIc'm lack y and biinter. I,ii Hale'H tragic 
death. IIJH character. ('aluninie» |iiililiHlii'd a;.r>dii>*t him. What occiin* after 
IiIh dealb. The aKMaH^inN ahKiime command, iloutil wnt to the Cenis. Uiw 
receiitiim there. Fiincb demrter.'* amciiif: the CeniH. La Sali'H lunrdereis |iart 
with the rest. Sad end of Ibihaiit and Liotot. Some of the French accom|iaiiy 
tbu tVnis in war anil eniilib' tliein to piin u C()in;ilnte victory. Cni'lty of tin' 
victors. Their rejoicingM. C'lmitm jiurHUi'd by the French. Some H'' 'o Ibu 
lllinoi!'. They arrive amoiij; the .\rkiiiiMis i luir reception. Tliey n acli I'on 
St. I^iiiif in the lllinoiH, and make the I''ien«;!i wlmm they meet believe tliul .Mi; 
La Sale its full of lllo. They are oblij^ed to wiuter in thu Fort, 'i'hey piiHn over 
to Fmnce. WImt became of the M'ttleinent of St. L'jui.-* Various adventures of 
BoniP Flencliinen. Uelb clions mi La Sale's eoniluit. 

(Xj rrKN'i'H. V 


I'piJi'Cl mill |ir>'|>itruiliinii ol' ('nuiil il' Kmiili'iiur. Kx|K»lllliin ukuIiihI Cnrliir (Silir 
iiiTiadyi. 'I'liit |ilm'i' nurprlM'*! uii<l tiikrri. Tlio Iiwm nf ilif Krcni'li ((n-utir in ilm 
ri'tri'iil lliaii in llii' I'lipliiri' nl Hi'lifiHTl.icly KffiTl |iriKliii'i'il liy lliin i'iiiic|iii'iit. 
Our iiliii'M ittiui-k cuc'li iiiliiT iinnwitri'H. Itnttli of tlinKri'itt Mulmwk llii« i iikigy, 
coiivi'rxullon.ruri'i'r. KnmU'nar'mMiilmrrnNKUii'iit HlttT iliiNiulMuniliTHtmiiliiiuf, iind 

how I xirii'iili-n liiiiiKiir. Si'Micnti'lri (Siilnion KhIIhi taken Ity ilrrti'l Ironi 

till' l''.n>,'li»li. Tlicy iiri' iIhI'i'HI'mI ul ii liriil^o. IIitIcI jll:n^ M. ilc I'ortnrnf. 
8i<'K<' <*l KuHki'lH* (Ciuaoii Buy, Kiilmouthl. Tim Kn^'liHJi ulnui'lim I'cnir furtM. Khm- 
ki Ix' HiirrrniliTd, unil till' j;iirriHiiii priwincrH of war. Tlir Kn^^liHli nrrivf tiHi Ir o 
Ul ri'lii'vr it. tiri'nl iriuvoy H'tii III Mii'liilliuiiikinnf, wliincK ill' liit Diiriiiitiiyi' In 
ris'nll.d, IliMi'uliiKy. 'riicninviiy altHi-kiil liy tin' IriiiiuniM. Tliry nri' ilifnitril. 
Ktli'i't "f tliin virtory, I'crllily of llii' Iriii|iiiii8. New liiwlility on llu'ir part. A 
f;n>ot convoy nrriviw friini Mii'liillliunkinac. Frontcnat! wurimil of ilm n|>|iroa<'li 
of an army of Kii^l'mli aii'l lriH|u<>lH. .Mann nt Mimtrcal. (Irrat cminril, and 
what ot'currt'd nl It Siir|(riiM' ol nonii' Krciirh. Di' Irontrnur dixiuiMHi'!! Ium 
ailliii. N«w rt'i'Uliit'it I'rotu till* IriH)UolM, Krontt-nncri-iiroaclK-MUurrouliari''. 'I'Imt 
Inilian'H ri|ily. An Kn^.'lir'li fli'it pri'iiarrn to lM>|ip' Quilnr. Ilnw KrHiiti'iiiM! 
i-aiiii' til Ih' taki'ii liy Nur|>rihi'. ('oiiiritinn of Aaiiliu at llit- tiiiir. It Ih atturkrd 
by till- Knirlixli. Tlif (iovrrnor rniiiiiilntcH. Tlii< oapit illation not uhhrrvnl. 
.Mr. PiTrol )HirHiii'd hy tlm KiikIIhIi. I>i- Villilioii nrrivi.'M nt I'ort Uoyal, liut (imlii 
no Kii'.;li!-li tlirp'. K\|iiiiit of tlic Siciir <li' .Moiitur^Miril. Tim Kiit.'lii<li at l:<lo 
I'lTci'f. I'l'rr'l takrn liy tin- Kii^rliHli. who iriat him (■liuiiii lully. Ih' in rrinki ii, 
l>;.'Mnt<'rriit)Ml z.'ul uiiil liililiiy of tln' Aliriuuiiiiit. Cundiiinn of Niwliiunilliuul at 
tliu (■(iiiiint'neuniriit of tlilM yrar. Placcntia Hiiritrlsrd nnd plllap'd hy tlii< Kii^^IIhIi, 
Fmnt'iiai arrivi^at (iui'liir. DiKim.-'iriiins for difiinlini,' thi- rity. Forri'imt 
of thi' (iovrrnorOiiirral. KoititiralinnH of liiirbrc. Thr Kn^liHli tli'rt anrliors 
bttforc (jui 'I >■'<■. Till' Kn^lihh .Xdmlnil BuminoMH the Count (h* Kronti'nai'. That 
Oi'inTalV ri'|ily. l''.v|M>it nf bhiih' CanadlaiiH. Krontrnac'ri plan for ili't'i'iiilin^; ilin 
jiliiri'. Action ni'ar Uruu|H>rt. Tlif .iiriiiy canTionadi' tlii- -ity wiiliuiit uiiv riKiiit. 
Tlii'v ari' (il)lipil to draw otF in ^-rat iliwirdiT. Tlii' troopH mi land a^'ain 
ropuliwd. Do Saintc llclcni' mortiilly wounduil. Third action mori' dccisivr than 
till' two ppi'civlinif. Tlio eniMiiy ri'i'iulnrk and abandon their ^runs Tlio 

iniM-arriajri' of a divirsion ill tlui diri I'linii of Mmitri'al hiivch (iurl Thi- hIi'lto 

raiMil. I'"xcliaii;ri' of prisiiiiTJ. W'rrtcliid cmiilition of the Kii^'li.^li llii'i : mw 
loK-eM. I'"re>li priiiifs of the llili'lity of the AbeuaqulH. Vchw-Ih arrive from I'Vaine, 
nt Cineliec, l'';iinine, Z'lil of th.' ]>e ijde. The .\beiiai|ui8 ciimmit ^rreat raviiiii'* 
In Nt \v Kniilniiil. Shim iiej;oliatioiis of the lroi|Ui>is. Kronli niic'a letter to 
I'oiitchartniin. New IriKpioiit hoHtilities. Action at Saint ."^ulpic ■ m- Uupi-nti^'iiy. 
'I'lie ('riMi..i>M. .\n IroinioiH party i>cupeH from the Freiieh, tlinr'.i.jh the fault 
of the Ijiilian.'* of Siiiili Saint l.iuiiH. Kriiiileniic'n i"iispicionH t'lireon. l''al-e 
pruiniHcH of ihat t;iniliil. .N' \J' lnKpiois ouiiii:<eJ. tii!. lity of the Christian 


Iroquois. Our nllios continue to push the Iroquois. EuttTprise againHt Port 
NdHon, dol'crrcii, and wliy. (Ireat preparations of the enemy. They approacli 
Montreal. l)e Calliere's preparations for its defence. Action at La Prairie de la 
Madeleine. Exploit ui Mr. de Valrenes. The defeat of the enemy. Losa on 
both sides. 


The F.nglish propose neutrality. WLat induces them. Reply of the Count de 
Frontenac. Ex])loit of Oureouhare. Qreat, but inuffe^'tual ox|H!dition avrainst 
the Mohu'A'ka. lutelligence from Acadia. The Chevalier de Villebon made 
Commandant there. He takes [lossession of Port Hoyal. Atttimpt of the Iroquois 
to surprise Sault Saint Louis. Various hostilities. The Irotiuois prevent naviga- 
tion on the (treat Uiver, (Ottawa). They di'feat a jiarty of French and Indians, 
they are .-iiiffered to escnjK'. They are |)ursued and some advantage trained over 
them. Froiitcnac pro])<)Hes an exiK'dition to the Ottawas, but they do not accept. 
New rumors of an English ormament. The King senus a squadron to Newfound- 
land ; it misses its objin:!. IMaceutia attacked by the English. They sunimo: 
the Uoveruor. i'lio attack begun. The siegt raised. The Governor-General 
of New England attempts to have the Chevali." de Villebon carried oil'. lie 
fails. Operations against Peiukuit. They fail. Condition of New France. Com 
])l)int8 against Frorilenac. That General's anxiety, and its cause. Eight 
hundred Irocjuios come to attack the colony. Precautions taken by M. do 
Callieres. The Iro(|uuis retire wit?ioiii effecting anything. Irruption into the 
Mohawk canton. Success of the expedition. Our men attacked on the homewnnl 
march. Fresh tidings of a grea'. English armament against Canada. Frontenac's 
emlmrrassment. Proixisals of peace from an Oneida chief. The General's reply. 
Eight hundrwl Irwiuois approach Moutreal. They retire without doing any 
thing. What became of the English fleet that menaced Canada. Arrival of a 
great convoy of furs at Montreal. Frontenac prevents the Miamis fn)m trading 
with the English. The English recover Fon Saint Anne on Hudson's Bay. 
Gallant retreat of two Frenchmen. The English comiMjlIod to retire from before 
Martinique in disorder. An Iro<iuoi9 squaw comes to Quebec, to see the Count de 
Frontenac. Conversation and eulogy of this wonwn. New proposals of the 
Oui'ida chief. Frontenac's reply. Why he deferred pushing the Iroquois to 
(xiremes. Cimduct of the English and Iroquois towards us. How Frontenni' 
])rofite(l by them. The Irm^uois again pretend a desire for peace. The Fri'iicli 
warned to distrust them. Irocjuois deputies at Quebec. Kesult of this deputa- 
tion. The Count de Frontenac makes an ineffectual effort to restore Fort 
Catarocouj- What defeats his plan. New negotiations with the Iro<iuo.... Fiiui I 
reply of tlie Count de Frontvnoc. He dismisses the envoys well plea;nd. lietuiii 
of Fatlur Milet, and Tun^lia. Motives that induce the Gi'neral to treat with tin- 
Iroquois. Some Abenoquis 're^it \sith the English: th;' Sieur de Villici- breakw 





u la 






if a 

. lit! 



up the negotiation. Bold and succo-sHful exp.dilii.n of that officer. Esplo.t of aa 
AWna.,ui. UpriBing at B<.Hton. What occurred betw.-en the Uov.T.u.r of N.'W 
England, and the Indian allies o. the French. The Indians waver. One of their 
Missionaries prevents their treating with the English. Uescnpt.on of Fort 
Nelson. D'lbervUle and de Serigny besiege it. The Governor capitulates. 
Kesults of the victory. The Iro<iuoiB continue to delude the French. 1 ho King 
thinks thoy should he pushed to extremes. They renew h.«tilitie.. Insolent 
proposals of ihose Indians. Against the advice of all, and even of the Kmg, the 
Count de Frontenac resolves to restore Fort Catarocouy. Admirable .nanagement 
of the Chevalier de Crisasy in restoring it. Timely warning that the Inxiuois are 
in the field. They are defeated by de la Durantaye, and by de Courtemanch. 
Treason of a Huron chief. Tactics of the Sieur do la Motte Cadillac. What 
occurred between the deputies of our allies, and the Count de Frontenac. A Sum 
demands the Qeneral's protection. Treacherous conduct of the English towards 
the Abenaquis. They resolve on vengeance. Frontenac and Champiguy propose 
to attack Boston. Project of a campaign for 1696. The King's opinion o the 
lroquo:s war. Our aUies ilWispoced towPxds us. De la Motte Cadillac induces 
the Ottawas to make war on the Iroquois. The latter defeated. Consequences 
of tbe defeat, 


Life of Catharine Tegahkouita, an Iroquois virgin, who died in the odor of sanctity 
Lives of some Iroquois Christians of both sexes, burned by the heathen Iroquo s 
out of hatred for their religion. Heroic action of a whole Iroquois fam. y at 
Sault St. Louia. Examples of the fervor and piety of some Indians in the Algon- 
qoin missions. 



r i 









Of all our allies, tlio only onus whom our eiiomirs 
feared or dospainid of gaining were the Ahenaquis, who 
for their j^art cared little whether they were or were not 
included in the treaties of peace or armistice. At the 
very time when Mr. do Denouvillo was laboritig most 
earnestly to give peace to Canada, they took the Held, and 
advancing to Sorel river, surprised some Iro(]uois and 
Mohegaus and killed several. They then pushed on to 
the English settlements, from which they brought back 
some scalps.' The Irotpiois of the Sault and the Moun- 
tain did the same on their .side ;' but those who adopted 
the surest means of defeating the conclusion of a treaty, 
of which they feared they should be the first victims, were 

'Relation of tlio Evoiits of the Canaila Doc, I„ iv., p. 07 ; Uolmont, 
War. N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. :i!)2; Hisloir.' du Cuiuulu, p. 3!». ' lb' 


Somr of 
our iilliiM 
iill:uU the 

( I 





i6«s. tlioHO very Hnroiis of Micliilliiiiiifkiiiiio, wlio had boen so 
"^■''""^ fr(>(nuMitIy iiiul not unjustly .suspcctod of collusiou with 

tlio Eiif^lisli and Iroquois. 
niiiinu'iiii Tliny had as cliitsf Kondiaronk, hotter known in onr 

ohicf Ki-'hitions nndi'r th(> naino of "the J{at," a man of abihty, 
oxtreinoly hravo, and th(( Itnhan of the liif^diost iiorit that 
the French cnor knew in Canachi. It had eost Mr. do 
Denonvilhi no little pains to draw him to our interests ; ' 
l)ut he had inisoahMilated, if ho thoui^ht to dispose of this 
new ally at his pleasure. The Kat liavin<^ ple<l^r(Hl his 
word to make -uitive war on the Irocjuois, start<!il from 
Michilliniackinac with a i)icked band of Hnrons, bent on 
distinp;uishinj; himself by some brilliant acrhievement." Ho 
took Cata.'oc'ou}' on his road, and on arrivin;^ tluM'o learned 
that they were ne;^otiatin;j; a settlement with the cantons ; 
that the treaty was well advanc^ed, and that the Governor 
(xeneral was exjieuting at Montreal ambassadors and hos- 
tages in the name of the whole Iroquois nation. The 
eommandant at C'atarocouy added that the best thing ho 
could do under such circumstance:, was to return home 
with his warriors, and that he would give bonndh^ss otVcnce 
to Mr. do Denonville, if he committed the least hostility 
against the Iro(|Uois. 

Tlu> Ivat seemed at tirst somewhat surprised at this 
news ; he nevertlieh'ss controlled himself, and although 
ciHiviuced that his nation and their allies were being 
sacrificed, he let no complaint esifape him.^ He withdrew 
from the fort. l(>aving the French under the impression 
that he took the rout(\ to his village ; but he had (juito a 
different (h^sign in his head. He had inquired as to the 
c(mrse to be followed by the Iroquois deputies and hos- 
tages on tluiir way to Monti'eal ; In; i)roceeded to await 
them at Hungry Bay (Ause de la Famine), where he lay in 

' Kimdiiironk is tninsfbriiii'd hy Micliillimackiniic, ^lay 2C>, 1688, 

La Hontuii into .Vilurio. Voyufics, iiotos Lo HntV depart iircut the head 

i., 117, 18!». (if 100 men. Voyages, i., 117, lUO. 

' I.a Iloiitaii, ill his letter from ^ La Hiiutaii, Voyagps, i., p. 100. 





iilTil)Usli.' After 111! Iiiiil wiiitcil for tlioiu for several iliiys, idSA. 
thoy iipix'fired ; hv iillowed tlieiii to atlviiiice, iind uk tliey — ■■'— ^ 
W(M'e jtroceediiip; without ilistrnst, tliey liUiilcd witlioiit 
takiiif^ luiy i)ree!intion.s. This iiionicut the lint sci/cil to 
rush upon them ■■ illi his trooj). At first they wislu il to 
Ktaiid tlieir }.;roinid, hut the contest was too iiiie<mal. 
Home of tliein were killed, the rest taken i)ris()ners.' 

As they wore not far from ( 'atarocouy, tiie Hat, it is 
assorted, returned thitlit^' ah)ne after his exjx'dition ; and 
when some one asked wliere he came fiom, he replied that 
he had just eomo from killing' the jieace, and adilecl : " We 
shall see how Ononthio will j;-et out of this iiusiness." 
His meanin.!^ was not ai tirst understood ; ' Imt it was soon 
known from one of the prisoners who had escaped from 
the hands of the Hurons, after haviiij,' had an arm broken 
in tho action, lie was so well lre;ited. that he was cured 
in a short time ; he was assiu'cd that the I'^cuch iiad no 
share in this treachery of the Hurons. and was so well 
satisfied of it, that on his return lo (Jnonda.tja lie convinced 
the whole canton.' 

But tho Rat had not l)emui so well, to stop heii . As mh in- 
soon as ho rejoined his |)arty, Tei^'anissorens. who w i. one iilv',7h',rtho 
of his prisoners, havinj,' asked him how lie could he ii^no- „''i','i,"i'hc 
rant that ho was an andiassador, sent to treat of ))eaco '''"i""'*'- 
with their common father, and to seek means of ohtaininj,' 
a ])orfect peace anion;,' all the nations V this dis.sembler 
pretonded to bo still more astonished than he ; he pro- 
tested that it was the French thems(dves who had sent 
him to La Famine, assurin;,' him that he wouhl there inciot 
a ]iarty of Iro([Uois bravcs, which it would bo very easy 
for him to surpiise and defeat. To show that he spoke 

' Anonymous Ht-Intioii of lln' sciit," wliicli docs imt iit all inrri's 

KvcntM i)f till' War (N. V. Col. Doc. ii.s|i<in(l witli Iliinicry May. 

ix., ]). 3i)l) wiys I,a Kaniinc, hut l,u - l.a Hoiitan. Voyatfrs, i.. |>. lill 

Hontnn (Voynn;e.«, i.. p. I!t0) «iys: • Hi'liudUt (Ilistoiic du Ciinadii. 

"Aux ondroits (los ("ataracti's, oil il p. 2!l) ('(uifiniis tliiw In part. 

falloit absolunient (ju'lls abordai*- •• N. V. Col, Doc , ix.. p. 40;.'. 






Tlio (ic.v 

priiDi- of 

Kv\y Vdik 



sincurely, he at oiic'o relousi'd him witli all l»in moii, ttxijept 
0110 siiif^lo one, whom li(> wi.shfd to retain, lie Haid, to 
repla<'i> oiu^ of his, who had hctm killed.' 

H<) then use;l all dilif,'('iuH) in n^tniiiinj^ to MiciiiUimaki- 
uao, and as hoou as lie arrivod tliero h(» presented liis 
prisoner to Mr, de hi Durantaye. That commandant, as 
yet uninformed of iiis ^'enerals ne^,'otiatioiis witli the 
cantons, at once eondemued tlie unfortiinato man to bo 
shot, wishing appaniiitly to span* him tiie torture of tire. 
Tile Iro(|Uois in vain protested that he was an ambassador, 
and that tiie Huroiis had \nkvn liim by troaehery ; tho 
Kat hud already notilied all that his head was turned, and 
that fear of death inach- him rave. A(U!ordin^ly, no one 
listened to him, and ho wu-i execntL'd.' 

As soon as he was (k-ail, the Hat called an old Iro(iuois, 
who had loiij,' been a captive in his villa,:,'e, H;ave him his 
liberty, and advised him to return to his canton and in- 
form his countrymen of what he had seen just passinj^ 
before his «iyes, as well as show them that while the French 
w(!re amusing the cantons with feigned ne^'otiatimis, they 
were making prisoners from them and tomahawkinjj; them. 
Ail this ni't with perhict success, and alth(mf,di the Iro- 
ipiois seemed at first luideceived as to tlie pretended ill- 
faith of the Governor General, we shall soon see, either 
that they only pretendeil to be so, or that the majority 
wen; not sorry to have so iilausible a pretext i'or renewing 
till' war." 

The wisest were nevertheless determined to send new 
deputies to the Maniuis de Ueuonville. Hiese deimties 
were even already selected, and about to start for Mon- 
treal, when an (sxpress arrived at Onondaga from Sir 
Edmund Andros, forbidding the Iroquois to treat with the 
French without his master's intervention. He added that 

' lilt llimtan, Vdviifrt's, i., p. 1!)1. tiin.Vovuircs, i., i>. C'olduu (Ilis- 

'' i.ii llDiitttii. Vo_vaj;c's, i., \>. Wi. Utvy nl' tin- Five Xiitions, p. 113 

' N. Y. Col. Due, ix., :{itl, ;!!):(, 40.' ; N. V. cilition) ami Smith (History of 

Canada Doc., I., iv., <).■), S5 ; La Ilou New Vorli, p. oli) follow La lloutun. 



tlio (i;)veiii()r took tlio ciiitoiiH umU'r his sftfcf^'uiinl, iiiid 1688. 
assiucKl tlu'iii of till) protection of tlic kiiif; of {Jroivt ■^•r" 
Britain, and that his Majesty, wlio eonsiderod tiuMn as his 
own eliildren, woiUd never lot tlicni want fm- any tiiin<'.' 

Andros wrote at the same time to the Mar((uis de I)e- 
iionville, tliat lie must not Hatter himself that he could 
make peace witii the Inniuois, sulijeets of ihe Enf,'lish 
crown, under any other conditions than those already 
proposed hy (."olonol Donj^'an, his predecessor ; that in 
otlua- respects, so far as he was jtersonally coi. erned, lie 
was most disposed to livo on ^'ood terms witli him, and 
tliat he had already forbidden tiiu En-^'lisii of his dcpeud- 
ance to commit any hostility on the territm-ies dependent 
on th(^ French. As this f^overnor also commanded in New 
Enfj;land, aftcM' sudi a declaration, there was every ground 
to expect that no jiart of Nt^w l''rani'(> was free from risk 
on the ])art of th(> En,t,'Iisli.' 

Jiut under the term New France that (General apparently 
included neither Acadia \wx the circumjacent proviiK-es, 
although the treaty of Driida declared tliern to form a 
part thereof; tor while he was making the inotestation 
just mentioned to de Denonville, he sent a force to plunder 
the settlement of the Baron ch' St. (\astin at rent.igoet," 
and the Sedentary Fisheries established at Ciimcraux and 
('hcdabouctou.' ft is true that he disavowed these enter- 

' De (,'iillit"'iuH t(i Sci;;iiclav, .Iiui,, 
KkS!). N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 402 ; 
('iimiila Doc, 1,, iv., p, l]:t. 

• II)., i)|> 40:), KM. Andros to Dr 
nonvillc, •.iig. 21. Sept. •,'!», 
C'liniida Doc, II., v., |). .'iO.'i. Dt'non- 
villi- to An<iros. Oct., KiSS. N. ^ , 
<'ol. Doc, iii., p. ."jOT. 

' Andros went in iK-rsion in tlic 
frigate Host', Ca|it. Ucorgc. Iliitcliin 
son's ('olli'Ptlon.s, pp. .")li3-(! ; VViJ. 
liainson'.s Muine, i., j). .IST ; Main(t 
Hist. (V)ll., vi„ p. 112; Dt'nonvill,., 
N. Y. Col. D(X'., ix., p. :!'J(i. IV-non- 
ville to Andros, ib., iii., p. .^OH. This 

r)liuiic(l C'astin's war, wliicli proved 
so di'sf riictive to Xcw Knglaud. For 
un eiuiiiieraiion of the l-Vi'nrh tiien 
seltleii in Maine, si'e Mass. [list. 
<'()11., iii., pp. H2-;i. 

' Denonville to Andros. N. Y. 
<'ol. Doc, iii., p. 571. Chanipign.v 
to the Minister. Oct. l!l. Can. Doc, 
11., v., p. T-,m. A letter of Captain 
Nicholson, written at Dostnn, Aug, 
•■U, loss (N. Y. Col. Doc, iii., p. ,-5,152), 
attriliiites this to one Peterson (the 
remainder of Yanekeys ami Jacob's 
eoni|)any, tlie two famous privati-eru 
of the West IiidlesV He sailed in a 




Btitti' of 
trailr ill 


|)list'. , '..III (Tic Tr* TT^Mlirrt fffTJtlli |inn<f« tlifft lie «iim rto 

iusti;,'iitor of tlii>H»' iiH \v(>li lis <»f tlic r.iviij^cs eoinniittcMl iii 
various puts of tlic colniiv l)_v a party of tlirct' Imiitliril 
Irotpiois.' Ill a word, liis wlioli- coiKliU't till war yvM 
tlt'darcil lutwiM'ii tin- two rrowiis, dill'cMod from that wliicii 
)io (1iH]ilayu(1 after tliat dcclaiation. oiiIn as the Slackest 
pi'rtidy dilVrrs from optii war.' 

It may wt'll lu> iiifi ir*'d, tliat in lli** actual position of 
Canadian atVairs, trado fould not lu> vrry tlourisliin^. 
From tliti year Kid'.*, wlitn the kiu}^ had declared it free, 
tlu! colony had increased consideralily, and by tiie census 
of this year, IdHH, it was fnund to l)e composed of elevi'U 
thousand two hundred and forty-nine persons.' The En- 
glish, indeisd, as already remarked, from that time shared 
with the French in the fur tiade : and tliis was liie chief 
motive of their fonn-ntinj,' war Itelween us and tin* Inxpiois, 
ini'smuch as tliey could get no good furs, which come from 
the northern districts, exce|)t by me.ins of thest; Indians, 
who could scarcely effect a reconciliation with us, without 
precluding them from this precious mine. 

Not that the Inxjuois were gn^at hunt(!rs ; but, lusides 
their often robbing our allies and voyageiu's of the furs 
they were bearing to Montreal, they induced several tribes, 
and often even our bushlopers, to trade with the English 
of New York, and the profit which they derived from this 
trade, of which their country becann> of course the centre, 
retained them in the English interest. To these reasons 
was added tho allurement of a blotter market, which made 
a great imjjression on all the Indians, so that the best part 
of the furs of Canada went to the English, witlumt there 
being any i)ossibility of bringing to reason interested 

Imrkiiliingii <if 10 guns ami 12 piitn. ' 'I'lii! ri'volution in Kn<^land |>ut 

rerc.i, with TO nirn, took u Imrk of un end V> Ihi' rulo oi' Amlros, and ho 

('astin'H. a Hliip at Cauiffaux, tin' liail ot c lursc no part in tliu war 

fort at Cliflmi'to, and anotlit^r vcs- tliat followed. 

sel. II)., 

N. Y. Col. Uoc, Ix., i>. :i!l.".. 

■' Ueccnuruu-nts dc In N'. K., 1085 
li lU'JU. 






) 1 




in tliin triidc, the Iicnl men of wliicli Ih'uij,' in Fninpo, did i^i-*>*. 
not Hcc mattfrH us cK'nily as those who wcit! in Aiaorica.' ^"""v— 


H .1 

At last some of these hist renounced the fur trach", the s.dnihirv 
profits of wliieh deelined from day to day, and took up "ii'.'.'si'!'" 
oneo more tiie oft-miscarried jjnijeet of estaldishin^' sech-n- '•'"'''""'• 
tary lisheries in tlio river St. Lawrenee ; lint thev were 
dis<,'usted witii it from tlie outset.' Tiio Sieur Uiverin was 
iihnost tho only one wlio was not ahirmud by the dillieul- 
tics, or induced liy the faihuo of his lirst attempt to 
renounce tlie enterprise. I'tit'with industry and courage 
considcral)le cai)ital is reiiuircd to push such estabUsh- 
ments, and this Sieur Kiverin hul.ed. Ho induced .somo 
private parties at Paris to join him; but ho derived 
scarcely any advantaf,'e : all wished to reap before tho 
harvest was ripe, ami their imj)atienco at last rendered all 
his projects aliortivt,'." 

He be^'an in earnest during tho summer of 1688. He AiiniuUnce 
established his fishery in the vicinity of tho River Mataue, ami wt'.k'H. 
the mouth of wliich he found capable of receiving vosst^ls 
of two hundred tons, a point hitherto unnoticed. All this 
southeru shore of the St. liawrence, for a space of twenty 
leagues, is very abundant iu codfish, and Riverin wrote to 
Mr. do Seignelay that more than five hundred boats could 

' Tlip importance of this trade, 
wliirli Dongan was tlio first to grasp 
at, WHS devi'l()|)('(| under Uurntt anil 
Coldon. See C'olden's Five Nations 
(N. Y. ri'priul), inlmd., vii. ; I'upers 
n^Iating to tlie Arts of tin- Assembly, 

N. Y., ira4. 

In this year, 1(388, a Bureau of the 
Poor was estnblislu'd at Quebec, caeli 
citizen and coiiimunity contributing, 
and forming u fund of :.'()()0 livris. 
Subse(|uently, Up. St. Valier estal>- 
lished a tieneral Iii)>i)ital or House 
for the Aged, Inlinu. and Incurable, 
and ]ilaced it, in Uisi), under Miirga- 
rct Bourgeoys and the Sisters of tho 
Congregation. Jucliereau(Histoirede 
Vol. IV.— ;j 

I'Hotel Dleu, pp. 355-0 ; Faillon, Vie 
de M. Bourgeoys, i., p. ;329) ; but, in 
11)112, replaced them by the Hospital 
Nuns, on receiving royal ]x.'rniis8ion 
for till' establishment of the Hospital. 
Edits et Onlonnances (i., p. 271). 

■•' Louis XIV. to Frontenac. N. Y. 
Col. Doc, ix., p. -154. See, as to his 
failure, ib., p. ,')85. Canada Doc, II., 
v., p. 2i)7. Ferland, ( 'otes de la (Jas- 
l)t'sie (Soirees Canadiennes), p. ;i28. 
Compare Ante, vol. iii., p. 145. Que- 
bec L. and H. Soc, vol. iv., p. 27, &c. 

^ In 1700 these partners seized all 
the proiiorty at Mount Louis as their 
own, and ruined him. N. Y. Col. 
Doc, ix., p. 585. 





1688. bo employed there at onco. Hi^ luliled in liis letter that 
■">'"*' the fish thoro were very fine, ami fit for (Jiljniltur, Spain, 
ami tlio Levant ; that having rivimi orders to his men to 
he on the loolvout for whales, especially near Matane, they 
had reported to him that tlure appeared on the surface, 
from time to time, as many as fifty at once, that allowed 
men to approach near enough to strike them with an oar ; 
that this lasted for three consecutive months, during most 
of which time it is unnecessary to he much more than a 
(puirter of a league cmt to find them.' 

I have remarked in my journal, that having anchored in 
the latter part of August, 1705, near Tadoussae, about 
fifteen leagues above Mutane, I saw four whales at the 
same time sporting around our ship, and coming so near 
that they could be touched with the oars of the long boat ;' 
but it was chiefly on the coast of Acadia that the fishery 
offered an inexhaustible basis for this trade. The misfor- 
tune is that tlie French, possessors of that great penin- 
sula, were alwnys those who profited least by it. 

The Sieur Paipiine, whom the Court had sent there that 
year to make a visitation, attributed this to the fact of 
I'lirAramliM tl'cir having made the chief settlement at Port Royal, 
tuhcrics. ^^.jjjgjj jg^ \^Q f,nj,]^ Qyt yf tjjQ reach of all trade, and too 

difficult of access, on account of the diversity of winds 
necessary to have in order to enter. This was a very old 
and well-founded complaint. The ports of la Heve and 
Camceaux were far more advantageous for a successful 
settlement. A person still better informed than the Com- 
missary just mentioned, says, in a Memoir drawn up 
almost at this same time : 

" Acadia, so useful for the beauty and security of its 
ports, the fertility of its soil, the abundance of its fisheries, 
the facility for rendering them sedentai'y, as well as for its 
mines, has hitherto only languished ; first, from the dissen- 

\Vli;il \nc- 

villts llic 


' See Canada Docuint'iits, II , v. 
p. u54. 

' Clmrlovoix, Journal, p. do. F'er- 
land, Cott's lic la (insprhio, p. !!.),!. 




BiOTiH of tlio vnrlons proitiif>t()rH, mul Hinoo tlio tronty nf 1688, 
Urt'dii from tlio avarirn of tlie (lovMiiorH, who, finding — -v-— ^ 
intcrcouiHo willi tho Knf^'lJMh a soiirpo of profit, liiivf left 
them niastorn of tho fiKhoiics mid of nil tlio trado. Tho 
settlors, on their sido, without disoipIiiK! or rostraint, havo 
^'ivcti no thouKht oithtr to nfiricnlturr or tho fishrrios, hut, 
sunk in dohaiu-liory or huishloping, do iiotliiug but livo 
from day to day."' 

Tho solo roHonrco of the provinco lay in our allianoo rnoinof 
with th(! Indians of those parts, and es])oeially of the Al)o- "llMiivm'' 
naquis, anionf,' whom (.'hristianity hud niadi> (;rout prof^rcss; 'ljya<Ni'om 
bui there was constant foar of our losing those allies, the "" l.'^"''- 
most manageable and, at tho same time, tho bravest in all 
Canada. The English woro ineossantly making them 
presents and tho most extravagant promises to dotaoh 
thorn from our interest ; and would certainly havo succeed- 
ed, but for tho invincible attachment of these tribes to 
tlu'ir religion and their missionaries. In tho sequel of this 
history wo shall see, that in order to preserve their faith 
thciy often confronted th(^ greatest perils, and that, with tho 
slightest hope of compensation from tho French for their 
losses, they formed on that side a rampart that all the 
forces of New England havo never been able to storm. 

Meanwhile, the declarutior of Sir Edmund Andros in Th.' Cncva- 
regard to peace with the Iroquois, and the agicemont CMWrl* 
which it was soon known the cantons had entered into '"'l!wt-."' 
with that governor, not to take any steps in that matter 
without his intervention, filled the whole colony with con- 
sternation. But it often hap[»ens that, when no ordinary 
means appears of avoiding a pressing evil, men make 
efforts till then deemed beyond tlieir strength. Indigna- 
tion to see a handful of savag.^s ke(>p a whole great country 
incessantly in chock, inspired a design that would have 
seemed hardy, even had our situation been as flourishing 
as it was deplorable. This was the conquest of Now York- 

' Du t'licMiii'aii, NY. Col. !),■('.. ix , p. \Cy', ; ib., ]>. •,>N"», 






Its cim- 

1688. The Chevalier do Calliores having laid the plan before the 
— ""^r""""^ Murquis de Denouville, went over to France to propose it 
to the Court, as the sole means of preventing the utter 
ruin of New France. 
Hi'pre^unts The memoir on this subject which he presented to the 
the Court, miuiater' stated in substance, that as Sir Ednuind Andros, 
governor of Now York, Avas not a Catholic, the French 
must not flatter themselves that he would carry out in 
good faith the order.s he had received from the king, his 
master, to maintain an understanding with us ; that we 
could not in fact doubt but that, following the example of 
Colonel Dongan, his predecessor, he would by all sorts of 
means aid the Iroquois, who would never sincerely make 
peace with the French so long as they could rely on the 
English : that, this premised, there was no other way to 
preserve the colony, except to make ourselves masters of 
New York ; and that this conquest was legitimate from the 
necessity in which the English had placed us of under- 
taking it, to defend our own territory against a nation 
whose interests they openly espoused against us. He then 
comes to the means of carrying out his project. 

" Give me," he says, " 1300 soldiers and 300 Canadians, 
and with them I will descend " the Eivcr Sorel to Lake 
Champlain, under pretext of going to make war on the Iro- 
quois ; and when I have arrived in their country, I will pro- 
claim to them that I am willing to live in peace with them, 
and I aim only at the English. Orange (Albany) has only a 
stockade, not tcrrassed, and a small fort with four bastions, 
with only loO boldiors and 300 settlers in the town. Man- 
hatte (New I'ork) has 400 inhabitants, divided into eight 
companies, half cavalry, and half infantry. This capital is 
not inclosed, but has a fort with four bastions, faced with 


' Tlio inemdir is in full, N. Y. t'ol. 
Doc, ix., i)p. 401-U14, nnd the later 
one, 401-8. 

- IIu slioukl Lave said Asrt'ml. 
C/mrliroij-. The nuihor evidently 

cited from i. summary ((.'anada l>(ic., 
I., iv., p. 150), not Irom the memoir. 
The error noted ' ■ not in this orii^i- 
nal. N. Y. Col. 'Joe. ix., j). 405 ; t-ee, 
also, p. 429. 




stone, and mounted with cannon. This conquest wonUl 
make the king master of one of the finest ports in America, 
wliich can bo entered at all times, and of a very fine coun- 
try, under a mild climate, and fertile. The treaty of neii- 
tralitj- will be objected ; but, in the first place, the English 
have violated it first ; of this we have irrefragable proofs. 
In the second place, it must be observed, that this colony, 
being actually all filled with Dutch, from whom the English 
wrested it, its inhabitants will iufallibl}- obey the Prince of 
Orange, and will constrain the Governor.' Hence they 
must be anticipated. Still, if it is preferred to defer mat- 
ters till we are openly at war with the English," we must 
prepare for the month of Juno m^xt." 

This memoir made an impression on the minister, and 
the king even aj^proved it ; but its execution was not con- 
fided to the Marquis de Denonville. 

It seems that his majesty had, from the preceding year, 
thought of recalling Dr'nonville, having selected him for 
the post of Governor of the Children of France ; for I have 
had in my hands an order signed by that prince, dated 
March 8, 1(188, by virtue whereof the Chevalier de Callieres, 
governor of Montreal, was to have command of the forces 
during the absence of the Governor General.' Neverthe- 
less, whether the king changed his mind, or had reasons 
for deferring the execution of this project, there was noth- 
ing at the close of the year 1GS8 to prevent the Chevalier 
de Callieres from returning to France. It was not till the 
last day of May, in the ensuing year, that his uiajcsty 
informed the Marquis de Denonvillo that the circumstances 
of the war just enkindled in Europe had induced him to 
adopt the n^solution of recalling him, in order to give him 
a position in his army. 



The M;ir- 

<(uis de 


icoiilled lo 

' France was already at war with answers represents this as merely a 

Hollaiiil. Chaiifvoix. renewal of a cDUimissinn ^'iven tin; 

' No doubt was entertained of tlie year liefnre. 'I'lio exjiression would 

proximity of this war. lb. not therefore necessarily imply that 

' The summary of the Minister's Denonville was recalled. 


i6i'9. Count (le Frontenac was at the same time declared his 
^^' successor.' The kinc had not been able to refuse this 

Count , . . . . 

Frontenac favor to tho prossiuf^ solicitations of several of the relatives 
iiini. and friends of that nobleman, and especially those of the 
Marshal do Bellofont, who guaranteed his conduct, and 
whoso lofty virtue was a strong recommendation to Louis 
XIV.' Moreover, the wretched state to which New France 
was roduced, and the project of the conquest of New York, 
required hiiu to place at the head of the colony a man of 
authority, firm in character, of great military expeiience, 
alreadj' acquainted with the country, and capable of man- 
aging tho Indian mind. All this was found in tho Count 
de Frontenac, and there was every reason to hope that, 
with tho sound sense which he possessed, he would profit 
by his faults and the chagrin which they had drawn upon 
him, to moderai his passions, and take other guides for 
his conduct than his prejudices and antipathies. Those 
conjectures proved quite well founded. This general, in- 
deed, always seemed the same to those who had the best 
opportunity of seeing him ; but he was on his giiard, and 
profited by the advice which he received from the Marshal 
de Bellefont. On the other hand, he had the finest oppor- 
tunity in the world to develop his great qualities and make 
a glorious use of them. He rendered nn^st important ser- 
vices to the state, especially during the early years of his 
new administration, to induce tho Court to close its eyes 
as to several faults which escaped him, and oblige ^■'^oso 
who soon perceived that he had not changed his sentiments 
in their regard, to suffer in patience, and dissemble wisely. 
Hisinstnic- In the instructions given him, which were signed on the 

tions US to i i ■ • r- i i • i 

Hudson's 7th of June, the king informed Jiim that on the reports 
received in France and England, as to the reciprocal inva- 
sions of the posts established in Hudson's Bay by the 
English and French, conferences had been held at London 


' Commission in Arriits et Ordon- done mucli to obtain his appoint- 
nanccs, Hi., p. 52. ment. 

■' His wife is represented as having 

I if 



between his cominissionors and tliose of Great Britain ; 
but that the parties, not having been aV)lo to agree as to 
the facts alleged by those interested, it had been agreed to 
postpone the negotiation till the month of January in the 
present year. 168!) ; that the revolution which had taken 
place in England in the mean time had broken oft' all these 
measures ; and that, as it was probable that the English 
had not yet thought of taking their precautions on that 
side, his Majesty wished him to give the Northern Com- 
pany all the protection it should require, to expel them 
from the posts which they had wrested from it.' 

Coming then to Acadian affairs, the king informed him, 
that in the last conferences between the commissioners of 
the two crowns, the irruption recently made by the Bas- 
tonnois' at Pcutagoot had been discussed ; that the English 
commissiojiers had conceded that this post belonged to 
France, and had deferred indemnifying him for the vio- 
lence of which ho complained till the resumption of the 
negotiations ; that as this project was no longer possible, 
in consequence of the rupture of the conference, it would 
be necessary for him to concert with the Sieur de Menne- 
val, governor of Acadia, measures necessary to prevent in 
future similar irruptions, to which the war, apparently 
inevitable and innninent, constantly exposed that part of 
New France." 

War was in fact declared with England on the 25th of 



' Instructions for Coiint de Fron- 
tenac. N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 42T. 
t'Rna<la Doc, I., iv., p. ^l(i. 

' Uastonnois was the giTicral name 
given by tlie Canadians to tlio Eiig 
lish settlers from unj of the colo- 
nies, EB iliatinguished from Dutch, 
French, &c (Jld ('anRdian.s still use 
it. From the I'"rench Canadians it 
passed to the Indians. The Iro(|uoiK 
called the English of Now York 
Wastonronnon (Raston people) — see 
letter of Brant in Ulster Hist. Col- 

lections—as did tlie Hurons (Potier, 
Oranimaire Huronne). 'I'he French 
Canadians have carried it even to 
the Pacific, and in the Chinook .Jar 
gon Hoston means Ai'ierican. GiUb's 
Chinook Jargon, p '..'. 

•' Instructions for Count de Fron- 
tenae. N. Y. Col. Doe., ix., p. 4JS ; 
Canada Doc , I., iv., p. '2ti. IJobi 
neau do Menneval was a son of the 
liaron de Uecancourt. PV'rland, 
Cours d'FIist., ii., p. 176. 





1689. the SiiniG iiionth of June ; but, as it had boou resolved on 
JT^' several months before, the iirincipal article of the instruc- 

New Vork. 

rinii (if till! 

tion.' of which we are speaking concerned the plan proposed 
by the Chevalier de Callierns. It stated that the king had 
deterniint,;! to accejjt th(! proposition of the Governor of 
Montreal, inasmuch as he was informed that for some 
years the English of New York had continued to excite the 
Iroquois nation, his Majesty's subjects, and force them to 
make war on the French, for this purpose famishing thorn 
with arms and unnnuuition, and liud sought, by all sorts of 
means, regardless of the prohibition of the King of Eng- 
land and the faith of tlie treaty, to usurp the commerce 
of the French in couutrios of which the latter had of all 
time been in possessi(jn. That, for all those reasons, his 
Majesty had ordered tlit.' Siour Bogou, liis inteudaut at 
Rochofort in the Pays d'Auuis and Saintouge, to prepare 
all necessary supplies, and had Utted out in the port of 
Rochefort two of his ships of the line, under the command 
of the Sieur de la Calfiniere, who was to obey exactly the 
orders of the Count de Frouteuac. 

That it was his intention that the said Count do Fronte- 
nac should set out as soon as possible, and embark on one 
of the ships commanded by the Sieur de la Caffinicre, to 
proceed first to the mouth of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
then to the Bay of Camceaux, in Acadia ; that on arriving 
there he should pass to the best of the merchant ships 
that had followed him, in order to return to Quebec ; but 
that before parting with the Sieur de la Caffinicre, he 
ordered him to wait for information, and to seize all the 
enemy's ships that he might meet during his stay on the 
coast ; that for himself, as soor as time and opportunity 
permitted, and even, if possible, on entering the St. Law- 
rence river, he should detach the Chevalier de Callieres, in 
oi'der that the latter might reach Quebec before him, and 
there make the necessary preparations for the enterprise 
against New York ; that he must os])ecially take care to 
observe profound bocrecy, and endeavor to cloak these 






projiarations with sucli ])n'ti'xts as lio should dccMii most \Mg. 
suitable and plausil)k'. ' 

That it was also most importaut to om]>loy the ^'HMtcst 
di]i,ii;euct), his Majesty being convinced that the enterprise 
could not bo efVectcd in any other season than autumn ; 
that, accordingly, the Count de Froiitenae, ininiediatcly 
after his arrival at Quebec, should set out with the bat tea ux 
and all the necessary crows, accompanied by the Clievalier 
do Callieres, who was to command tliu troops under him ; 
that lie should at the same time scud his instructions in 
cypher t(j the Sieur de la CalHuiere, and ivcomniend him 
to sail for Manhattan, with(mt undertaking any thing on 
the way ; to seize all the vessels he should find iu the bay ; 
but not to expose himself to any adventure that could 
incapacitate him from taking part iu the enterprise in 

That as it was impossible to fix a positive time when the 
Sieur de la Cafldniere and the Count de Frouteuac should 
arrive together, each on his sidi^ it was best for the f(jrmer 
to sail straight into the Bay of Manhattan, the more espe- 
cially as the attack on the first posts of New Y(jrk would 
wriru tiie capital, and thus the ships arriving there before 
the laud forces would cause a useful diversion ; that as the 
Count de Frouteuac would have with him all the forces of 
New Franco, he should, before leaving Quebec, arrange 
with the Marquis de Deuonvillc the measures recpiisite to 
be adopted for the security of the colony against the incur- 
sions of the Iroquois, and give orders to the Chevalier de 
Vaudreuil, who Avas to command iu the country during the 
expeditiou, after the departure of the Marquis de Dcuon- 
ville, and whose instructions were to bo drawn up by the 
two generals. 

On the reduction of New York, the Count de Frouteuac wimt na:* 
was to leave there the English Catholics who chose to '?,f''Vti'"' 
remain, after assuring himself of their fidelity ; allot to the ''""'ihai' "^ 
French whom he should settle there, mechanics and other '"'""'"'■'■■ 
workpeople whom they might need ; retain as prisoners 
Vol. IV,— 4 





\- I 


Failure of 

the entt'i'- 
pri-io. Why. 

the ofBcors and i-Liof settlors, for whom good ransoms 
iiiif^lit he expected, and send all the rest, men and women, 
into New England or Pennsylvania ; bnt, as ho was not to 
wait for the lute season to I'cturn to (.Jneljec, for fear of 
being stoji]>ed on the way by tlu! iee, ho had orders to 
confido tho exeeution of all that remained to bo done to 
the Chevalier de CuUieres, wluim the king intended for tho 
government of New York, and of the city and fort of 3[an- 
hattau, under the authority of the Crovernor-CTeneral of 
Now France. Finally, one oi the principal fruits of tlie 
victory was to be a solid peace with the Iroquois cantons, 
which, no longer able to ho]ie for assistance from the 
English, would have no farther temptation to give trouble ; 
and to deprive tho other English colonies of facilities 
for setting on foot any eutei'prise against us b}' land, it was 
expressly enjoined on tho Count do Fi'ontenac to destroy 
all tho settlements near Manhattan, and put all the rest 
under contribution.' 

A project so well arringed, with its execution confided 
to ollicers whose name seemed to guarantee success, had 
one defect which entailed failure. It depended on the 
concni-renco of two things that can never be certainly 
counted on, namely, favorable winds and equal diligence 
in all appointed to make the preparations. The plan pro- 
posed by the Governor of Montreal was much more simple 
than that adopted : it was, too, less expensive : it did not 
depend on the caprice of wind and wave, but was con- 
trolled by one head, the best in Canada. By adding some 
precautions against the Iroquois, easily adopted, it would 
infallibly have succeeded ; but, in the way that things 
were arranged, it required a kind of miracle to attain the 
end in view. 

Not but that the measures were well concerted on the 
part of the king and his minister ; but the slightest fault 

' Inptructions for the Invnsion of pp. 4'3.2-(i; raiiiulR Doc.,I., iv., p. l!J,-<, 
New York. X. Y. Col. l>oc., ix.. ( t f-cfi. 



niSTouy OF new fraxck. 27 

in the cxocution of a siiifrlo articlo was ononc^'li to doraiif,'e 1689. 
the whole, and scvoral wore oonjinitted. Tlio iirst was the — -""^ 
ueglip;ence of those to wliom the equipment of the sliips 
was confldcil. "The ropiiirs of the frif,'ate Emhnscado," 
says Mr. (\(> Callicrcs in one of liis letters, " whieli detained 
us twi nty-sevcn (hiys at Eoelielle, caused this dehij, M'ith 
tlie necessity of escorting merchantmen, generally lioavily 
laden and poor sailers." 

The result was that not till the 12th of September could 
Mr. de Frontenao reach Chedabouctou, which had been 
assigiH'd as a rendezvous for the v .els; and the mer- 
chantmen, which had been separated from him for a week 
by the constant fogs on the Great Bank of Newfoundland, 
did not rejoin him till tlio 18th. Tiio next day lie left the 
Embuscade, on which he had sailed thus far, and embarked 
on the Saint Francis Xavier, after arranging with Mr. do 
la Caffiniore what it was prudent to do at so advanced a 
season. The instructions M-hich he left him prove that, if 
he did not yet renounce the New York expedition, he did 
not reckon much on its success. 

These instructions directed that, as soon as he completed hmmc 
taking in wood and water, ho should sail in the Fourgon ",o"M,-'de" 
to escort the Union to Port Puiyal, where that ship was to j!^!:^,^ 
discharge! ammunition and provisi<ms ; that he should i.>'o,'",^ '''^. 
carry oti' all the English vessels he mi-ht meet on his 
way, but without entering into any liaz.irdous engai^M'ment ; 
that he should especially endeav(n- to get an English pilot, 
who could instruct him as to tlie best anchorages from 
Bo.ston to Manhattan ; that he slu.uld make as" short a 
stay as possible at Port Itoyal, wImto he was to acquire all 
information nect:jsary for the execution of his design, 
without disclosing it to any one except Mr. de Manneval, 
governor of Acadia, giving all othe/s to understand that 
he had orders only to cruise oil" th<> coast and prevent the 
enemy from continuing thi'ir rava-'-es. 

That he should then sail straight for Manhattan ; and if 
he should reach the bay before tin; iirst of November, ho 


IllS'lOliV Ol' NI'AV F1{.\N("K 


Mr. (le 
ariivcs at 


W!is not to ap]M'na('li witliiii siylit of the city or fort, Init 
slionld luild himself at some ^'ooil iinchonigci till the 15th 
of the sauK! month, and cnnploy the interval in all matters 
relatinp; to hi.s landinj.,'; that lie should then without liesi- 
tation show himself, but keep out of gunshot, i'>retending 
to be there only to cruise at the entrance of the harbor, in 
order to ])revent any thing from going in or out. That if, 
after waiting till the 10th of December, he received no 
intelligence from him, he nn'ght sail back to Franco ; but 
that as he passed Port Royal he shouhl hmd all the ammu- 
nition and supplies intended for the land forces, and shut 
them up in the storehouses, so tliat they could be found 
there the following year, should they be disposed to make 
another attempt for the conqnest of New York.' 

This was the course adopted by Mr. de la Caffiniere : he 
made several cajjtures before reaching Port Iloyal, and 
some subsequently ;M)ut to all apj)earanco head whuls 
prevented his entenng that port, eitlior on his way to 
Manhattan or back, for we shall soon see that place in 
great want of all that that officer had orders to leave there. 
Mr. de Frcutenac, on his side, left Chedabouctou on the 
19th of Sejitember, with all the vessels intended for (Que- 
bec, and did not reach Isle Percee till the 25th. He would 
not anchor, contentijig himself Avith lying to in sight of the 

The IlecoUect Fathers immediately came on board, and 
from them he learned that New France was in great con- 
sternation, caused by an irruption of tlic Iroquois into the 
island of Montreal.' This intelligence, of which they could 
not give him the details, made him eagerly seek an oppor- 
tunity to send the Chevalier de Callieres on in advance, 
according to the orders which he had received from the 
king ; but he could find none. They accordingly continued 

' Frontenac to Seignolav. Canada Port Koyal. Canada Doc, II., v., 

Doc , IF., v.. )). ;17. ]). '.JO. 

'•' H(> took fiix Knglis-b kctclics and " Ciuiiida Dociiinouts, II., v., p. ;!'J. 
a brigantino betwcun Caufcau and 






tlioir route tof^'i'tlier, luul uiK-lionul ofV Quebec on tlie 12th 1689. 

of Oetober;' tliey left it on the 'iOtli, luul on the 27tli ^' 

reiichoil Montival. Tliem they found ^h: de DenonviUe 
and ^Ir. de Cli;ini[)iKny in tlie ^'I'eiitest perplexity that can 
he exiir sised, lUid tliis was tiie eaus(>. 

Ou the 25th of Au!,'ust,'' at the time when tlie Freiieh imiptioii 
deemed themselves in the ^veateht .seeurity, fifteen hun- iro.iuoU 
died Iroquois made a descent l)ef(n'e day on the ipuvrter iJJundof 
of La Chine,' wliieh is on the south side of the island, frwuu^ 
about three l.-a^aies abov tlie city. They fouial all the l';;!'^;.;.';,\';"^ 
peoi)lo asleep, and be^'an l)y massacring' tlie men ; tlieu 
they set fire to the luuises.' By this means, all who had 
remained in tliem fell into the hands of these Indians, and 
experienced wjiatever fuiy can suj^gest to sava<<es. They 
carried their fury even to excesses of wliicli they had not 
been deemed capable. They opened tlie bodies of pregnant 
women, to tear out the fruit tliey liore; they put cliildreii 
alivo on the spit, and forced tlie motliers to turn and roast 
them.' They hivented a number of other unheard-of tor- 
tures ; and thus, in less than an hour, two hundred per- 
sons, of every age and both sexes, perished in \ho. most 
frightful tortures." 

This done, tlie enemy approaclied within a league of the 
city, everywhere committing tlie same ravages and \>vv- 
potratiug the same cruelties ; and, when weary of these 

' Kronlcnai' (X.Y. dil. U'lC, ix.. p. l-ouin at nifibt, diiiiiitf a stvi.To hail 

43")). l^a llcmtiiii (VDVagi'S, i., \t. l!)'^), Htonu. 
say Oc'tobiT l.'i, at S i: M. ^ lieiuy, Ciin' of La Chini!, says 

' Th(' ObsiTvutiiinsmi tlio State of only two hoiisce, M. liourgory's 

Affairs (\. Y. C'(j1. Doc, ix., |>. 4:!1) ami oni' wh.rc hi; said luuf-s. fs- 

gays Au.ijii.'-t .1, N. S. Cliamiii'^ny's caiiwl. 

Letter. November 1(1 (ib.. ji,,) ' Frontenac's (bspateh. November 

says tho same, t'olilen (History ot lo- N. Y. Col. Doe., is., p. 43."). 
the Fivo Nat) lis, p. 11.") ami t^mith " Deliuont (Ili.stoire dii •'aiiada. 

(Hi«tory of New York. I>. ",) ;,'ive p. oOl, writiilj; on the spot, gives a 

July ','1!, <). S. list, but no exact niiiiilier of killed, 

■' For the origin of this place, see Frontenac.'s despatch, November \2, 

Vol. III., ante, p. Vii. IJelmont says 500 killed, U'O carried off. N. Y. 

(Histoire du Canada, p. 20) says 1400 Col. Doc, ix., p. 43.'). De Callieres 

Iroiiuois. They passed Lake St. (ib., p. 429) mya l.JO killed. 



1689. horrors, tlipy took t^vo linndrcd jirisonors, whom tlioy 
^^-<— ^ I'lirrit'il ofl" to their vill;it,'i's ami Imriicd.' At thn first 
tidiii^^a of this tra;.,Mc iill'iiir, Driioiivillc, who was nt Mout- 
niil, orderi'd In Kobcyro, 11 licutniimt iu tho iiriiiy, to 
tlirow liiniself into a fort" wliich lie feared tlio eiKMiiy 
wouhi carry. That olliccr had scarei'ly entercHl it, liet'ore 
it was invested l>y a body of Inxjuois, nj^ainst whom ho 
lonj^ held out with grtvvt valor ; but his soldiers, who fouj,'ht 
with desperation, havinj^ been killed to a man, and ho 
himself severely wounded, the assailants entered the fort 
and took him prisoner.' 

Then tho whole island remained a Jiroy to the victors, 
who overran tho greatest }iart of it, leaving cverywhoro 
bloody traces of their fury, Mliich tho French were not 
able to oppose. It lasted till the middle of October; and 
as nothing was then heard of them, the General sent tho 
Sieurs du Luth and Mantet ' to the Lake of the Two 

' Cnniidft DriouTucnls, H., v., p. -IS. 
Bclniniit Nnys !I0 carrii'd (iff. 

'•' Fort Koluml. ()l)8frvntiiin« on 
tlicStutf of AtliiirH, N. Y. Col. Doc, 
ix., p. 4:il ; Ciiniidn Doc, II., v . IS. 
TIm; ofllccr is styled tlnTi' Hnlu'Viv. 
A liii'iit. Sitrns La Hiilnllc in N. Y. 
I'oc II. i.. p. 1 ;ii/. I.ii Iloiitiin writes la 
liiilierri'. Frrliind (ii.. p. In.Ii, dc la 
Hobi'slc. Holnioiit (Ilistoiru du Can- 
ada, p. JJOj ci'iisuri'sVaudrcuil for not 
cutting off a nunilicr wlioni hv found 
drunk, and ri'M:uiu;; iln- prisoners. 
lie docs not nienticju tlii' capture of 
Fort Roland, l)ut says that ( uptain 
I/Arabelle and some Indians, sent 
to reinforce Vaudreuil, Au<;iis; .^, 
wen; cut to ]iieoeH, and L'Ariibelle, 
Lu IMante, and Villeileun.' taken. 

•■ l,a llontan says do Longueil, 
tli(^ commander of the detachment, 
thcmgh wounded, was rescued liy the 
French Indians ; the other officers, 
la Kaberre, St. Pierro Denis, la 
Plnnte, and Villedene, taken. lie 

makes the detachment ll)0 French 
and .')0 Indians. The Observations 
on the State of Affairs only SO men. 
Lerifre de la I'lante was rescued only 
in U\{\2. Ferland, ii., p. '-'l:!. On 
the masfracre of La Chine, see also 
La llonlan. Voyages, i., p. l!i:j; I'e 
la Potherie, Ilistoire de I'Ann'riipie 
S('pt., ii., p. ',':.'!>. Colden (History of 
the Five Nations, \>. 115), followed 
by Smith (History of Xew Y'ork, 
1>. oT), makes the French loss just 
10(10 killed, 'JO carried off captive. 
Till' Iroipiois les-i. :', I A cotem|>orary 
authority, however. Col. N. ]?ayaril, 
September 2:1, lOHD (N. Y. Col. Doc. 
iii., p. Oil), says: "They killed and 
to<)k jirisoners some say ilOO, some 
ion, whereof they hroufrht about loU 
to their castles." 

' Canada Documents. II., v., ji. AH. 
Daniel Greysolon du Luth was a 
brother-iu-law of Mr. de Lusifrny, an 
oflicer in the Count de Frontenac's 
(Tuaids, ."xud was at the head of Cou 



>ronnt(iiiis, (o iiKikc sure nf tlic ciifiiiv's r('tr(\'it, in (irdor ^^>^9- 

{() lie iilil.' to give so.Mif rest to the troops, who lijid liccii ""^'^ 

for luoro tliiiii two iiiontlis niul.T iiriiis ni^'ht tuid tliiv. 
Those two otUrers iiicl twciity-two Irot|iU)is in two canoos, 
who with ^'veiit h:uif^'htiii.'ss udviiiicctl to attack tlioni. 
Thf'V rcftMvcd tlicir (irst fiic witliout ii shot, then closcil 
with them iind killt^l oi^ditoon. Of tli(( four survivors, oiio 
(srfi])i!d hy swiiuiriin;,', the three others wore taken and 
given up to tlie tires of our Indians.' 

It was in such sail ciivunistiinceH that Messieurs (hi I'n.jcii nf 
Frontenac and de ('.•dlieres reached Montreal on the 22d in'S,. 
of Noveiulter. One of our Indi.uis captured at the rout 
at La Chine, wlio eseiii)ed after h.avin^' his nails plucked 
out and tin^'ers gnawed or burnt, oanio to hoo the generals. 


rein's (li! Bois, iiiulcr tlif pniiii'tion 
nf tlmt governor. Hcsectil^ to have 
lioi'ii till! iiirlieHt exploriT of Miiinu- 
Bota, mill till' first to Imild a [lost 
lii'yniul I/ike Sii]Mrior. lit- rcHnieil 
Ilcnnopin from llic Sioiis, Uv for- 
tiled Ditmit. was in IVncinville h 
Lxpedition after capturing Me(ire;r- 
ory, wan tlien coiuinnndnient ol Fort 
Fiontenac. tie died in tlie winter 
of lTO'J-10. 

Do Afantelit Ih railed in Ferland 
(Cours d'Histoire. ii., p. Isd), Le 
(iiirdinir (ie .Miintct ; )jut if wus ap- 
par. iitly Nic'liolaw Daillel)otiRt, Sieur 
do Mantel, fiftli son of Cliarlesd'Aille. 
i), Sieur des Musseaiix. llu was 
born in KHi^ (Dniuel, line Page de 
Notre Ilistoire, p. -.'OTi. and was 
lulled at Iludson'.s liny in ]7(j;i 
\Cliarlevoix. Histoir.- rle la Nouvelle 
France, ii., p. y^O), after serving in 
de la Barros exi)i'(liiion ag;iiii-.t 
Schenectady, and in the West. N. Y. 
Col. Doc, ix., pp. vy.j, -|:;."i, .(flO, &e. 

' Frontenac and Chunipi^ny, N. V. 
Col. D(jc,, is., p. 4:i.j. Canada Doc, 
II., v., p. 4H. Belmont (Ilistoire dii 
Canada, p. 31) gays oniy two were 

taken. [Ie gives as the date Octo- 
ber Hi, and enlogi/cH Dii I, nth 

There is little doubt aa to the 
complicity of the New Yorkers i:i 
the Laclune mas.sacre. War was 
deehire<l by them .May 7, ItiSl). A 
conference was held wltli the Iro- 
ipmLs, June 9.7, ULSO. Coldrns Five 
Nations (174:), p. !li). After it, in 
anoth.M- conference in September, 
they were conirratulated for their 
success, ami urged to continue (ib., 
p 10-.'; Milet. Helation. p. 45). Phil 
lips and Van Cortland (Letter, Au- 
gust \ lliSOi say: "Tlie Cantons 
Indians Nations uliovo Albany, hear 
ing of a wurr between England and 
France, are gone to figlit the inhab- 
itants of Canada." N. Y. Col. Doc, 
iii., p. <10.^. Van Cortland (il)., p. (ioll) 
says. August 5, "the Indians are 
gone about a montli agoe to fight 
the inliabitants of Canida." It was 
iippareiitly instigated (see p. 01,)) so 
as to make peace l)etween them and 
the French imjiosBiljlo, ami thus 
save New Y'ork from " lutermost 
ruyne." See too Doc. Hist., ii., p. 4y. 




Nfr. (W 


( llillll|ii>;l.v 

decide Id 



Ho told tlu'iii thai, it had l)0(<n tlio ori^iinal intoution of tho 
li(H[iU)is to (M)iiit> down l)y thti Rivor dea I'mirics,' which 
scpiwati'H Moiilri'ul Islaiiil from I-*li> .Tfsiis ; to li('f;iii (ht<ir 
attack l)_v thi' eastern fxtrcinity of the fornuu', to rava^'u it 
(•iini|)l(!t('ly, advanciiij,' wtslwaid, and not to loavo u Hiiif^'lu 
Fronchnian th(!i'o ; he did not iuiow wiiat liad prnvontfid 
tJH'ir oanyinj^ out tliis |plan, l)ut tliat they woro soou to 
return, to complete duiinf^ the winter what they had 
he^un ; that then they projjosed to uiaUt! tliemselvcs nnis- 
tern of the town in the sprin;^', and were to be joined hy 
a ^Tcat number of l'ji;^ and Mohej^ans ; that they 
intended tlieneu to j,'o down to Three Iliveis, tlieii descend 
to (Juebee, where tlu'V expeetcl to tiud an Enj;lish lleot, 
and they tlattered themselves tiiat at tho end of that 
canipaif^n there would bo uo French left iu Canada. 

Mr. do Frontenac then saw how im|)ortant it would 
have been for him to have arrived tiireo months ear- 
lier; because, ev(;n had ho not reduced Now York, he 
would at least have ])reventi'd what hud happened, by 
puttiufj; tho Irocpiois and Eu^disli on tho defensive. To 
crown his chai^rin, he hvirned that, in all probability, Fort 
Cataroe(niy was evacuated and ruined. In fact, -Mr. de 
Donouvillo had sent orders' to Mr. de Valroiuies, who 
commanded that post, to abandon it, after blowing u[) the 
fortidcations and burning,' tho stores that ho could not 
remove, provided no convoy riMiched him before the mouth 
of November. This information was the more surprising; 
to the now governor as Denonville had given these ordorH 
without awaiting the king's directions on tho subject, 
which he had actually solicited himself; and that he had 
adopted the course after the Inxiuois had insolently told 
them that thoy wished him to demolish that fort. 

As he complained greatly of this step, both de Dl'uou- 
villo and de Champigny represented to him that Fort 



' Can.ida Docuuientfi, II., v., p. JiO. pi-'ntigny. La Ilontan, Voyages, 
N. Y. Col. Doc, 'x., p. -l;!0. i., p. l!l."); N. Y. Tol. Pop., ix., 

' By the Sieur St. Piorru de Hi-- p. 'IMU. 

iiisToitY OK \i;\v ri;,\N('i; 



Ciitnrocouy whh Hitunti'd ut flic Ik ad of n l»ay, iiiul, occu- 
l>viiij{ IK) ])iiHHii^,'r, was of vcrv liiiiitcil utility; tlidt .siip- 
piii's <'(»nM l)t' scut there only at lieavy expense; that 
even firewooil iiad to l)e sent up, lis t le Liiu'vison could not 
be sulHcicntly liu|,'e to ^,'o and cut womI in the forest, with- 
out licinj,' exposed to Irocpiois ainbnsciide.s ; and that 
incri'asini,' the garrison would entai! the stripping' of tho 
iMust necessary ))osts.' These reasons wen; at least sjie- 
fious ; but Connt de Frontenac was not easily persuaded 
wiu'U the nnitter projiosed was not to his taste. More- 
ovor, Fort Cntarocouy was ids work, and boro his name. 

In truth, an advanced jiost on that side was a ^,'r(Mit 
eonveinenc(!, and it disj)leased the Tnxiuois (»nly because 
it hampered them ; but I have already reiiiarkid that it 
would have l)een much more advantftgeous to place it at 
la (taletto. It would be twenty leagues nearer to Mont- 
real : a road could be opened to revictual it at anv time ; 
with cannon the Irocpiois could be prevented from passing 
the river at that point. Still, Fort Catarououy, without 
possessing all these advantages, had enough to out weigii 
the inconvenience exjjerieneed in maintaining it, nor 
should it have been abandoned till a more udvantageous 
one was constructed. 

On tho other hand, several persons to wjiom the Crov- 
eiiior General wished well were greatly interested in its 
preservation; it was very convenient for their trad(>, often 
conducted to the prejudice of the pulilic good; nor had 
this reason been one of tho least iniluential in inducing do 
Dcuouvillo and do Champigny to let it fall ; biit the for- 
mer, whom the king had api)ointi>d .Sub-g(jvornor of tho 
Princes of France, had resigned ail authority to his succes- 
sor, and in the aftair in question confined himself to .simple 
representations, which the Intondant supported as Mell us 
ho could. 

Count de Frontenac i)aid no regard to them ; and as by 



ri'ii^iiiis liir 


Itit: tliitt 


V,ii,. IV.. 

' X. \.r„\. !),„■., ,x.. p. -ICJ. 


■'" I 

i I 




34 iiis'i'oiiv or Ni;\v fiiaxck 

16S9. ono clause of Mr. do Di'nonvillo's letter to the Sionr do 

■'^"^ Vidronnos tluit conniiiuidiint \v;w iiutliorizod to wait till 

^riiit |ii('>- tlio (Mid ot _N()veiiilier lu'lVn'i^ evacuating Ciitarocouv, the 

anitiiiiis to 1 T 1 • • 1 *i 1 

rivutuai it. new i^overnor lioped to ho m tnuo to countonnand the 
order, and send ti convoy snfliciont to enable him to hold 
ont in the fort.' Ho aceordinij;ly fitted out 25 canoes with 
all celerity, added a di'taehineut" which his jire(UH'essi)r 
had collected to facilitate the retreat of the f^arrison, and 
p;avo tlioin an escort of three huiidrcMl men, French and 
Indians, chiefly Irocjuois of Sault St. Louis and of the 
Afountain, who, seeiii.t,' tlieniselves no lonp;er safe in tli(>ir 
villaL,'es, had taken refuge in Montreal. 

He had another view, also, in sending out this large 
detaclunout ; ho had broiTght back from France tho Iro- 
i|uois who had been condemned to the galleys, and wished 
to send some of them to their cantons, there to announce 
the return of all tho others, and Tiotify tho cantons to send 
for them. But, with all tho expedition that ho could eni- 
ploj-, his convoy could not be got ready till tho Gth of 
November;' and ho had not returned to Montreal two 
hours, after conducting it in person as far as Lachine, 
before the Sieur do Valrennos arrived with his garrison, 
composed of forty-ilve men, having lost six, drowned while 
shooting a rapid." 

He had burned or thrown into the water all the stores 
and ammunition that could encundier his march, sunk in 
the harbor three barks wliieli he had left, with their an- 
cliors and iron cannon, transportcnl tho bronze pieces as 
far as Lake St. Francis, where he had concealed them ; he 
had mined the bastions, walls cf tho fort, and towers, and 
put in several places slow matchiss, lighted at one end;" 
and as some three or four hours after their departure he 


' Camula Doc, II., v., p. li.*). ' \. Y. Co!, Hoc , ix., p. i:)" ; Cau- 

'' Ciuiiida Doc, II , v.. ji. 14. iidii Doc, 11.. v., ji. 1."). 

' N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., 1). 1:1T : Can- ' (.'luiiulii Doc , II,. v., p. l."). 
iviki Doc, II,, v., p. 44. ' Ciiniiila- Doc, II., v., p. t.5 ; La 

Uniiiiiii, VovafTos, i., p. VXt. 

IllHTOin- OK NKW I'liANCK, 35 

hiid lu'iu-d a «rcat noiso, lit) luul uo doubt it was eiithvly 16S9. 
blown lip. Tho vexation cxperieacoa by tlio now gov- ' 
ernor, on Kceini,' his preparations frustratea, may b(3 con- 
ceived from the reasons which, as explained, he had for 
interesting himself in the preservation of Fort Catarocouy, 
and by tho vivacity which ho displayed on the subject. 
His only consolation was tho hope of restoring it, as he 
did soon after.' 

Tho conquest of Now York ho had also extremely at >^'^v^- 
heart, and the Chevalier do Callieres, who had succeeded '-^^^^^^ 
in inducing the Martpiis do Denonville to favor it, wrote ' ' 
in these terms to the Martinis do Seignelay : " Mr. do De- 
nonville will tell you, MtMisoigneur, how important it is for 
tho king to mako himself master of Now York, and antici- 
pate tho English in their project of ruining this country by 
means of tho Iroquois, with whom he must not hope to 
mako peaco by ways of negotiation, so long as wo arc at 
war with tho former. If we remain on the defensive, tho 
ruin of this colony is inevitable ; these Indians will con- 
tinue their inroads, burn and pillage every thing, without 
our being able to oppose tliem, were there even twice as 
many more troops in tho country ; but by taking New 
York, we compel them to ask peaco on such conditions as 
we choose to impose. 

" This expedition may take place before or after harvest, 
and there are two v/ays of carrying it out. Tho surest is 
to attack Manhattan with six ships, carrying an army of 
1200 men, while the Canadian troops attack Orange (Al- 
bany) by land. The other moans is less expensive ; it 
consists in sending to Canada 30U recruits, who, with a 

' Tho Iroquois, according to Mili-t, uation. Tlioy fouiul consiilt-nvhln 

were told by the Oovonior of New iirovisious tluTf. Milct, Kolaliim, 

York, in a coutcroucc iit Allmny, p. 4"). SmitU'rt History of Ni-w York, 

that lio almndoncd Fort Froiiii-iiuc p. oT. By this scai.ii for any tiling 

to thcui. and that they could easily tlioy coidd liiid in the ruins, " tho 

tako it, as the garrison were dying Indians,' says Sniitli (p. 1:1S), " ac- 

of hunger. The Iroiiuois did not iiuiri'd a title either by comiucst or 

arrive, however, till after the evac- dereliction." 

) : 





What pre- 
vcntcd its 





to the 

uortli of 


like immber of old soldiers, will bo stationed to guard tho 
principal post? in tho country, while a force of 1000 royal 
troops and 3 or 400 colonists are sent to lay siege to 
Orange (Albany). That town ttiken, a good garrison will 
be loft there, and our forces will push on to attack Man- 
hattan (New York) ; but to succeed in this second siege, it 
is necessary to have two frigates, which can land 300 men 
to replace those left at Orange and to guard tho canoes. 
These two frigates should be sent in March to Port Royal, 
and at the same time provision should be made for tht; 
safety of that post, exposed to be carried by the English 
from Boston ; and a frigate to Quebec to conroy his maj- 
esty's orders, the 300 recruits, flour, and other necessary 
provisions." ' 

The minister could not but regard with favor this project 
of the Governor of Montreal, whom he knew to bo one of 
tho Colonial ofHcers Avho planned most wisely, and was 
able to carry out any thing confided to him ; but while 
they were busy in Canada seeking moans to make con- 
quests from tho English, tidings came tluit the English on 
their side were taking measures to seize Canada. Perhaps 
with greater diligence they might ha>e been anticipated, 
but there was no time left when information came of their 
design. Once more, therefore, was it necessary to re- 
nounce a conquest necessary to tho tranquillity of New 
France in order to meet an enemy who had made the first 
move, and who had this advantage over us, that he could 
raise in America sufficient forces to crush us. Fortunately 
for us, these were not put in good hands. 

The campaign of IfiS'J had not, however, been unsuccess- 
ful in all parts of New France. "While the Iroquois were 
carrying their ravages to the very heart of the colony, 
d'Ibervillo and his brothers were sustaining in the north 
the honor of the French arms, and our brave Abenaquis 





' Seo plan. N. Y. CM, Doc, is., York, jip. 04-5. For New York about 
pp. 428-4n0; Smith, History ot'New tliislinie.sre.Miller'sXcw Vork.ioyr). 




1 tlio 
jc to 
I will 
?e, it 

f tlu! 







1 on 







avenged us, at the expeuso of the Euglish, for all the 1689. 
injuiy that their allies had done us at their instigation. "— y^ 

In the first days of May, information readied Quebec 
through two Canadians, who had sot out on the 5th of 
January, in snowshocs, from Fort St. Louis, at the head 
of Hudson's Bay, that d'lherville had arrived there in the 
month of October previous ; that la Ferte, his lieutenant, 
having, 30 leagues from Port Nelson, met the Governor of 
New Savannah, a place situated on the western shore of 
the bay,' had taken him prisoner, seized his papers, and 
found among them letters from the directors of the London 
Company, containing orders to proclaim the Prince and 
Princess of Orange, king and queen of Great Britain, in 
the bay, which, this company pretended, belonged wholly 
to the English crown." 

This pretension, so at variance with what had been 
agreed upon between Louis XIV. and James II., was soon 
sujiported by two ships, that appeared in sight of Fort 
St. Anne,^ to which d'Iberville had just proceeded. One 
of these ships had eighteen giuis and four ))edereros ; the 
other a like number of podereros and ten cannon : they 
were both well loaded with arms, ammunition, and suj)- 
plies, and their crews amounted in all to eighty-three men, 
among whom there were eleven pilots of twelve whom the 
English Ailmiralty maintained for Hudson's Bay. Nor 
did they flatter themselves with any thing short of the 
ex])ulsion of the French from all the ])osts they occupied. 

Yet they did not at first dare to attack with open force, 
although d'Iberville had but few men with him ; and even 
after the first hostilities, which were not to their ailvan- 
tage, they proj)osed terms tliat d'Iberville did not think 
it his duty to reject; but, as he knew the foe with Mliom 
he had to deal, he kept on his guard, and it was well he 

' Oh the river Kol'iacliouc. I)e la tions at Hiulstin's Bay in 1088. 
Pothoric, !., ]>. 170: or deg Saintra ' Canada Docuiufiits, II., v., p. 5:!. 
Huilts, il).. 101. This author (units ' Q,iichychouan. Canada Doc, II., 

nil i-ft'eronco to d'lliervillc's opera- v., p. 5u. 



16S9. did. He was not loiif,' iu perceiving that the only object 

, of the English was to lull liis suspicions, in onlor to full 

upon him as soon as the} saw him without any misgiving, 
and ho resolved to forestal them.' 

To do so more securely, he aftected more than over 
great security ; but he laid several ambuscades for the 
enemy, into which they fell. He thus deprived them of 
twouty-one of their best men, including their surgeon and 
one of their highest officers ; and after thus weakening 
tliem, he summoned them to surrender as prisoners of war. 
They replied that they could not do so with honor, being 
still forty capable of defending themselves, besides the 

On this repl}', d'Ibervillo detached fourteen men under 
do Maricourt, his brother, with orders to harass the 
English, sometimes on a little island where they were 
encamped, and sometimes on their ships, which were 
locked in the ice. Two days after he followed in person, 
and after cannonading each other for some time, without 
doing any considerable damage, d'Iberville again sum- 
moned the commandant, threatening to show him no 
quarter, if he deferred his surrender." 
lli^ success. J-'JiQ Englishman wrote to him that there was a treaty 
between the two crowns,'' and that ho was surprised that 
ho showed so little regard to it. D'Ibervillo replied that 
he had not been the first to infringe ; that withal ho insist- 
ed on the surrender of the two ships and all their crews. 
They begged a day's delay, which ho granted. On the 
ex]">iration of the term, he sent his interpreter for the 
answer, which was handed to the man in writing. It con- 
tained, among other things, that ho consented to surrender 
the two ships to the French commandant, witli all on 
board ; but that from this he should pay the wages of tho 
officers, amounting to £2,500, and givo these same officers 



' ('ixnadii Docuuii'iitii, II., v., p. 01. ■' Tlin ilesimtch says, " truitc fiitro 
'' Canada Doc , II., v., pp. (iO-5. eux" — " negotiations beiwuen them.'" 






: ,1 


a vessel, with all ita rigging, to carry tliem Avherever tliey 1 6«9- 
cliosi! to go. "^ ' 

This was grunted, with, however, some restriction as to 
the number of the Enghsh who should bo permitted to 
foUow their oflicers. All the otliers remained prisoners, 
and d'Ibervillo w,ts especially careful to release none of 
tlie pilots. Ii: the month of June,' iMr. do Ste. Heleno 
iiaving come to join his two brothers, handed to Mr. 
(I'lberville an order from the Governor General to bring 
the larger of his two prizes to Quel)ec. He obeyed, sail- 
ing from St. Anno on the I'ith of Septe. ber with Ste. 
Heleno' and the more important of his i)risoners, leaving 
Maricourt, with thirty-six mt^n, to guard the posts at the 
head of the bay, where, to all appearance, the Enghsh 
would soon endeavor to have their revenge. On his way, 
he fell in with an English ship, bearing young Chouart, 
who had not been able to extricate himself from the hands 
of the English since the surin-ise of Port Nelson. Ho 
longed to attack this vessel, but his force was insufficient, 
and he had prisoners to guard." 

In default of strength, he had recourse to stratagem : ho 
raised the English flag, and the Captain, taking him for a 
real Englishman, agreed to sail in company, d'Iberville to 
car:''y a light during the night, and at the first clear 
weather they were to visit each other. D'Iborville's design 
was to seize the Captain and the crew of the boat that 
brought him, then to board the English ship, where he 
hoped to find little resistance ; but they experienced such 
severe weather as far as the moutli of Hudson's Strait, that 
they had to separate, without seeing each other, and 
d'Iberville reached Quebec safely on the 25th of October.' 
The cheek received by tlie English this same yeax from 
the Canibas wa.5 even m<n'e humiliating than the manner 


' He rpnclied St. Aiiik,' August 15. ' (.'luiaila Doc, II., v., p. OS). 

Canada Doc, II., v., p. "I'i,. * TIr' ^8tli or 2i)th, according to 

' Sue. iidk'ne set out for Montnal Canada Doc, II., v., pp. CD, I'd. Seu 

by cnnoo. Canada Doc, II., v., w 72. N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 443. 



llISTOin <»r NKW KIJANf'K 

1689. in wliioli tlioy had boon liaiidltHl in Hudson's Bay. Tlioy 

~;;^~Y— — ' planted tlnuasolves in a placo nauKul Punikuit, situated 

of iiHf'aui- Itt'twoen tlie Pontaf^oc't river and tlic Kcnnobec, and niado 

I'eiuqiihl. tlicic a very fine settlement, defended by a fort^ wliicli was, 

ind(;e(l, only a stockad(>, bnt i[vAto. ref,Milarly bitilt, with 

twenty c.iunon mouuted.' From this point they were 

extremely annoying to all the neighboring Indians, who 

had always openly declared for the Friinch, nor did they 

cause less disquiet to the Governor of Acadia, who justly 

dreaded the etl'ect o>' their intrigues to detach those tribes 

from our alliance. 

At last a party of one hundi'ed warriors, chiefly Canibas, 
took the field on the Oth of August, to drive the English 
from this important ]ioint, and rid themselves of such 
unpleasant neighbors. They wore from a village near 
Pentagoiit, Avhoro an ecclesiastic namtnl Mr. Thury,' a zeal- 
ous laborer and man of capacity, directed quite a ;.<unier- 


' For Ppinaquid, seo Hmij^li'sPi'in- 
n(|iiiil Papi'i's, in Maine Historical 
(oili'ctions, vol. v.. and J. W. Thorn- 
ton's Ancient tlii' same 
volume, I'l). i;i!(-o()l. Tli<' En^'lisli 
cliiini dated back to 1035, when 
Sanioset sold tliein a tMct here. 
Thornton, in Hist. Mag., i., ]). l:5it. 
A si'itli'nient begpn soon after, and 
Sir William Phipps was horn here 
in KloO- This portion of Maine 
being embraced in the Duke of 
■^'ork's charter, it lor a time formed 
part of New York ; but, by royal 
order of September li), KlSi), was 
transferred to Massachusetts. The 
Settlement was then styleil .James- 
town, as the fort was Fort Charles. 
Hubbard, in ICiTT, mentions T or S 
considerable dwellings. Indian War, 
ii.. p. 73. Andros, after its caplure, 
sjieaks of 30 houses. Maine Hist. 
Coll., v., p. ;jil4. In October, 108S, 
Andros stn'ioned two companies 
here, of 00 men each, under Col. E, 
Tyng and ('a]it. Minot, and 30 regu- 

lars, giving command to Captain 
Urockholst and Lieut. Weems. W'ii- 
liainsou's Maine, i., p. .'iSO. Most of 
these troops \>ero withdrawn, or 
deserted, leaving a few under Lieut. 
Weeuis. Mass. Hecords, vi., pp. 30, 
32. Sjx'cial instructions were sent 
to him, .July 0, lOS!). TIk? Pentagol't 
("a rapid," Maurault, Hist, des Ab- 
nakis, p. ,")) is the Penobscot (Pena- 
wob.<ki't — "(Jround covered with 

•' Hev. Peter 'I'liurv, born at Ha- 
yeux : ordain"! at (Jueliec, Decern 
ber 31. KiTT, member of the Senii 
nary of Cjueliec, Sent to Acadia in 
1()S4 (Si. Valier, Etat Present. Que- 
bec ed., p. 13) ; began mission in St. 
Croix in IO80 (lb., ]>. Is); mvited to 
PentngoOt, in 1087, by St. Castiii. 
Ho died June ;J, 10i)9. at Chebouc- 
tou. Dierevillo, Voyage de I'Acadie, 
l>p. 51, 17!) ; Travels of Learned 
Missionaries, pp. 280, IJO'J ; Tasche- 
reau, Memoir sur I'Acadie. 



oils mission. Tlio first ciiri' of tlicsis bruvi* Christians was 
to iissuri; to tliomselvos tlio aid of tlic Lord of Hosts : nil 
confessed, many received coniinnniou, and tlu'y took cari! 
that their wives and children fnltilled the same dnty, in 
order to be able to raise pnrer hands to heaven while their 
fathers and husbands were cond)attinf,' the heretics.. All 
this was done with a piety which assured the missionary 
of the success of the enterprise. The Perpetual Eosary 
was established in the (Jhapel during the whole time of the 
expedition, the edifying exercise not being interrupted 
even at the hours for meals. 

The warriors proceeded along the coast by sea, and, on 
embarking, sent three canoes ahead to reconnoitre, with 
orders to join the army two leagues from Pemkuit, where 
they were to land. On all arriving there, they marclu'd 
by land with so nnich precaution that they reached the 
first English houses unperceived. On the road they took 
three prisoners,' from wlioni they learncKl that there were 
aljout a hundrtul men in the fort and village. On this 
intelligenct!, they resolved to begin by attacking the settle- 
ment. After prayer, they stripped for the fight, and 
rushed furiously on the houses, broke down the doors, and 
slaughtered all who attempted resistance, binding those 
who laid down their arms. 

At the first tidings of this sudden and unforeseen attack, 
the commandant of the fort' opened fire with all his can- 
non ; but this did not prevent the Canibas from getting 
possession of ten or twelve well-built stone houses' form- 
hig a street from the village scpiare to the fort. They 
then entrenched themselves, partly at the cellar-door of the 
house next the fort, and partly behind a rock on the sea- 

' One of these was a nmn named Maine, i,. p. G13. A Captain .Tamos 
Starl?y. WilliaiusonV Maine, i., 012 ; Weems ajipears livcjiiently in New- 
Mather's Magu., hook vii., p. ()."). York docum .its down to 1721, wlien 

■'Capt-'n Weemii, who had been we Pnd him Colonel and Conimis- 

Btatioued there liy Andros. He had sioner ol' Indian Affuirs. 
14 men, says Hutehinson, Hist, of ■' See Hul'lwrd'a Indian \\ars, ii., 

Mass., i., p, 3.r,'. Williamson's p. 12. 
Vol.. lV._(i 


h 1 V > 



Tlir\ I like 

\Mt). sliovd, and from tlicse two points kcipt up such a terrible 

^""'""^ iimskutvy fire on the fort, tVoni noon till evoninp! of the 

Till' ' ° 

tiiiiinn-i im'- llth, that no one thirst ap])ear oi)enly. 

I'liiiknii. When night came, they summoned the commandant to 
surrender the place ; and an Enf,'lishmau having answei'ed 
in derision tliat he was tired and was going to sleep, the 
lire began, as if by concert, on both sides; but the In- 
dians, under cover of tiu! darknosa, approached the fort, 
and invested it, keeping close watch all night to prevent 
any one leaving it. The next day, at early dawn, the firing 
was I'enewed on both .^idi's, ami was at first quite hot ; l)ut, 
after some volleys, the English stopi)ed their tire, and asked 
to capitulate. The Indians at once approached, and swore 
that they would do violence to no one, provided the garri- 
son evacuated the fort immediately. 

The commandant a])peared the next monu^nt at the head 
of fourteeu men, all that Ik; had left, and of some women. 
each one carrying a bundle on the back. The Canibas hit 
them pass, withtrnt touching any thing, merely telling 
them that if they were wise they would never come back 
again ; that the Abenaqui nations had too oftei exjie- 
rienced their perfidy ever to leave them in quiet, if they 
sliowed themselves in their country again ; that they were 
lords of their own territory, and would never permit tluin; 
such restless and grasping peoi)le as they were, wIhj 
annoyed them, moreover, in the practice of their rehgion.' 

They then entered the fort,' committing no disorder 

' Hutchiiiwin (Hist, nf Miisr-., i., ami says nothing of any violutioii ot 
)i. ;',')i), followed by Williamson tlic trrms. Drake's Indian Captivities. 
(Hist, of Maine, i., p. (iUi), says tlie p. 77; Matlicr's Matrnalin, liook vli. 
Indians killed some after the snrrcn- p. (W. .\ndros, in his defence, as- 
der and niad(^ prisoners of otlieis. cri bed its loss to removal of tnioiis: 
La Motte (.'adillac. in his Memoir hut the Answer to Sir Edmund An- 
il 'anada Doc, 11., V. : Maine Hist, dros's Account (Maine Hist. Coll., v.. 
Coll,, vi., p. !2S;3), says they killed in p. :ii)4) attributes it to the careless 
all 80, hut spared the commandant security of the giirrisou. 
and six of his people at the instance ■' N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 4(i8. Tim- 
of .Matekwando. But .John Uyles, ry's Account, Hoston, French Doc. 
the best English account, says that vli., p. 2i)7. 
Weems went off in PateshiiH's sloop. 



IllS'l'Oin Ol' NKW I'liANCK. 


thoro any more tliaii in the houses, wlicrf, finding- u l,ii;n'l 
of nun, tlii'V stove it in, witliont diinkin^' u sin^'Ie (liop, nn 
lieroie net for Iiidi/uis. When they had examined tlie 
whole ])lace, tliey took whatever suitod them, and hn-ehsd 
th(! fort and houses. Some wished to f;-o on and (ixpel the 
En},dish from an ishind' three or four h^a^nies from Pem- 
kuit, but tlie majority did not apjirove the projeet. The 
whole party returned to Pentagoi't on two sloops taken 
from the enemy, after killinj^ tlie crew.' 

The f/'rrison of PcMnkuit jjrrteuded to have lost only 
seven i .on in that fort ; but quite a deep treneli was found, 
tilled up with bodies ; and the commandant told the In- 
dians, on leaving the fort, that they had good powder, and 
their g iis were true. He liad experieuee, his face being 
half liurnt.' Tlie C'anibas had only one uum slightly 
wounded in tlie log; and, on their return, tluiy assured 
Mr. Thury that if they had tw(j hundred Frenchmen, a 
little accustomed to tlio country and willing to follow 
them, they would lead them to Boston. 

This expedition was spiunlily foHowed by a more vigcu'- 
(ms one, attended with still greater loss to the English. 
The latter had in tlie neighborhood of the Kfuobec four- 
teen small fort.s, (piite well diU'endtuI.' Tlie. Indians of 
Pentagoet and St. John's lliver, uniting, surprised tiiem 
all, killing as many as two hundred per.-ons, and carrying 
otf a very largo liooty. The chief advantage derived by 
us from these incursions was tlie iiircoiu-ileable iaeacii 
which they effected between the Eiigiisli and the tribes, of 
all others on the continent, who enjoyed tlie highest rc- 





' >[imlic{;nn (llulilmnl's Iiidiiiii 
Wiira, ii., |). 7:.'; X. V. C'oL Doc., iii., 
|). "i.')!), .Siiys (i Icnpiu's. 

'•' Tlicpelidiit-- l)i';oii--i>il to ('i\],iiiiiis 
SUyiiiKT, l'"iinil)iiiii. iiiiii l'iiii,.;li:il. 
.MathfTM Mkitm., I)U. vii., p. d.", ; \\\\. 
liaiiis.)n's .Muiiif, i.. |.. (;i;!. 

^ MatlierV .Miii,'ii., ]-.■ ,k vii.. p. li.-, ; 
C).vlc.-<, ill Diiilii'V Ihdiaii Ciiplivitics, 
p. 70. 

' olb(.|'viiii(iii> (Jii ilic Slate of 
.\tliiirs i\. Y. Col. Due , ix., ]\]\ U\:',, 
l:is; <'iiii;ii:!i Doc, 1., iv., p. -J'J:!) 
.-:iv.- Hi. Dovr. X. Ii., was the lir;(l 
titii.i', .liine -,'7, 1(1«1), O. S., tlic 
iiiC'lllivi' l.oiii.:; toiivciigr the tl'i'iicli- 
iroiis (T.ptiiii' au'l sale of iiiniiy of 
i!;c trill,' by Waidron in KiTii, Hut-'s .Ma.-saciiii.-^i'it.^. i., p. I).")! ; 
li.'lknap',-. Niw Ilalnj.^llil■t^ i., p. 1!I8. 





\Mg. iiowii for l)ritv('rv, aiid wliosc siiiccri' iittui'liiiii'iit to tlu! 
■ Clii'istiiiii rcli^'ioii mid luiturul docility I'otiiined them moro 
ciisily in our idliiincc 

Scvcriii Many of tlio Al)(''iiii(|iiiH, ovon then, thought <>f removing 

iiiiiiii nf to the heart of the French colony ; all wore not yet Chris- 
"iiiiin I'lh^ tiuns, but those who had not received baptism were ])re- 

'"""•^' paring for that sacrament.' Dcnonville, in a memoir, 
which Scignclay solicited from him aftitr his return to 
France, on tlio position of afVairs in Canachi and the best 
nii'ans of remedyuig the disorders of that cohmy, says that 
till' good understanding which he had maintained with the 
Abi'iiaipii nations, b}- means of missionaries, and espe- 
cially of the two Fathers Bigot, had proihiced the whole 
success of his enterprises against the English, and that 
there was no wiser course than to attract a groat number 
of these Indians to St. Francis. 

He adds that the English and French are incompatible 
in that part of the continent of America ; that tlio former 
ri'gard our missionaries as their most dangerous enemies, 
and did not rest till they had driven them out of all the 
Iroquois cantons ; that, even religion apart, it was very 
important to resort to (^-ery means to restore them there, 
and to have some among all the other Indians, over whom 
tlicy li.'uv acquired a very great ascendency; that the Iro- 
([Uois have, in reality, more estcH'm and inclinatioii for our 
nation than for th" English; but that commercial interest, 
or rather the credit which trade gives them, would always 
keep them in the English alliance ; that harmony between 
the clergy, the Governor General, and Intendant, was the 
only means of maintaining the order and tranquilHty of 
the country ; that it was to be desired that ecclesiastics 


\ill.''s M(..- 


' A iius.«i()n was fotindcd nt Sillcry in 1(1^4-5, removed it to tlio Chiiu- 

t'li- AliT'iiniuiiis. Aiiti', vol. ii.,1). its. ilicrc river, aiul cstiiljlished tin' mi.s- 

\'«'lie!i this WHS iiliiKist ilesn-DVed l>v si(in (if St. Fnineis de Sales. Bigot, 

Miiidl pox, in 107(1, Al)<'iiai|iii.s were Helatiou de la .Mission .\b('na(iui8e, 

I'l iri\cd in sueli mnnbeisas to nialu^ 1()!H4, p. ;24 ; ilj., 1085, p. 17. This 

il an Alii'naqui inissioii ; but, as ilie was again removed, in 1700, to the 

land was exliausti'd, Father Bigot, present St. Francis. lb., 1701. 


HlsroliV (»l' NKW I'UANl'K. 


and religiouH nvfrywlKH-o wcru us worthy men, ami as \^<'^9- 
edifviii^,', as tlioy wert' in I'anada, but tliat tliisy wort" too '^- 
jioorly ofY, and witliout means of supijort ; tlnit the distant 
posts, and especially Catarocony, wore out of reach of 
tinuily succor, and that ho had always doomed it an error 
to have established thorn ; that those sent to j,'arris(m Iheni 
were often forced to enter into the interested viciws of the 
Indians, constantly involvin-,' us in trouble witii tlu» 
Iro(iuois, and not uufre<iuently drawing' on us the; con- 
tempt of our allies, who, unable to be reliovful in season, 
did us out of resentment more harm than (mr very ene- 
mies ; that it would have been far better not to havi^ inter- 
fered in tliL' quarrels of those tribes, and to let them conu) 
amouf,' us to supi)ly their wants, and not anticipate them, 
as we cimtinuod to do, by carrying' cmr ^oods to them, at 
the risk of bein^' plundered on the way, without speaking,' 
of the fearful debauchery into which the y(mno- nu'U pluu^'O 
in these journeys ; that tlu^ English of Boston and New 
York had promised the Iroquois and their allies the total 
destruction of the French colony; that Acadia, especially, 
was constantly on the point of falling into their hands, 
there not liehig in that province a single fort capable of 
resistance, and the houses being more scattered even than 
on the St. Lawrence ; that it would be nec(!ssary to fortify 
Port la Heve, in order to keej) ships there in security ; 
that this post was infinitely more advantageous than Port 
Royal, from which it is not easy t(i sally forth to tlefend 
the coast, and which is too remote from the Islands of 
Cape Breton and Newfoundland and the Great Bank ; that 
all the coast belonging to France abounded in tish, and 
that the fishery was far better adapted to si'ttlo and eiu'ich 
the country than beaver and brandy, which till then had 
almost exclusively engaged the settlers; that the oiiiy 
mode of terminating the war in Canada was to seize ]N[aa- 
hattan, and that it could be done with six frigates and 
1200 troops to land ; that 800 regulars and the provincial 
militia would easily make tlieiuselves masters of Orange, 




,1 1 

iMg. and that no onv wiis nioi'tMuliiptfd to crown tliis onti'ipiisu 
with micfOHs than tht! Chevalier de Oallieres; Imt tliiit, 
lifter the capttu'e of the ea|)ital, it iniist l>e burned, and 
till) I'ountrv ravapsd uk far as Oraiij^e ; tliat li_v means of 
this ])ost, which it woiild he easy to maintain, all inter- 
course i)et\veen the lro((Uois and Ijii^dish would he hroUeii 
otl", and the former forced to have recoui'Ht) to us; and we 
would prevent our allies forming coinuusticnis with them 
lirejudicial to our safety ; in tine, that Fort ()rani,'e woiUd 
enahle us to keep in res]ie{!t the wliohi New En(,'laiid short', 
which was very jiopulous and umhd'eiided.' 

All contained in this nieiuoir was well weif,'hed, and, 
with few exceptifMis, in rej^ard to which there was some 
(liH'erence of opinion in the colony, it would have been 
much to the advantai,'c of New France had more attention 
been paid to it. JJut the whole attention of the court was 
fi;iven to moro interesting', because nearer, objects. The 
kiiif,' and his ministry, without deiiyin;,' the utility of con- 
(lueriuf,' New York, ix'lievcd all the forces of tiie kingdom 
Hooded olsowhi'ro ; and tho cehirity nnpiired by such an 
expedition was not as easy as they iinaginod in Canada. 
Accordiiij^dy, the proi)er season for dispatching^ shi]>s and 
troo])s was again allowed to pass. 

Mr. do Soignclay accordingly informed the Count do 
Froiitenac and ]Mr. do Chanipigny that the groat exertions 
which his ]Majosty was obliged to mak(!, in order to ooj>o 
with all tile European powers united against France, would 
not permit him to send to America the new reinforco- 
nionts which thoy solicited, or think of any enterprise in 
that (jnartor ; that a vig(mnis defensive seemed to him at 
the juncture most consonant to his service and tho security 
of thti colony of C'anada ; that it was ospeicially necessary 
to collect tho st^ttlers into towns easily guarded and de- 
fended against the Indians ; in tine, that the Count do 
Frontenac might nsefully employ tin; intluenco be had ac- 


tllrlJl III 


IJli'lll'i Ivr; 

nil till' 

' Ui'uonviUu U) Si'igriflay. N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., pji. 44U-7 ; also, lUIi, 4;JS. 



(|iiin'(l over thi' iiiiiids of the lio(|intiH, mid the ocnvsioii of iMg. 
the ri'storjitioii of tluiircoinitrviiicii wlioiii lie liml tiikcii li,ick 
finiii l''i;tii('(', to iii;ikc a s' ilid and lioiioialilc pence witli tlieiii.' 

TliiK letter shows, tlmt wliile tliey could not uiidcrMtiilid 
ill Ciiiiada liow the (!onrt HJioiild at alt lieHitate to make a 

Hlij,dit etVort to ex|»e] the KiiLjlisli fi i New Vork, the 

kiii^''H council were always aHtonisheil at the refusal of the* 
settlers in New France to oliaiigi! the location of tlirir 
dwclliii<,'s and adopt in their arraii^'emeiit a systeni wiiich 
was, in their eyes, the easiest tliiii!^ in the world, and alt-io- 
liitely essential to their preservation. The colonists <'oulil 
SOP nothing' more important to the State than to delivei' 
their colony from the vexatious iiiu;j;hl)orhood of the lOn- 
glish ; the Council, judi^in^' Canada by the provinces of 
France, could not he conviiKuid that there was any real 
oltstaide to the chan},'os which they [)ropo.sod : thus, what 
interests us most nearly scoms in our eyes the i>:,]v thin,.; 
uecewsary, and what we see done l)efore our e s seems to 
UH practicahlti everywhere. 

St;!l, it is a fact, tliat what was letpiired of the (Jaiiadiaii 
Hettlers was far K-ss easy to execute than it seemed to the 
ministry which re(|uired it; that the project of acting' (<n 
t\w defensive, to which the Kiii{,''s Council wished to con- 
tine them, was not more so; and that it cost more to repel 
the etibrts of the Kn^'lish and tin; Iroquois than it would 
have cost, once for all, to deprive the former of the power 
to trouble us, and conipeHed the latter to remain peace- 
fully in their cantons. This the setpiel of our histoi'v will 
show convincinj^dy. 

The Count de Frontenac; had also returned to America 
convinced that, next to the coiupiest of New Vork, the most 
advantaf^'cous thin-' to he done for the French colony, 
whos(. ^'overnmeiit lie resumed, was to re;,'aiii the Iro.pioi.s ; 
full of confidence in his success, he ha.sed his hope chietly 

'I..Miis XIV, to K>-n„t,.,i»c .uul (■ol.n„c..ix.,i,p.4.-.2-,5;In8tnuaioui., 
( Immpi-ny, July 14, l(l!l(). N. y, June 7, KWi), il, , ,,, 407. 






litli(>r»i III 

• (jnin over 



1 690. 

on tlui fact that ilurinfjf liis first stay in tliat conntiT the 
Iroquois nation had manifested j:;i'eat esteem and attach- 
ment to his |iers(m, and lie did not donbt hut tliat, on 
showing himself to them, with a great number of their 
chiefs whoso fetters he had broken, they would at once 
resume their previous sentiments toward him. 

He was at least wi'll assured of having gained over to 
his interest a brave, Cayuga chief named Ourecnihare, the 
most influential of all those whom he had brought back 
from France, and to whom he had shown groat friendsliip 
on the voyage. He took this chief with him to Montreal,' 
and, finding there an Iro(inois embassador named (ragnie- 
gaton,' who had come to make rory insolent propositions 
to Denonville, Oureouhare advised F)"ontenac to send back 
with him four of his comrades in captivity, to notify the 
cantons of the return of all their chiefs.' 

The Count followed this advice ; Oureouhare I'ccom- 
mendcul these dej)uties to omit nothing to induce the can- 
tons to send an embassy to their old Father, showing them 
that they could not dispense with congratulating him on 
liis happ}' return and thanking him for the goodness lie 
had shown their brethren. He also directed them to 
assure the Nation that they would find in the General now 
what they had found in him in the past, great esteem and 
afi^ection. He also charged tluim in particular to declare 
to his canton, that he would not return among them until 
they cann^ to ask him from Oiionthio, from whom he was 
resolved not to depart without his permission. 

The deputies set out with Clagniegaton, and fulfilled 
their commission perfectly. On their arrival, the cantons 
assembled, and sent their reply by the same ambassador, 
who arrived at Montreal cui the 9th of March, lO'JO.* He 


• N. Y. Col. Doc., ix., p. 4(il. y. IM. 

■' Gngnn'jrtitnn Imd bi'i'ii onciil tlu' ' Niirnitivc of Occurifncrs, N. V. 

ili'initicR nt Moiitrcil, .'uiKf "2, KiHS. I'ol. Doc, ix., p]i. 4(i4-r) ; Di; In Po- 

■' Nnrrativc ot tlic Most liriimvkR- thi'rii', Ilistoiri' dr rAiiit'ri(|iir Si'pt., 

ble OccuiTcnceH, N. V. Col. Doi',, ix., iii., p. (i:j. 



fouud tliere neither tlie Count de Frontenae uor Oiireou- 1690. 
hart', who hail returned to Quebec, and several days passed — '>'^-' 
without the Chevalier de Callieres being able to elicit any cuntons to 
thing from him or his comjianions. They were at last, ositlons. 
however, won over by the courteous manner of that gov- 
ernor, and presented to him six belts. The Hrst showed 
the cause of their delay, produced, they said, by the arri- 
val of the Ottawas in the Seneca canton. It was the com- 
mencement of a negotiation set on foot between our west- 
ei*n allies and the Iroquois, ou an occasion to be presently 
explained. It was agreed to meet in the month of June, 
at a [)laco determined ; and Gagniegaton, explaining this 
belt, added that *^liings should be done iu this way, when 
they wished to treat of peace, without resorting to strangers. 
He meant to intimate that the Governor General should 
have proceeded in person to Onondaga, or to some other 
place agreed upon, there to speak of arrangements, as he 
had long previously been requested to do. 

The second belt exjjressed the joy folt by the Flemings, 
that is to say, the Dutch, settled at Orange, and the Iro- 
(|uois, ou the I'eturn of Oureouhare, wliom he styled Head 
Chief of the Iroquois nation. This showed thr concert 
and harmony existing between the cantons and New York. 

By the tliird the Onondaga canton, in tlie name of all 
the others, demanded the prom})l vesioration of all tlie 
Iroquois who had returned from l''rance, iu (uiler to con- 
cert with them measures suited to the situation of affairs. 
The ambassador added tliat they had collected at Onon- 
daga all the French jn-isoners, who had been scattered in 
the other cantons, and that tlicy sliould i>o disposed of 
only on the report and by the ailvicc of Oureouhiire. 

The fourth and liftli spoke of tlie lavages committed in 
the Seneca canton l)y do Denonville. of tii(> treachery at 
Catavocouy, the abandonment of that post, and said that 
when all the evil liad biu.'n madi^ good, and the roads free 
and secure, Teganissorens would go to treat with Onouthio 
of peace. 

Vol. IV.— 7 

Il I 





Mr. (k- 
refuses ti 

aiulieiu-e I 

By the sixth, Gfiguief^atou f,'ave notice that, from the 
mouth of October previous, an Iroquois party liad been in 
the field, but that it was to begin operations only at the 
thawing of the snow, and that if thoy made any prisoners 
care should be taken to treat them M-ell. " Do the same 
with us," he continued, " if you take any of ours. I liad 
eight prisoners iu the defeat at La Chine ; ' four I ate, the 
rest I spared. You have been more cruel than I, for you 
shot twelve Senecas ; you should have spared at least one 
or tvo. It was in retaliation for that execution that I ate 
four of yours." " 

Mr. de Callieres asked him whether Father Milet was 
still alive. He replied that he was in perfect health, and 
, had started a week before to return to the colony : a state- 
ment found to be untrue. The Governor asked him fur- 
ther Avhy the Mohawks had come to commit hostilities 
against us. The reply was that the Mohegans, having 
raised a war ^larty of ninety-six men, had induced some 
Mohawks and Oneidas to join them ; that messengers were 
sent to recal the Mohawks, but that apparently this step 
was taken too late.' 

Mr. de Callieres, unable to extract any thing more from 
ihese deputies, sent them to the Governor General; but 
the Count de Frontenac refused to giv them audience, on 
the ground that they had at their head a man whose inso- 
lence had otfeuded him. He nevertheless received his 
companions well, but troated with them only throirgh the 

' At La C'lu'iiayc, accordina; tn De 
la PotUerie. iii., p. •!'«. N. Y. Col. 
Doc., ix.. p. 4(1(1. 

• Pee tliesc belts expliiiiied at 
leiifTtli, De la I'otherie. Ilistnire de 
rAnieri(|Ue Sept.. iii., Jip.^o-O : X. Y. 
Col. Doc, ix., pp. 4(i.j-(l. 

' Milet was taken by afletaehineiit 
of ;iOO, whose obj^'Ct was the capture 
of Frontenac. This party then went 
two leaj^ues down, to wait for tlie 

140(1 proceeding; to Montreal ; after 
iinitiiisr. they went on to Otonniutn. 
IbTe two chiefs and ;!() men wen' de- 
tached with Milet to Oneida, which 
he reached on St Lawrence's day, 
ami the main body proceeded to La 
Chine. Milet, Relation de sn C:\p- 
tivite, pp. 1-'J4. 

■* Narrative of Occiir'-ences, N. Y. 
Col. Doc., ix.. p. 4(>(1 ; De la Potherie, 
Histoire de I'Ainericpie Sept., iii.. 07. 




instniiiieutality of Oureoiilian'', who even seemed to bo 
acting always in his own name. As soon as the rivers 
were navigable, the General told them that they might 
return, and Oureouhare handed them eight belts, which he 
exi)huned to them in a way to give them to understand 
that the Count de Fronteiiac took no part in the act.' 

They expressed in substance that he begged the cantons 
to wipe away their tears and forget the past ; that he 
learned with pleasure of the promise made by the Ottawas 
to restore to the Senecas all the prisoners whom they had 
taken from them ; that he was still more charmed at the 
resolution adopted by his brethren to save the lives of the 
French who might fall into their hands, and that Ononthio 
had jn'omised him to do the same on his side until he re- 
ceived the rei)ly of the five cantons to the propositions which 
he had made them ; that so far as he himself personally was 
concerned, he thanked them for the desire they had at tirst 
expressed to see him once more, but that they seemed to 
have soon lost this zeal and aflection, inasmuch as they 
had not yet sent a chief for him as he had requested them ; 
that he conjured them to do him this honor as soon as pos- 
sible, and he was induced to make this request by his desire 
to have them witness the good will of their Father Onon- 
thio for the whole nation, as well as the good treatment 
which he and his nephews received daily. Finally, that it 
v\ as by his request that their Father sent with the deputies 
one of his liighest officers, to exhort them not to listen to 
the Dutch, who had turned their heads ; not to interfere in 
any matters between him and those of Orange (Albany) 
and Manhatte (New York), and not to take any umbrage at 
any thing that he might do to chastise their neighbors for 
throwing oft' the yoke of their lawful king, whose intei'ests 
the king of France had espoused ; that he wished them to 
know that he, Oureouhare, regarded all the French as his 


r.''s ri'iily. 

' De'.aPotherie, IlistoirederAmt'- Auriouae's belts (pp. 70-73). N. Y. 
rique Sopt., iii., p. 70. He esplnins Col. Doc, is., p. 409. 





f y 


1 690. brethren ; that he no longer wished to part with his father 
'-^~r^~^ Ononthio ; that he would not return to his canton, though 
fully at liberty to do so, unless they came for him in the 
manner he had stated ; that they might go in all security 
to Montreal, and that he felt 23ert'ectly sure that the French 
would not disavow his pledge that their confidence should 
not be abused.' 
WhiU in- The officer who accompanied the Iroquois deputies was 
Count de the Chevalier d'Eau, a reduced captain." The Count do 
to°!issume Frontenac had deemed it expedient to send him to Onon- 
'"tone'!^ " ^''^ii^i to show Special confideuce in that canton, which he 
always conciliated ziiore than the rest, as well as to bo 
better informed of what was going on. He knew, more- 
over, that he could rely on Garakonthie" and Teganisso- 
rens, avowed friends of the French : but the capture of 
Corlar (Schenecti'dy), the tidings of which had just reached 
him, and the return of who had made that conquest, 
of which we shall speak in due season, especially induced 
him to assume so lofty a tone with the Iroquois, and he 
certainly acted on this occasion with these Indians with a 
dexterity and dignity which made them descend considei- 
bly from their haughty position. 

He was, nevertheless, much troubled by the negotiations 
of the Ottawas with the Iroquois, of which Gagniegaton 
had spoken to the Chevalier de Callieres. Its object was 

•A > 

' De la Potherie, Histoire de 1' Ame- 
riquo Sept., iii., pp. 70-74. N. Y. 
Col. Doc, ix., p. 460. 

' De ^Jon8eignftt, Relation de cv 
qui s'est passe. N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., 
p. 409. La Hontan (Vcnngcs, i., 
p. 205) pretends that Mr. de Fronte- 
nac wished him to go, but that, on his 
showing its imiwssibility of effecting 
any good and asking liiiu to select 
another, Frontenac appointed the 
Chevalier Do, who was accompanied 
by Colin, an interpreter, and two 
young Canadians. As usual, how- 

ever, there is no mention elsewlmre 
of La Hontan. TIk! envoy, whose 
name Charlevcjix gives d'Eau, and 
La Hontan Do, wrote his name 
d'Aux. Ferland, Cours d'Histoire, 
ii., p. 108. For hi.s instructions and 
the message of Ourenuae, see N. Y. 
Col. Doc, iii., p. 7;fo. 

'■■ Brother of Daniel (iarakontliie 
(.Milet, Relation, p. '•i'.)), and appar- 
ently the one whom Hennepin pro- 
fesses to have known. Voyages au 
Xord, v., p. Ii42; .Moeur.s des Sau- 
Vilgea, p. .")(). 







this. We have more than once seen the secret inclination 1690. 
of our allies on the north and west to open trade with the ^^ 
English through the medium of the cantons ; an inclination '■^^^^<'^^^ 
founded on nothing, however, but interest, the Enghsh ^^,J^'^^'^';i»»i*^_ 
furnishin'' L'oods at much lower prices than we did. De- mtcncn- 

" " .,.,,, tldii of the 

nonville, by involving them m the war witli tlie henecas, Fniioii. 
had designed chiefly to break oft" this connection, and 
render all these nations irreconcileable with the Iroquois, 
but it was soon perceived that he had not succeeded. 

The lack of vigor displayed by us on that expedition ; 
the little fruit derived by us from the slight advantage we 
gained in it ; the d(;struction and evacuation of Fort Nia- 
}.;ara, the erection of which they had earnestly solicited ; 
the frequent irruptions of the Iroquois into the colony ; 
and, more than all this, the dishonorable steps taken to 
secure peace from that nation ; the insolence long endured 
at their hands ; and our inaction, notwithstanding their 
recent hostilities, made tie Ottawas resume their former 
project of eflecting a reconciliation with a people from 
whom they had indeed little to hope but much to fear. 

In truth, the wisdom and firmness of the Sieur de la 
Durantayo,' who continued in command at Michillimaki- 
nac, and the zeal with which he was supported by ihi-. 
missionaries, had long prevented this resolution taking 
tiffect ; bat they were in constant fear that these Indians 
would escape us. Our ill-luck would have it that many of 
them happened to be in Montreal at the time of the sack 
of La Chine, occurring almost before the very eyes of the 
Governor General, and while, against their remonstrance, 
he allowed himself to bt; lulled by false appearances of 
peace ; for they carried back to their villages a settled 

' Olivier Morel dc la Ditrantaye ried in HiTO, ami in his later days, 

was a Breton gentleman, bnru at after resigiiins^ his eoinmission, Ije 

Notre Dame (\{i (iaure, Xautes. He eanie one oC the Council at (Quebec, 

rameout asacaptain intheCarignan Ferland, ii., p. 208, note ; N.Y.Col. 

regiment, but his many services Doc, ix., p. 113, &c. Bouchette To- 

never lirought promotion. He mar |)og. Description, xsii. sxiv. 






1690. conviction that we were on the point of sinking utterly 
"^c^^ beneath the eftbrts of our enemies, as well as a secret joy 
to see themselves left by our weakness free to think of 
their own interest. To this must be aildetl the unfavora- 
ble impression left on many miutls after the treachery 
wliicli the Kat, who was the projector, had laid to the 
charge of the Marquis de Di''nonville. 

The Ottawas even thought themselves authorized to 
reveal their design to no Frenchman, supposing tliat no 
one should take amiss their adopting measures to avoid 
being left exposed alone to the fury of the Iroquois, nor 
did they deliberate long on Hu? conduct to be ])ursued by 
them in so delicate a conjunctui'e. They began by send- 
ing back to the Seneciis all the ])risoners taken from them, 
then fixed upon a place of meeting for the montJi iA June 
ensuing. This was the negotiation which gave Mr. de 
Frontenai' such great and well-founded anxiety, and of 
which Gagniegaton had made such a mystcu-y t(j the Gov- 
ernor of Montreal. 
Exjitioiij. Fortunately, Mr. de hi Duraiitave and the missionaries, 

(if Mr. di' In •' ' ' ' 

Diiriiiiiavr jiyer attentive to the slightest UKJve of these Indians, were 

and tlio nils. '^ 

m(nmiii.'s ii> informed of the scheme, and the matter seemed sufficiently 

to this Hint- . *' 

ttr. imi)ortant for them io inform the Governor General of all 
that they had discovered. Yft this was not easy, as they 
were already well into the winter ; but the Commandant 
was so fortunate as to tind a man willing to undertake a 
journey of four hundred leagues, notwithstanding the rigor 
of the season and the difficulty of the roads. This was 
the Sieur Joliet, who arrived at Quebec toward the end of 
December, 1689.' He handed to the Count de Frouteuac 
a letter from Father de Carheil, drawn up, doubtless, by 
that missionary in concert with Mr. de la Durantaye, 



' DelaPotherie, Histoiredel'Aiue- under the Jesuits, was apprenticed 

rique Sept., iii., p. (10. The Joliet to a cooper, and then embarked in 

here mentioned is Zachary, a younger trade. F<'rland, Cours d'Histoire, 

brotherof'Louis, tlie discoviTerot'tlie ii, p. li)il. Heliition. KisU-ilO. N. Y. 

Missiesippi. Zaciiary, after studying Col. Doe., ix., p. 4(i;5. 




wliose frioml he was, and the following,' is tlie portion hoar- ifigo. 
mf^, priiit'ipaUy on Joliet's mission : ' 

" Here we are, reduced at last to tlio conditio.i to wliich Kutinrde 
T liave always thought the ho]ie of ))eace would brinf,' us. I later to 
have never dceniod it ])ossible, thinking on this matter, nor 
do those who know the Ouondagas, the moat crafty of all 
the Iroquois. Notwithstanding tlie ditHculty experienced 
in keephig up the minds of the Indians till the time fixed 
for the Asse' ibly, when they had lost all hopes from the 
negotiations for a peace for which they knew the French 
were begging, and which they could regard only as a proof 
of our weakness, we had hapi)ily succeeded in retaining 
them in the \r.ii\i of duty till that term; but, when they 
went down to Montreal to the Assembly, they were eye- 
witnesses of the triumph of the Iroquois : they saw 
tliat tlie magnificent ])romises with which they had been 
anmsed resulted in tlu; desolation of our hamlets and the 
general consternation of the colony. They concluded that 
they had no other alternative tlian to make terms with an 
enemy against whom we wei-e no longer in a position to 
defend them, and from whose hands they ]\'issio'nately 
desired to rescue their brethren. 

'■ We had the hajipiness of preventing th(im from cari'ying 
out this resolution, and they even yielded to our per.suasion 
to continue the war with us ; but instead of carrj'ing on 
the war, they resumed negotiations, during M-liich the 
Iroquois gained great advantages over them and over us. 
At last, our recent disasters made them conclude unani- 
mously to send ambassadors, first to the Senecas, then to 
the other cantons, with authority to form a perpetual 
alliance with the Iroquois nation. The Huron is as deep, 
or deeper, in tJiis jilot than the Ottawa ; but, more wily, he 
still mananivres, and has not yet spoken as openly or 
boldly. When solicited by liis ally to join him, he has 
confined himself to saying that he was too young ' to iuter- 


That i» to 8nv, too fecblr in nuiixliiTt*. C/i'irli- 


I' < 


I n^ 






• 690. fere in an affair of that nature, or to opposo it ; he let his 
""y^' brothers, who had more judgment than he, act, and they 
coidd answer for tho r'onsequences. A remnant of donht 
as to tliu result koe])s them in this reserve. 

" As to the Ottawas, what induced their urgency in send- 
ing off their ambassadors was fear lest an order might 
arrive from you to ])(;rf()rni some act of hostility against 
the Iroquois. Tliis must no longer be tlunight of; it is 
too late. It should have been done while they were still 
at Montreal after the desolation of La Chine ; they even 
desired it ; but now that their ambassadors have gone, 
you must no longer count on them in the war. They 
loaded the Iroquois prisoners with honors as they sent 
them back, and we opposed the step, reminding them of 
the displeasure it would give their Father Ononthio ; they 
answered that they had hitherto placed too nnich reliance 
on his protection. 

" We had pictured the French to ourselves, they added,' 
as warriors ; but experience has taught us that they are 
less so than the Iroquois. We are no longer astonished at 
their letting so long a time jiass without undertaking any 
thing ; a sense of their own weakness withheld them. After 
beholding the cowardice with which they allowed them- 
selves to be massacred on the island of Montreal, it is 
t>vident to us that we uuist no longer expect any aid from 
them, their prot(!ction having become not onl}' useless, but 
even prejudicial, by the complications into which it has 
most unseasonably involved us. Their weakness and lack 
of courage were shown in a very evident manner at Tson- 
nonthouan, where, surprised at the resistance of the ene- 
my, they confined thems<'lves to making war on the grain 
and bark," and since that time they have not dared to do 

' I liere maki* the OttuwiiH »iii'nk sious. Chnrhmij'. He has, liowcvtr, 

directly, to avoid a little confusion to made alterations that would not bo 

be found in this part of Father de deemed proper now. Coniiiare text 

Carheil's letter; but, with this ex- with Canada Doc. II., v. ,!),', &c. 

ception, I have changed scarcely any '' By breaking the bark canoes of 

thing in that missionary's expres- the Senecas. Chnrlemix. 




any thinp, except hep, peace by all sorts of Imsei ess ; tliey i f>9°- 
have not even courage to defend themselves when attacked, ■ 
and, in spite of every experience sufficient to open their 
eyes, they obstinately cling to hopes of settlement, pre- 
ferring to suffer the insolence of n haughty enemy rather 
tlian return to the battle. Nor has their alliance been leas 
injurious to us in commerce than in war ; it has deprived 
us of trade with the English, far moio advantageous to us 
than traffic with them, and this contrary to all laws of pro- 
tection, Avhich consist in maintaining freedom of trade ; 
moreover, they throw all the burden of the war on us, 
while our pretended protectors, with a conduct full of 
dujilicity, seek to shelter themselves by a shameful treaty. 
In one word, whoever becomes aware of our present state, 
will take us rather for protectors of the French than for a 
people protected by them." ' 

There is no doubt that Ottawas used such language only 
at the instigation of the Hurons, and that it was prompted 
by the Rat, whom wo have seen so active in defeating all 
de Denonville's steps for cii'ectiug peace with the Iroquois. 
Information came soon, even, that these very Hurons, who 
wished to appear in nothing, were the soul of all this in- 
trigue, in which they used the Ottawas, whose natural 
dulness prevented their modifying any tlung or measuring 
their terms. 

Be that as it may, Father de Carheil's letter did not its effect on 
displease the Count de Frontenac. It was not difficult to 
persuade that general that the evil was great, and he 
seized Avith eager readiness any opportiuiity of blaming 
what had been done before him. Moreover, he thought he 
saw ill pU the untoward accidents the consequences of 
abandoning Fort Catarocouy. Yet it is true to say that a 
part of the reproaches of the Ottawas fell somewhat on 
him, and that his predecessor had thought as well as he, 
and before him, that to remedy all this evil, to humble the 

Dh C'nrheil to Frontenac, Sept. U, ItiUO, Can. Doc, II., v., pp. 02-104. 
Vol,. IV.— 8 




1690. Iroquois, and brin£» all the other tril)es on this continent 
"^r-"-' to reason, there was no surer means than to expel the 
En^'lish from New York. Yet, it must he avowed, that in 
place of that expedition, which tluiy did not enahlo liiiu to 
carry out, do Frontonac harassed the En^^lish so vig- 
orously on all sides that ho disabused the Indians of the 
idea into wliich tlu'V had fallen, that we durst not take the 
field before our enemies. 

But, before relating,' the manner in which ho succeeded 
in tliis, it is best to resume the scHjuel of the adventures of 
Mr. de la Sale, news of which was at last received toward 
the close o. the year 1()88, at a time when they 
desjiaired of ever hearing of him, and men in France and 
in Canada seem "■ to have renounced entirely th * colon- 
ization of Louysiana, as Mr. de la Sale called the country 
watered by the Micissipi, below ih(^ Illinois river, a 
name which it still retains. 









- ,.» 








TiiKiti; Ih iKj vii'tno that is not umrrod I)}' hoiug dofoct. 16H4-90, 
This is the onliuary lot of humiuiity. What crownH our — < — 
humiliiitioii is thiit tlie groiitoHt ffiults ofton attund tlio 
most ciniiii'iit quulitios, and tluit tho jealousy the hitter 
iiiHpiro aUuost always tiiids a sfji't'lous pretext in the for- 
mer to cover the baseness and injustice of that passion. 
It is for those set to govern men, to give light, so to issue 
from this labyrinth, to separate trutli from tho darkness 
with whicli passi(5n would dim it, and so well to know 
those whom it employs, as to take duo precaution against 
their bad qualities, while permitting them to employ those 
which are good. 

This was tho chief care of do Seignclay in regard to 
do la Sale, when it was proposed to accept his services. 
Though prejudiced against him by do la Barre's corre- 
spondence, he resolved to see him personally ; and, after 
several interviews, he concluded that, oven admitting the 
truth of part of the charges against him, de la Hale pos- 
sessed talents whicii might make him useful to the State, 
and he gave him high marks of esteem. Encouraged by 
this favorable reception, do la Sale projjosed to tho minis- 
ter the design which he had formed of reconnoitring by 
sea the mouth of tho Micissipi, in order to open the way 
for French vessels, and found a settlement there. His 
project was approved, and he received orders to make his 

In this he spent tho whole winter ; and, when the prep- 
arations were completed, de Seiguelay handed him his 

Lii Salle's 
liriiJLCI prc- 

Ptl'Mlcd to 

Mr. de 

ami ' 




V£ 1 




sldii i,nv('ii 


Ili> oMIIil 


' I 


L'oiuiiiissi^ii,. It pioviduil tluit all the Fioui'li jiiicl Iiuliiius 
who might {,?■ between Fort Baiiit Louis of the Illiuois aud 
New Biscay shonltl be subject to his orders, aud that the 
counuauelaut of the squadron that was to couvey him from 
France to America should carry out all his directions as 
to their course, and on his landing give him all the assist- 
ance he might I'equire, provided it could in no wise 
imp: ril the safety of the king's sliips.' 

Four vessels' of different sizes were fitted out at Roche- 
fort, and two hundred and eighty persons, including the 
crews, embarked. The rest was made up of one hundred 
soldiers ; i Canadian family, the head of which was nameu 
Talon ; about thirty '■, olunteers, among whom there were 
some gentlci'ien ; someyoung women ; and a certain num- 
ber of mechanics and laborers;" but it must be admitted 
that the selection of all these was far from ca veful. The 
soldiers v ere, for the most part, wretclies who were beg- 
ging a living; some were deformed, and could not even tiro 
a musket. The mechanics were no better ; aud when it 
became necessary to employ them, it was found, though 
too late, that there was scarcely one who knew his trade. 

Among the volunteers were two nephews of Mr. de hi 
Sale, Cavelier and Morauget, the former onl}' fourteen 
years of age,* and three clergymen of St. Sulpice ; Cavelier, 
brother of de la Sale, Chefdevillo, a relative, and Majulle,' 
called in some accounts Daimanville.' Foar Recollect 
Fathers, Zenobius Mambrt', who had already accompanied 
de la S:ilo in his discoveries. Father Maximus Le Clercq, 

' The Commission, Ariril 14. 1G8-1 
(K Y. Col. Poc, is., \y ii^t), makes 
no allusion to the voyage. These 
directions are in the Lettre de Ca- 
chet. Versailles. Aiiril \-i, 1084. 

' Joutel, Journal IIist(jrique, \>\i. 
13, 13 ; Cavelieiv Relation du Voy- 
age, p. 5 ; Lo Cleroq. Etablissemeut 
de la Foi, ii., p. 277. 

^ Joutel, Journal Historique, pp. 
U, IJ. 

^ Le Clercq, Etablissement de la 
Foi, ii., i'lt, 378. He is apparently 
the John baptist Cavelier, who, with 
Mary Magdalene Cavelier, wife ot 
John Le Forestier, claimed to be La 
Salle's lieirs. Memoire au Roy, 1717 
or 1730, MS. 

' Anastasius Douuy, in Le Clercq 
(ii., 373-;J), Hennepin, Voyage (V. au 
Nord, v., p. 303). 

' Daiumaville, Jouiol, p, Li. 






who hn,d spent sonic time in Ciinada,' Fiither Anastasius 
Douay,' and Fatlier Dennis Marciuot," wcvo intended, some 
to remain in tlie settlement it was i)roposed to found at 
the montli of the Micissipi, others to establisli missions 
amonti; the Indians : \mi Fn fli ov \ro-..o.-.-.-.<- s^u: • r n,. 


v rv til'st il.-iy . I 

liih! asliort'. .I'l ' h 
cliido, J.i;i:. 1,^,, ' ,i\ ,'li i 
soldier, all upr!_i.t r.ian 
have of till'. <Xj 
de la Sale. wh< 

dear htvid, 
had h asi'f. 

,!, 1 

:1 ^i 

hiri. his : 



- -' /.t ■■-■ ■ 

.f 1 




Jo eoii- 

;..' li<;tn a 

'liv one we 

ai.-o joiui^'d 

!S ll,. 

iu:t{ .in. 

:r. at ai'iiity and a 

> li \VLrr\ .md never 

;)ii-' llttir |'i.i.)ii_v 

. iU-^ coiii'iiandid 

M' J' .i> til utei' 

. illU'-. ^ >! 

«,.* 1 ■.., V, » . 

..tJouf.l. ■>•.'<■ 

'*' . .» 


:■. .w\ i-.i !>I, -v . 

• iiisii' of Kb lis r .' . 


t ! 


: •■ ' - 

- . .i,* r ..s'.^ •■. •, 

,.' Ri'follcct . :.' 

I rtKi. 



_;'.i,j.. i'.i' 

;!!«\ i.i'ilKr) .. 

till-!!*! : in Kill. 

■ • «l -.1! 



:i. , 


very 11!!') Fyi']'' 

-„ ;.,n 



nll^p^: 1 Hilt ill 

I'i'iliid I5i-a(lfincK. hJaily 

>rissipsip]ii, ])|i. lS4-'J'.;i) ; Ciivulii'i'. Vnyiiii-crs U|) and down tli(> Missis- 

Hrlatioii du Voviigi- rntri'pi'is piir >i|ipi, |i. IT8, 11. ; R^'lutions Divcrscs 

fi'U M. Robert Cavi'lii'r, Sifur di> in sur la liiitiiillr du Mnliinguele, p. x. 

Sallo, Mnnato, 18.58; in Englisli in Sci' nunicl, Vw I'luvi' di' Notre His 

Sliea, Early Voyages up nnd down tile t^iire. 
Mississippi, AlliHiiy. isr,l, pp. l,"i-|-..>; |,|. CIiti-.i lii.'j;;), I'lillowcd liy 




A ■•1 ^ 



/ 1 





who had spent soino tinio in Cjinudu,' Fiithur Anustasins 1684. 
Douay," and Fatlicr Duiiiiis Marquet," were iiitendod, some ~— ~v ~- 
to rcniaiii in tlie settlement it was proposed to fonn.d at 
the mouth of the Micissipi, others to establish missions 
among the Indians ; but Father Marquet falling sick tht> 
very first day of the voyage, they were obliged to send 
him ashore, and he did not accom[)any them. To con- 
elude, Joutel, a burgher of Eouen, who had long been a 
soldier, an iq^right man, whose account is the only one wo 
have of this exjiedition which can be relied on,^ also joined 
do la Sale, who, recognizing in hina great ability and a 
clear head, made him his lutendant, as it were, and neve v 
had reason to regret it. 

The four vessels that were to carry this little colony n, pmiuic 
were the Joli, a frigate of about forty guns, commanded u,!'l,'!'i'ir. 
by Mr. de Beaujeu,' with the Chevalier d'Here" as lieuten- 

' Hi' had been five yi'nrs on the 
mission, chiefly at the Seven Islands 
and Antieosti. Le Ch'rcii, ii., 371-5. 
He was from I.ille, in I'landeis. 
Hennepin, Voyages, p. '20'i. 

■ Father Anastasius Doiiay was a 
nativeot'Quesnoy, in Hainault. After 
Ids connection witli tlds expedition, 
from l(iS4 to Ki^S, he was Vicar ot' 
tlie Hecollects at Canibr.ay in Ifi'.lT, 
and returned to Louisiana with Iljer- 
villein KiOO. VoyiiKeof Iberville.MS, 

■■ Le Clercq gives the nanu^ " Denis 
Morguet " (ib., p. 'i"t] ; Hennepin, 
Movquet (Voyages an Nord, v., 1203). 

' See ante, vol. i., pp. 87-8, lor » 
notice of Joutel. The.othor accounts 
are those of Father Anastasius Don- 
ay, the Recollect ; Le ('leic(|, vol. ii., 
J)]!. 3<)l)-:!77 : in English in Shen. 
Discovery and Esiiloration of the 
Mississi])pi, \>\i. 1 84-33!) : Cavelier, 
Relation du Voyage entrejiris jmr 
fen M. Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la 
Salic, Manatp, 18,')S ; in English in 
Shea, Earlj- Voyages up and down the 
Mississip]ii, .Mliaiiy, 18(11. pp. t.-|_|3 ; 

Hennepin's account is a made-up 
atliiir, of no authority ; that of Anas- 
tasius Douay seems entitled tocredit ; 
that of Cavelier is enfeebled by his 
acknowledged concealment, if not 
misrepresentation, and his state- 
ments generally are attacked by 
Joutel (p. ')}. Tonti, in his Memoir, 
gives the account as he heard it. 

' This Norman otHcer is .said to be 
the Count de Hoaujeu, who, at the 
liattle of La Hogue, coiiimnnded the 
St. lioiiis. the llagshi)) of the Admi- 
ral, Marshal Count do Tourville. 
lleniii'iiin, who professes to have 
known him, extols his valor, expe- 
riince, and services. Voy. an Nord, 
v.. p. 301. He S(>eins to have been 
grand uncle to Daniel Ijienard de 
Heaiijeu. connminder of the French 
troops I hal defi-nti'd Hraddock. Early 
Voyages up and down the Missis- 
siiipi, p. 178. 11. ; Relations Diverses 
sur In Uataille du Malanguele, p. x. 
See Daniel. Cne Page de Notre Flis- 

Le t len-.| I ii 

followed liv 



1684. ant, and tho Siour du Haniol ' as onsigii. Anotlior frigate 

— 1 ' of six guns, the Bello,' liad been given by the king to de 

la Sale, who confided the command to two bai'k captains." 
The Aimable, 300-ton store-ship belonging to Massiot, a 
liof helle nievchaut, and commanded by the Sieur Aigron, 
carried all de la Sale's merchandise ; while a ketch of 30 
ton^ v;as loaded with ammunition and goods intended for 
St. Domingo.^ 

This little squadron left Rochelle, July 2-4, 1G84,' in com- 
pany with the West India and Canada fleet, which was to 
bo subject to Mr. de Bcaujeu's orders till they sighted 
the Spanish coast ;" but they had not got more than fifty 
leagues fi'om port, when, in the finest weather imaginable, 
the Joli's bowsprit suddenly snapped.' There was no 
little argument about this accident, and as there were 
already some seeds of disagreement between do Beaujeu 
and de la Sale, some imagined tho thing concerted. The 
question was, whether to go to Portugal or to put back to 
la Eochello, and the last opinion prevailed. Tho three 
other vessels followed the Joli, and tho sqiiadron was not 
able to sail before the 1st of August.' 

On tho IGth they were in sight of Madeira, and de Beau- 
jeu proposed to de la Sale to anchor there, in order to take 
in water and provisions. Mr. de la Sale replied that they 
had only been out a fortnight, and consequently should 
need neither water nor provisions ; that they could not put 

They sail 

' ^i 

lleniH'pin (p. 204), says Chevalier 
d'Aire, now king's captain, and son 
of the Uean of the Pavlianicnt of 

' Of Brouape. lie Clercq. ii., 277. 

'' Le Clereq, ii., 277. 

■' Joutel (.lournal Ilistorique. p. 11). 
mnitres d(? barque. 

■' Joutel (.Journal Ilistorique. p. 14) 
Bays th(^ ketch was chartired for St. 
nomingo, but had on board MO tons 
of munitions and stores for La Salle. 
Le Clercq (Etablissement di' la Foi, 

ii., p. 277)give.s this ketch the nanio 
of St. Frani;oi.s. 

^ .loiitel, p. 14 ; Hennepin, p. 205. 

' To ( 'ape Finisterre. .loutel, p. 14. 

' .loutel, .Journal Historique, p. 14 ; 
1,(> Clercii, fCtablissement de la Foi, 
ii,, p. 27(1 ; Cavelier, Relation, p. 0. 

■■ Joutel, Journal Historique, 1.1-1(>. 
Hennepin (p. 20.-)) says. August .5. 
Tlipy ]iut J)ack to Chef-de-bois, liO 
Clerc(i, ii., p. 270. Cavelier, in his 
memoir, gives the 12th as the day 
of sailing. 




in at Matloira -witliout losing' a week uselessly ; their 1684. 
enterprise required all sccrooy, especially as reganlcil the — ~^' ' 
Spaniards, wlio could not fail to take imil)ra<,'o if they 
became aware of it, but from whom it could uot be cou- 
coaled if they showed themselves at an island so near the 
Canaries, which belonged to the Spanish monarch ; in a 
word, tliat it was not his Majesty's intention, as no ono 
could Ije better aware than himself.' 

This reply greatly displeased de Beaujen, and set the (Juami of 
crew against Jlr. de la Sale. A Huguenot passenger ':in(r(k"i'it" 
named Paget,' at tliis time spoke quite violently to Mr. de 
la Sale, who asked tJio commandant whether it was by his 
orders that a man of that stamp thus lost all respect f(jr 
him. Mr. do Beaujeu coldly replied " No," and took no 
steps to have any apology made for the insult. La Sale 
smothered his resentment ; yet there was not a so;il aboard 
but began to augur ill of an expedition in which th(! com- 
manders seemed to have such ojijjosite views and interests." 

It was still worse when they reached St. Domingo ; de la 
Sale bore orders from the Minister to Mr. de Cussi, who 
commanded for the king on that island,* and these orders 
concerned his enterprise. Mr. de Cussi's ordinary resi- 
dence was at Port de Paix, on the north shore of the 
island, and the natural course was to procee I to that 
point. This Mr. de Beaujeu did uot find .suitable, and 
proceeded tj anchor at Petit Goavo, on the wejjt shore, 
which he reached on tJie 27th of September." Ho there 
learned that the Governor was at Port de Paix, with the 

' Joutcl (Journal IIistori(]U(', p. 1(5) 
Sftys they caino in sight of Madeira 
on tlio ','Otli. 

' Burgher of La Rochclle, Joutcl 

^ Joutel, Journal Ilistoriciuo, pp. 

•* Joutel, p. 2.1, snya Governor of 
la Tortuo or Tortugas. 

' Joutel (Journal Ilistorique, pp. 
18-24) and Le Clercq (Etahlifsc- 
VoT.. IV.— 9. 

mcnt, ii., p. 279) mention the 
disi)er8ion of tlie flee', Sept. 14tli. 
The Joli reaehed I'etit (iouve firsts 
followed by tlio AiniaMe iind Uelle. 
'I'lie St. Frnnrois jiut in at Port de 
Paix and was captured hy twe Span- 
ish periaguas while oil her way to 
.join the squadron. Se •, too, t'avelier 
(Uehuion du Voyage ; . (J, and ile- 
nioire an lioy, Ms.) 

•1 1 


■ , 

' 1 




Vosscl los* 

Mr. do 



Clicvalicv (Ic Saint liaurciit,' the liciitiMiant-.^'ciiLial, and 
Mr. Le^'oii, iiitciidaat of tla^ Fi't'uch "West Iiulies, who all, 
by virtuo of a spi'cial coipiaission from tlio \\'\n<^, had pro- 
cooded to Saint Doiuiii<^o to aid Mr. do (."ussi in vcj^'ulating 
the police, giving,' duo form to the adniinislration of justice, 
and remedying' sovcral disorders which wove ruining tho 
commerce of that rising col ly. 

Mr. de la Sale wrote, em i'ii' . lo Governor to como 
ami visit him, as lie had nia:^,- ;•>!'• . 'o communicate for 

the king's service, and he eoui 

ibly leave his ves- 

sels to wait u])ou the Cfovernor. Not • ■ Mr. de Cussi, 
but tho Chevalier de .Saint Laurent and Mr. Bi'gcm also, 
■were comi)laisant enough to proceed to Petit Goave, where 
they found Mr. de la Sale very sick. Disappointment 
contributed not a little to his illness, for he had some day.s 
before learned that his ketch had been captured oil' tho 
shores of St. Domingo by two Spanish periaguas, an acci- 
dent that might have been avoided had they put in at 
Port de Paix, and which tended to widen tho breach be- 
tween him and de Beaujeu." 

It was not indet^d easy to see what induced that com- 
mander to persist, as he did, in a matter that should aj)- 
parently have lieen indifVerent to him ; but these gentle- 
men appeared bent on nothing scarcely but thwarting each 
other. A royal oiUcer always finds it galling to be oliliged 
to receive orders, on his own deck, from a private indi- 
vidual, without rank ; but if de ]5eanjeii was not disposed 
to do what was expected of him in the matter, why did ho 
accept the command ou that condition?' Ou his side, de 

' .Maii|uis. .louti'l, i).2l. )-lii|i, tin.' .loly, on «hicli you will 

' Joult'l, Joui'iiiil lli>t()rii|iii',i). 27; oiiibiirU, I order liim to coiiirnund in 

Lc Clcrcc], Ktiiblihsi'iiieiit du hi Foi, all tlmt i-cfriirds tlic working of tho 

ii., p. 2^0; Cuvi'licr, Journal ilu slii|) iliiriiii;' tin' voya,i,'0, and to exe- 

Vovagi'.p. fl. Mi'moirt', lTlT-20, Ms, ciitu what yon shall direct as to the 

Hennepin, Voyau'L'. ]). 2IIII. to lie pursued, and moreover 

•"•Tile Lettre de Cachet m Mr. do to give you, when you have landed, 

h:\ Salle, Versailles, April 12, Uisl, every service you <leiiiand of him 

wa.s as fi. Hows :'' llavinj,- chosen the except what may he aguiust thi^ 

Sieur do Beaujeu to command my enfoty of the said Rhip." 





la Siilo (lid not sniliciciitly upprcoialr wliat tliis ooiulilion i(>^4: 

iimst liavo cost a coniiiiaiKlant, and I'ailcd to modify it li_y '"'''■"' "^ 

his iiiaiincr; he sliowcd no contidonco in dc IJcanjcn, and 

met all the i>ro|iosals of that olliecr bv saying: " It is not 

tho kinj,''H intention." This was not tin^ m(>ans to interest 

in his entevpriso a man whoso oo-oi)eration was essential 

to its success ; ncconlinj,dy, when ^Iv. Cavelicr, seein^j; his 

brotlier dangerously ill, retiuested do Ui auj( u (o havo tho 

kindness to take care of his allairs, lu; jcceivrd no reply 

but tliat ho knew nothing about ilu)ii, and that they 

seemed to him in so wretched a state that it would do him 

no honor to intei fere.' 

De la Sale recovered at last, and as, after some conver- Tinyiiniv.' 

ill >i^'iii (ii 
sations with the Governor of St. Domingo and tho two i'i"n<iii. 

commissaries, who cordially agreed to all that was re()uired 
of them,' nothing detained him at I'etit Cio.ave, he left it 
on the 2i")th of Xovenilscr,' more at variance than ever with 
Mr. de ]5canj(!U. On the I'Jth of December the s(|uadfon 
doublctl Cape San Antonio, the western point of the island 
of Cuba, and entered Hk; Clulf of ^Mexico ; but, on the 11th, 
a violent head-wind forced them to ]iut back to that cajie, 
where they anchored till the IStli.' On the tiStli they dis- 
covered the Floiida shore, and, fioni what had been pos- 
itively stated to de la Sale, namely, that the currents in 
the flulf of Mexico set eastward, he had no doulit that tho 
mouth of th(! Micissipi was still far to the W( stward, an 
error which h'd to all his misfortunes.'' 

He accordingly turned westward, but advanced slowly, 
as from time to time he a])proached the shore, and coasted 

' Tlioro wasniurli sickncsi-'. Tliroo 
or Ibiii' ilieil on the Joly, (uio <m tliL^ 
Belle ; there were sixty t-iok, of 
whom seven or eight died at St. 

p. 7; I[( luii'iiin, A'oyai;e, p. JOT- 
^ .luiittl, Jdunial instiiii(|ue, jip. 
:')-7 ; Le Clerc(|, ii., p. JS'J,, .lourniil Ilistoriijue, jip. 

Domin-o. Five or sis deserted :!ll--|(l. C.Mii.aiv I... Clrre.!, Ktablisse- 
*'"''■''• iiK'Ht, ii., p. 'JS;), wlio says tliey en- 

tered the jrull' January Isf, and >aw 

• Joiitel, .lotirnal Ili.storiipie, ]>, 

28; Le Clereci, Etaldissenieiit de la land in fll'teen days, and Cuvelier, 
Foi, 1). 281. Voyau'-e, ]>. 8, whosays they saw land 

• C'avolipr, lUdation du Voyage, .lanuaiy 0, ITiB") 



uisTouv OK m:\v fuanck. 

'■■ V'i 

t ; 

\' 'i 

1685. iiloiiL;- in sight of liuul, to oxamino whctlior \w could not 

^■^r-~^ discover wliat he was scckin''. On tlio lOlli of .Tanuarv, 
Ml-, ill' la "^ . , 

Sale i''*"^'"* llJS.}, tlio H([iiadron was, ai-cordin*,' to snosccincnt ro'ijcc- 

tllc lUOlltll ' -mr- • • • 1 , 1 1 

III till' turos, (jiiito nonr tlio mouth of tho Mioissipi ; Init do lu 
wi'iiwiiii Sale, couvinc'cd that he was off tho Apalachos, passod on 
'""'it '" without sending a boat ashoro.' A fow days after, from 
souio idea that tho Indians gave him, ho wished to sail 
baek to that place ; but do Beaujeu refused to show him 
this complaisance, although bound to do so by virtue of 
tho king's orders.' They became more embittered on both 
sides, and do la Sale, after unseasonable obstinacy on 
])Oints far less important than this, yielded more unseason- 
ably still, Avhou ho should havo exerted tho authority 
vested in liim. 

Xliey accordingly held on tho sanjo route to tho west, 

and the scpiadron in a few days reached St, Bernard's 

"stX-'r'^' Bay, but without knowing it.' This bay is a hundred 

ni\nrs Hay leun-aes west of the mouth of tho Micissii)i. Hero they 

kiinwiiiir cast anchor, and the boats were sent to explore. They 

wUcri; lie 13. , . ■ 1 i . ,1 

perceived a very fine river, with a bar at the cutranco, 
where there were not more than ten or twelve feet of 
water,* After considerable coming and going, to endeavor 
to make out where they Avero, and several councils, in 

' La Salle's Ix-tter, yUmh, 1085 
(Thunmssy, (li'olnLcU" l'rati(iuc do 
la l.miisiiine. p. '~Mt), Bays thai tlio 
ontnuico st'on January (itli, was tho 
iiiiiiii clmnnol, and ln' supposed wlu'U 
writing that lumthiT branch enter- 
ed the Iwy vlieiv lie was. lie was 
afraidof the winds If he attempted 
to sail back to that channel, and ask- 
ed Beaujeu to cxiunine it on his way 
baok. Joutel thinks that they wero 
off tho Mississippi on the (ith (Jour- 
nal Hist., p. -14); and Cavelier, 
in his Memoire, says January 5-(i, 
" We found a jrroat openinsj which 
Beemjd to be 4 or r> leagues between 
two points. It was the same latitude 
ns l.a Snlle found descending the 

river Colbert. A stron;; current and 
muddy water like that of the Col- 
bert. Mi. dc La Salle always 
thought that it was the Colbert. lie 
did not enter for fear of missing 
Ueanjeu. Do 1' Isle (Voy. au Nord, 
iv., p. .'ill.')) thinks La Sallo passed it 

' Joutel, p. Gl, Lettre do Cachet. 

' Joutel, .lournal Ilistorique, p. 
03 ; Le Clercq, ii., p. 28.") ; Cavelier, 
Relation, pp. 8, !), says February 4th. 
The bay is called by them St. Louis • 
it was the Espiritu Santo of the 
Spaniards. La Salle's fort was on 
Matagorda bay. 

■• Joutel, p. 70 ; Lo Clercq, ii., p. 





which uothiii;^' Wiis iif^'i'ccil to, it hciiif,' ciion^'Ii thiit oiio of 
tho two {('iiilui's g;iv(i iiri opinion I'ur the otiuT to oppose it, 
do la SaU), who liioiip,'lit hiiiisulf not far from tho Mit'[»i 
nntl to wlioni do Uoaujeii'H proseuco could only bo au 
impediment, resolved to laud nil his force at that spot. 

The resolution adopted, ho sent orders, on tho '20th of 
February, to tho commander of tho store-ship to luiload 
tho heaviest articles aud bring hor into tho rivor.' Ho nt 
tho samo tium ordore(l tho commander of tho Bello to 
embark on the storc-shij), as ho did not trust her com- 
mander, either bi'causo ho had his suspicions of tho man 
or deemed him incapable of executing tho required ma- 
ua'uvre ; but that commander refused to receive tho captain 
of tho Bolle.' On thl.-i refusal, de la Sale wished to super- 
intend it ill person ; but La Sabloniere, a lieutenant of 
infantry, and rivi! or six other I'renchmeu, having been 
carried ofl'by tho Indians while walking in tho woods, lo 
niado all hasto to deliver them.' 

Ho was not yet far from tho beach, when, on casting his 
eyes in that direction, he perceived his store-ship manieu- 
vring so as to dash on tho shoals, and his evil star, says 
Joutol, in his Relation, prevented his retracing his steps 
to prevent this misfortune. He kept on toward tho village 
to which his men had been taken, aud on reaching it ho 
heard a cannon tired. This he had no dmibt was to an- 
nounce that his store-ship had struck, aud his conjcctuvo 
proved only too true. It was regarded as certain among 
all who witnessed tho accident, that it was tho result of 
premeditated design on tho part of Sieur Aigron, who 
commanded the vessel,' 



Ill' lose* 
Ills storc- 

' Joutol, Journal Ilistorique, p. 
73 ; Lo Clercq, Etiiblisseinont do la 
Foi, p. 280 ; and Cavoliur, Relation 
du Voyape, p. 9, eay tho order was 
to wait for a iiilot. 

' Joutel (Journal Ilistorique, p. 
72) says the Pilot of La Belle. 

' Tho party were cuttinfj down a 
tree to make a canoe. Joutel, pp. 

* There can ho little doubt of 
Aigron's guilt, the channel having 
been staked out (Joutel, i)p. 71-9), 
and tho rcfut^al to take a pilot show- 
ing his intent. F. Anastiif-ius says 
that in spite of tho call of the mail 
in the top to keeji the lufT, ho ran 
her ashore. Lo ("lercci, ii., p. 280 ; 
Joutel, p. 79 ; Hennepin, p, 209. 




1685. This loss, profit fts it wns in itself, Imd Htill more iIIm- 

''^' "" trcssili;^' results. Tin' iiliiiiiiiiii!''iii, ilii|ilriiicIitH, t<n)ls, hikI, 

(niiiniiini- in KfiuMal, all iiccilcil for ii lunv Ht'tlli'MiL'ut, wuro iu tlio 

"""M'wii. ' storc-sliip. Do ill Sale, wIkjso anxiety to rcsciK! Iiin men 

hail exceeih'il his rare to prevent ti ih'eaih'il misfortune, 

on oll'ectinj^ his first (h'sif,'n, liastencd to tiui spot uliero 

tlie slii|) liail ^.iine asluiie, iitnl found all inaetivd. Jfo 

lie^^'ed ?rrr. lie I'lanjeii to lend him his lon^'-hoat ami 

yawl, and olttainin^' them without dillimilty, iu'^^'au to save 

the erew ; he then turned his attention to tho Miwder and 

Hour; then to tlie wine and hi'audy ; and about thirty 

barrels were taken ashori'.' 

Tfad the store-ship's boat been able to assist tho .Toll's, 
almost all mi^^ht havo been discharf^cd ; but it was inten- 
tionally lost," and ni,L,'ht eominj,' on, they Inid to defer eom- 
pletin;,' thi^ uidadin;^' till daylight; some hours after, tho 
wind from seaward .sprin,L;in^' up, and the Avaves rising', tho 
stori'-shi[) was ilriven on the roeks, whieh laid her open ; 
(pnuitities of goods were swept thronf,'h tho breaeh, 
and tossed lo and fi'o by the waves. This was not seen 
till daybreak ; then thirty nimr barrels of wino and brandy, 
with some barrels of flour, salt meat, and vej,'e tallies, wero 
saved ; all tho r(>st Avas lost. ' 

To erown their, misfortunes, they bejj;au to find them- 
selves surrounded by Indians,' who, in spite of all jirecau- 
tions to ])i('vent their talin,L; advanta;^'o of the ondjarrass- 
iiif,' ]H)sitiuu of the Freneh, carried otl' several articles 
saved from tho wreck. This was not even perceived till 
these sava,!,'(>s had retired with their booty. Th(>v had 

' Joiurl, .IiMiniiil lli>iniii|iii', i'. Cidiioliijrico, p. 294) snys that tlji' 

80. loll WHS on till! triTitory of tliu 
'It wii-i rut liiiisc (II- (Icstroyi'il the (iui'lmilnilicflifs iiiul UaliaiiioH. I'n- 

first iiiulit. Jouti'l, .loun.iil, ]). SI. tlur Amistiiniiis Doimy (Lo C'lerci], 

^Joiitcl, ■Idiiiiiul IlistDiiiiiir, ]!. ii.. p. oiin iiii'iitioiis till' Unliiiniim 

81. Willi till' yiiimna ns lioslil.!. Mi.rli 
* Tlicsr Iiidiiui!-' wiTc npiiiirciitly doc'.s not f;ive tlirni in his list of 

the Hriii'iiiiios iCiivi'IiiM', Kclntioii, Texas trihcs, but nppni' ii(!v in- 
p. I'Ji, iii-i-li:iiis lh<- s-anic lis ihi' He- clud.-s ihi-iii anioiii: the faranca- 
biihiimo.'jol' Joutcl. Bairia (^Knsayo guuccf. 





loft scvi'iiil ciUiorH oil till' .slidrc, iiikI tlicso wci'c hci/cd : ii, j^^,, . 
pitty riprisiil, soon to cost fur iii(,ii' tli.iu tlicy wci'i' woitl', ^..--^-^^ 
'I'lir lihli.iiis vctiiriiiii^' to icc'oviT till ic caiKK's, ciinc liy 
lii;^'!il on lliDsii wlio li;ul .scizoil tln'in, iiiul I'lihlin;^' tlicui 
aslct'|), killed two voliiiitcci's, imini'd Orry iind DisIo^ts, 
wlioin Mr. do In Sale; f^'icittly iv^^'ivttL'd, wounded ^loniu- 
get and oil" other, but failed to recover tlio ciuioos.' 

So many niisliaps coniin;,' in elose sucueHsioii disln ait- 
cned most of tlumn who had joined the expedition, and 
anion;.; others ]Mr. di; Daiinnavilh^ and the eii;,'ineor Sieiir 
Minct, who resolved to return to l-'ranee, iiid. 'd in no 
small de^'re(> I'y the lan^' of l,a Sali^'s enemies, who 
were eonstantly (h'cryin;^' his eonduet, and Irealin^' his 
pnijeet as a rash and foolhardy enterprise. ' 

Ah for La Sale he never dis[ilayed ^'renter resolution 
and lirmness : ho l)uilt a stoi'e-house, and throw a ^;()od 
inti'eiiehmeiit around il ; tin n, havin;.;' taken it into his 
head that the river which he had entered mij^ht bo ono 
of tin; branches of the Micissipi, he prepared to as- 
cend it. 

.Vt tli(^ same time learnin.n that IMr. de neaujen was ;Mr. ilc 
ready to sail back to France, de la Sale asked jiim to iiini> ii> 
deliver to him the* cannon and lialls, on board his \-essel, iii-iiii^cnu- 
which had Ikv'u shi|)]ied for his use. Jjeanjeii re|ilied that winl-i d ■ hi 
all this was in the bottom of jiis hold, and that he would 
havt' to change all the stowa^'e of his ship to ;j,ct them 
out ; that this operation would consume more time Ihau 
was left him to avoid the usual l)ad weather of the season 
on which they woro entering', and that ho believed do 
la Sale too reasonable a man to expose him to perish. 
Yet he will know that de la Sale had on shore only I'l^ht 

I 'I'lir party led l)y (hi ItmucI, .". Oiis ami IJcslogPs wiTi' killed, 

Bi'uiijfii's liiiitrimut, went to ■' • (iiiycn and MoraMfjii't womuli'd. 

Indian hut and carried oil' sonic lii .loiitcl, .Iiuirii. Ilistoriijnr, |>p. s-J-uii ; 

&c'., and tlu'ii took the canoes, wliic:. l.e ('|crci|, lOtalilisseineiit ilc la l\), 

tlii'v could not iiiana^'c lor want of ii., j). 'Jss. 

]iaddles. Tired ont, they landeii lor ■' l>'aiiianville wrote- n joiirna'. 

the nijiht and tlieir Kcnlinel lalliiiji I'eLislea Cassinl, Voyaj^vs ailNord., 

nsleej) they v.-ere surprised, March iv., [i, ;i(m. 



)« :^; 



I,!l Sale 

builds two 



lilS'lOllY OF NEW KliAXCK. 

small fiokl-piocos, and not a single cannon-ball, and more- 
over men could not sec liow lie had so iiiconveiiiontly 
stowed away articles intended for de la Sale's settlement.' 

He gave a still more marked proof of his ill-will. The 
treachery of the captain of the store-ship was established ; 
de Beaujeu to shield him from any proseciitiou by do la 
^ale, received him on his ship Avith all the crew of that 
craft, and this against his ex2)ress pledge to de la Sale to 
embark no one without his consent. La Sale's only 
resource was to write to the Minister to lay his complaints 
before him, a step which alleviated in no respect the sad 
position in which ho was placed.^ 

The Joli having set sail about the middle of March,' the 
colonists at once went to work on a fort. As soon as some 
progress was made, la Sale appointed Joutcl to complete 
it, conferred the command on him, and left him about 
one huudicd and twenty persons. He himself with the 
rest amounting at most to fifty men, among whom were 
Mr. CaveHer, his brother, Mr. Chefileviile, two llecollect 
Fathers, and several volunteers, embarked on the river, 
determined to ascend it as far as possible, j-et he soon 
changed his mind.* 

As the Indians came prowling every night around the 
new fort, Joutel, whom he had cautioned against allow- 
ing them to approach too near, tired several guns to drive 




' Jouti'l, .Tiiiiniiil Ilistoriiiue, p. (i:!. 
Tli( 111 assy ((.iriilogii^ I'l'iitiiiiio lie la 
Louisiiiui!), p. 'M, cif's part ot the 
letter sent back hy de la Salle to 
Seii^nelay. It is dated '' March -1, 
l(ib5, at till' v.-csteni UKiuth of the 
river Colhert." It describes the bay 
nt Ieiii,^th. 

-Joutel, Journal Ilistorique, p. i)4. 

^ Joiitol, who had lost his luemo- 
randa, does not profess to be certain, 
but thinks lienujeu sailed March 
4, KiSo. C'avi'lier ,L;ives the same 
date (HehUioa du Voyajre, p. !)), Init 

Father Anastasius Douay (Le {.'lerc<i, 
ii., p. :,'!J)I; Ileimepin, ^11), says, 12th, 
as does the i'rocus Verbal. 

^ In five canoes. Joutel, p. !)5. On 
March i^. i'rocr 8 Verbal. C'avelier 
describes the fort as havinj,' 14 
cannon, with cpiite convenient little 
houses and store-houses, delation, 
p. 11. lie calls it Fort do Ht. 
Louis, i>. VI. Cavelier says nothin;,' 
of tills excursion of la Salle, in his 
lielallonilu Voyage. Father Anag- 
tusius (he C'lerci, ii., p. •,>!iO ; HiMine- 
pin, p. lill) makes Momuget com- 

iii?<T()UV or M'y.v I'Ua.ncio. 


t!n 111 oil'. l)f Li Silk', mIk) Avas not vit vciy I'ar, not kimw- 
iiigwliat il was, rcstnriu'd vithsix orsuwu incu, luit I'oiiiul 
tivory tliiii;; in a satisfactory state.' 

Ho told Joutid that ho hail ah'cady diseoverod a clianii- 
iii;;' fouuti'y, t'lat ho iiitoiidoil to throw up a second fort 
at the place Avherc he had left liis nun, and ( lie liad 
oven ordered them, when lie left, t(-) jirepare all necessary 
materials, lie then stavti'd back to his party, and the 
first tlani^ liiat he learnijd on ri aeliiiiL!,' his camp, was, 
that several of his workmen had sullered their t(jols to l)e 
carrietl oJf by the Indians." lie f^ave them others ; init 
tiiesL^ fellows lacked something else besides tools ; ihey ilid 
not know liow to handle them, and thi; work advanced 
very sit)wly.'' 

Early in Jane, the Sieur do Tilleperdry reached the lirst 
fort with an order adiiressed to Mcu'anget, itirecting him 


to join di,' la (Sale with 
tliii ty, w] 

all the rest of his men, excq^t 

io)n lie was to leave with Joutel and the S'eur le 
Gros, storekeeper, to .L;iiard it. This was at once carriinl 
out.'' FishiuL;- and huutiii;^- ke[)t this hrst fort in jiieiity," 
and the commandant maintained peace and onlw liy milvl 
means ; lint this did not prevent two scoundr.;is from coa- 
bpiring agaiuh. him and the siorekce[ier, a very woriiiy 

miiiiil (lie fort. The Pimc's VciIhiI, - .Jniii,.l,,)(jurii;il ilisldH^iur, p. 'JT. 
both .iDUtd uiul .Nioriingi't. Th<! Ih' nd'i!^, \t. !»S, that i^iii-lv in Ajiril, 
two Kc'colk-ct lathers wlio wi'iuwure 1*13'), -i, Spmiisii vessel was seen 

Zeii'ili'tus Meiubiv acid Maxiiiiiis 
Ije('lerei|. La Sal h' at I he same time 
eidered the frigate to enter thi' liay. 
I^ anohore.l at the iiidiitli of Hi- 
viri-d ties Vai.-lios, still calU'd I.avaca. 
J^e Clercq, p. ^1)1; Cavelier, p. 11. 
The point was called Point llurier, 
a small cnmp being formed heri^ un- 
der Sieur Hurler. Le (.'lereq, ii., p. 
2ill. llennei.iiii errs in making the 
frigate eater long before. Vovage, [1. 

' Joiitel, .Journal Histiu-icjue, p. !)0. 
Joutel had Vit) persons iu his fort. 
Vol.. IV, —10. 

a, piiii nlly looking lor them, tjoon 
aft r, A|iril-,'.:3d,ilirSieiirle(.iroMwas 
biiteii l>y a rattlesnake. 

■' Proc.''S Verbal. 

' .Joutel, Journal llistoriipie, p 

' 'I'liey laid in iisli and sail for 
iuture U:.(. .Joutel, Jip. Us, 101, lOo. 

'■ J'.ulel.p. 1(1.",. Father Aimslasiu.-! 
is less detaile.i. ib^ makes .Moran- 
get's eamp and liuriiw-'s lnvak-ui' 
iu Aijril imnudiateiy after Kaster. 
Le (."leu 

li h] 



i6H5. 'i'liciv (losien -was to stab liotli, tlicn take from tlicstorc- 

^""""^''"■"^ houso w]ia(i)\'('i' hiliiti'd tlieir faiifv, and desiTt. A diiy 

Ctinspirncy '^^''^^ tixed fov tlio accoin])lisliuuMit of this iiffarious dosif^u ; 

'.u'l'iuoi ^'^^^ '^^^^ "^' ^^^'^ couspiratoi's liavin;^' rovoalcd it to Davaiilt, 

a luiutev, tlio latt(>r at onco waiJied Joutel, who seized the 

iiintiucers aud imt them in irons.' 

On the llth of Jnly ho received a second order, dircct- 
in,H him to jo'iu de la Sale Avith all his force. He obeyed, 
and on rt acliin.u; that eonunander's camp, delivered up to 
liini his two prisoners, with ju'oofs of their plot. 
S'ui nn-i- 1'his information, clearly exposing tho injudicious char- 
tioM of iiic actor of las selection of settlers, greatly depressed la Sale. 
For his part, Joutel was greatly surprised to see so little 
done on the fort. Nothing was yet covered but a little, 
square, stone building, containing tho powder and some 
barrels of brandy. They had planted and sowed, Imt all 
had failed for want of rain, or had been rooted up l)y w ild 
beasts." Several good men, among them the Sieur de Yille- 
p(>rdty were dead ; the sick increased in number daily : in a 
wcu'd, nothing was more deplorable than do la Sale's posi- 
tion. He was worn down with disippointiuout ; but ho 
dissembled M-ell. "With that tirmness of mind which was 
his loading characteristic, but often degenerated into a 
stubborn harshness, lu; had in tho highest degree tho 
talent of resource, and his ingenuity made him find in 
himself what lacked iu otiiers. As soon as ho saw his 
whole forces assembled, he began in earnest to luiild and 
fortify, ilo became tho architect of his own fort," and as 
he was always tho first to put his hand to work, each one, 
iu emulation, did his best. 

' Jouti;!, Journal, I'li. lOt-5. 

"■' This was aliout the luuMU' i.i' 
July. Hi' put r.ll on board tliu Hi-'ilr, 
iinil trioil to iiiiike a raft of tlu' 

(^tori's and slept ; tlio next day he 

reached La Salli,' in eanoes. Joutel, 
Journal llistoriijue, |ip. lO.j-S. 

^ Proces Verbal, Ms. Iliii , nnip 

timber he had dresifed, but linally was a league from the wood, and 

buried it, and luarcdied aloui: the hi-i carpenter.-^ iuc cuupeteut. llav- 

Bea shore to an Indian villa;,'e, when' in-,' no Iiovsls. they to drag t'le 

they passed the ni>(lit, then to timber liy hand, .Icuild, p, lOll. 
llurier's (yimp, where h" put all hif 



It was only nopcssarv to oiicoura^f! 

LTOo-l-will ; lint if'f: 

la Sale could not control his temper. At the very tinio "— -i-^-^ 
wliou his men M-ere wpciit with toil, aiul he could scarcely i^hShIo'sca.-- 
givo theui the absolute necessaries of lif(>, he could not viHiy' ana 
command himselt' so far as in the least to relax his "^ '''""■"• 
severity, or an intlexiljlo mood, never seasonable, and 
least of all in a new settlement. The slightest fault ho 
punished with a kind of cruelty, and there seldo)n escaped 
from his lips any word of encouragement or consolation 
for those who sull'ercd most patiently, llv conse([uentIv 
had the nuirtiticatiou of seeing almost all his liien siiii; 
into a languor, caused rather by tlu'ir des])air than by 
overwork or lack of good food, and which carried oli' 

The most annoying thing was that through the impru- 
dence of some of the French, the natives of the country 
declared against them, and it was iin]iossible to regain 
their friendship. It seems, indeed, that no stejis were 
taken to do so. 

These Indians who were called Clamcoets,' arc cruel, Tiic Tiuli- 
treat-herons, of a perverse mind> mocking disposition, by ih'i! I'n'i'iH:. 
nature ralliors, mimicking for sport all they sec done, and "'or'ii,','"" 
so skillfully concealing all these defects under a gay and '-''■'""■"^■"' 
ojieu exterior, that they are never ijoro to be feared than 
when they display th(i greatest frieudshii). '^^^("J li'T^vo 
intoxicating hquors, and an; nuu'h addicted io drunken- 
ness. One of their strongest li(pu)rs is made from a kind 
of bean, ^^l!ich they chew, and then stec]) in water. They 

liy Aiifrust, thirty wiTr Spiini 



cluililli^ tilt' lll'illl llll'liClltrr. Till sr 

wnv I'lilliiwrcl liy Lr tint-. Car- 
MiHtiiT, and 'I'hiliault, i.f Kuiicu. 
.ioutrl.iip. ll--> :;. Tliil', 

Mfirli. Mriuiiiias [laia la lli>tiii-ia ilo 
la I'l'iivincia ilr Texas, l.ili. iv., ]i, 
51. In linnuil'ti T(>]>n!riaii:n(al 
L)c'.-;ci'i|itiiiu of Texas, .\iislin, l?-'(), 

(iatwl St. Louis, Ai«-ll, IS, lOSCi, siiys p. 1:;7, the Canuicalaias an- nicn- 

iiioiv than halt' (lli'd Ijci'on' the i nd lioued asstill on I-a llaca li»\ , l.iit 

ot' July.irjiecially th" t^ailors, Irmii reduced lo 100 ^old: . They dn n^it 

fating Iruit, iVe, api^ear in Stem's^ list, l!?.")l. Sc'ajoh 

■■' These Clanieeets are called in ciai'i. iii., p. 0:l'). 

I u 




( liiirac-lor 

.'f 111.' 

l)(>ii('vo tliiit it ii;;>l',('s tlicir liiiilis sn])i)i(', ami sv/iftor in 
I'unniiij','. Tlif'v drink it to siicli an ox('(>ss tliat tliov i ft'^u 
ouly swallow uiid vomit. Tlioy make aiiotlirv i'roiu tlio 
leaves of Koiiio uiiliiowii tree, whieli tlicy l)oil, then brew 
as we do ciiocoLitc, and whieh loams eoiisiilcvr.nly. They 
driidc it very linl, and use it especially to vel'ri';]i them- 
selves after a kmc; march. 

j'hi'ir eustoiiis hear very little resemblance to those of 
other Indians whom we know of in North America; but 
the. most s!n;.;nlar thin,!j,' is their way of expressin,L( ali'e.-tion ; 
sometimes they merely blow into the ear of those whom 
they wish to salute ; at other times they beo'iu by rubljin.i' 
the chest and arms with their hand, then do the same to tin; 
person whom they wish to honor or caress. The men 
^■o almost entirely naked, the wome'i are covered only 
from the v.aist to the knees. I5oth have a fearful expres- 
sion, betoke:iing a ferocity wliich their conduct does not 

These savages inhabit a very fiuo country, and adapted 
for almost all tlio most useful productions of nature. The 
climate is healtliy and , the air jiure, tiie sky 
serene. The catih^ mentioned elsewhere, and commonly 
caUed Illinois cattle, are very connnon there, as well as 
sta,u;s and deer. Lions and ti,^ers are seen there, but 
bears and wolves still more jilentifnlly. The Indian,; !. aie 
these last, by takiii,;;- them 4iiite small, and trainu).:; :;:-.'in ', > 
hunt like do,';s, unless indeed the auliua' of the liiehin!. 
M'hieh I follow, has not taken for w;)ivi;s, do,Li;>:, sucii as th' 
Canada tribes use, and which have, as I myself remarke 1, 
si : ni^ht cars and a lon^' muzzle, like wolves." 


1 As til tiu'.-c IiKlians, Hce .loutcl. (..iid ti;r.'iv«. La liiirpc (.Idunial His 

ji. ^4, -Mnrli (.Meniorias, .Ms.). !>! i- 
11 sn, I'.! I'cR'fxi'iiin Sciitintrioiiul A;- 
lanti'. unlbrtuimtc'ly c',,!! s not givi 
any dc-criptioii iit' tlii' In 'inns. 

'-' Joutcl, p. 1','S. and ra,iu;r Anas- 
tar ivi- (L''('li.'r('<j,ii.. ]<\i. oTl, &c.), arc 

t ;i'ii|iir. ■[). -M'l) s]ii ak» (if li'Uin, ai\il 
dcsi'i'ilji's tlit'iu a I'ciltlish iuiiinal ni' 
till' six. 1.1' a Korsi'. .As to tlic use 
i)f -wdlvcs in liuntin.i;', ("iiarlcvoix 
si'L'nis tn liavi' r.'ail hastily, J(mtfl,p. 
o"i4. Sei' '.'harlrvdix (Frcncii), vol. 

»< [o br irs ami wolves, lions iii.. (i, 110 

UlSmilV ()'>■ NKW vl'ANCi:. 


Small c,'nmo swavins in llio conntry, nml tlio river--; are iC- 
wi-U stocked with lisli. They would apiiari'iitly lie still ^-^•' 
luoro so, -were tlioy not lull of alli.^ators. The prairies are 
alive with rattlesnakes.' Oii all :-iili s you can pei'eeivo 
only quit(! level ])lahis extending- out of si^lil, imt aeree- 
alily intersected l>y rivers, lakes, and small woods, wliicli 
form a charuiiiii;; landsca'^e. Tho lields produce a number 
of herbs, to wliicli p;reat virtues are ascribed ; it is oerlaiji, 
at least, that tlie Indians use, tlanu freely, witlumt bein.i;' 
subject to any important malady. 

'.rho most commoji trees in tho woods arc chestnut;;, 
walnuts, n'ulberri( s, palm-trees of many kinds, and several 
others unknown in Europe. They all grow exceedingly 
tall. There are several trees which bear excellent fruit. 
Tlie vines with vdiich all tlu- woods are studded bear white 
and red grapes. ISesides the ordinary walnuts, there arc 
others larger and very good.' Tilbcrts, mulberries, 
and banana tigs, iiro found everywhere. Among th(> fruit.; 
peculiar to the country, there is au egg-shaped mw. that 
ovows on a thorny hush, and is very refreshing. The 
Spaniards call it Tsounos, and arc very fond of it.' 

I'llention is also made wi a root, very common in tins 
district of llorida, and which some have supjiosed to bo 
(■iiiger. The Indians pretend that it makes the hair 
grow, and, under this conviction, rub the head with it 
after chewing' it.' It seldom rains in that country, yet the 
soil is verv fe:tile. Xor is salt wanting, the sun forming 
it on the sea-shore and the banks of sonii! lakes, so that 
it can bo had with little trouble; beyond that of gather- 
ing it.' 

' •T<nitol lioro mentions tlio ITnrni'cl fruit of tlio oinintia vuliraris, oi- 

Fnw, 111). l'.3S_l:iO. pvickly-pcnv. 

- .jouti'l mentions ncithev cln-t- ' .imiii'l nn-l F. AniUitn-iiir arc si- 
nut nor nmliierry u.M'- i:!---'i ; lent u< to this plant, 
tliouirh r. Aniis!a-ius mentions t)ie ■' .loiitrl, p, 100; Cavetier, lii'Ia- 
liitter. The largi' nut is the peean. tion. p. 15. 'I'hc most rcniaiUahir 

3 .Icmteh p. Kt,'. Perhaps tlic Salt lalu> i-; in Hi(la!'_'o couti'y. 

^ t' 



1^ '^; 

'"^5' A litllc i'uillicr iiilaiid tlicic ;!'•(> sovcral otlicv trilM'S 

who livt' aliiiost iu llio Hamo inaniiL')' as tlio Clainooct^ : 
that is to say, who liavo no fixed abodes, and do iiotli- 
iiit;' scai'ccly but Iniut and Jlsli, cncanniin^' wlicrcvcr ni,L,dit 
ovevtakes tlimi ; but tbc l''rcnfli liad no intc'vcoiirso 
■\\"itli tluMu, and Joutcl nn'ivly f^'hvs us tlio nanios, witli 
wbicli I dei'ni it useless to (Micunibcr tliis liistory.' 

About a ]:un(bvd Ica.L^ucs t'artlici' nortl!, you eomo to 
the Ceiiis or Assenis, wlio seem inucdi iiioro huinano ; 
they avo more sedentary, cultivate the ^'round, plant In- 
dian c'(U'n, beans, squashes, water-melons, and other sim- 
ilar ve^^'etables. They also ])lant tobacco, and raise 
liorses in great numbers, generally using tlunn to bring 
homo the fruits of their hunts."' 

These Indians make war quite dillerently from all tlio 
other FloricL'i- triljes. They are all mounted, equij-ped 
with bufValo-sLiu (lui'crs, full of arrows, slung across 
the ba>-'k. They carry a bow, and a small pad of Imll'alo 
iiido on the left arm, to ward otf arrows. They have 
no bit to their horses' bridles, except a hair cord. Their 
stirrups, whieh are sustained by a cord in the amo 
wav, a.i'e attaclied to i doeskin folded over twice, and 

• Ho names, p. ISO. npimri'iitly bc- 
frinniii},' ut Fort St. Limit:, ih,. Spi- 
clH't'ts, Kiilayi's, Tln'uiiiu'iiis, 'I'lu- 
aui'i'iiu-ts. Kiiilioliii, Cliaiinii'iirs, 
K()Uiiii>, Arlinu, iMiciiiului'. Alion- 
crlMii'ilu iiii, Koii!iilui!n'. Koiiko- 
lu', OiiK'aossi', Kcrciiu'ii, Alu'lujcn, 
Mivliny, 'I'cfaiin'ncz, UU'iiinarhi'iii, 
Kuiiayau, ilcracimman, on iIk^ 
voiilc to thi.i {.'cnis, and to tlir •vest 
anil noftliwcsit ol' the Malifrne riv- 


KnnneliDUan, Tolialic, l'( 

liir, ('(lyalii'^'iix, Onnpien, Picliar, 
'I'lilian. Ivia^.si's, Clianens, 'JVcra, 
Uiicretti's, T.-epi'linen, Feirontilm, 
I'lmcjco. I'etao, Petal',. I'et/ai'is, I'ei- 
.■<; rill), I'eihoum. ami Orcainpiim, ai'- 
(iiiilinj,^ to till' orthi'LTiapliy of Jon- 
tel's nuum^i-iipt. .Imiirl wrote 

tliiri aiuoiij; the Teao, where ho 
heai'il nf till! Ayano and Canoliatin- 
110 wlio 1 U'luleredtlieSpanianls. It 
i.s iinpo^siMi now to iiulenlity them 
trilies. Anions enumerated 
by Father Morti. lew 1)ear any re- 
t<eniblance. 'J'lie Konkone may bo 
the Coco;; who weie near lirazoH. 
The Thecamons and 'J'eeameiie/, 
may be thi> Tacames amoiiu- whom 
the .Mi.-:sioii of I'lirissinia Conceii- 
cioii of Aeuna wa.-; t'ounui'd in 1 ; Hi. 
La Harpe's of tribes nrar the 
Ceni.<, Journal Historiipie, p. .'us, 
only increases the confusion. 

■-' loutel. Journal llii^loriiju.', jip. 
2M-5, ^'V'tl. *'T : fonipnre La llarpe, 
Jonrnal, p. '.^13 ; and i'enieaut. cli. 
xiv., Ms. 

<i 'U\ 

lllSTOliV Ol' NK\N I'lt.vNCi':. 


serving as a siiddlo ; tlicso stirrnpM avo siiinll strips of "^^j. 
Mood tlireo iuflies wide, and livo 1()1i,l;. Thi'y uro lino "^-"^ 

It' their prisoucrs can escii[)o, and eiitor ouo of tliuir 
c'a!)ius, thoy cannot 1)0 put to deatli, uud ovcu beuouio 
free, and nicni!)(a's of tlio nation. wlio arc not 
fortunate enough to osc'ai)o aro put to d^'ath in tlio 
following manner : They raise a IVauie siniilar to that 
used by the Illinois and other Louisiana tribes described 
elsewhere, with this dilVurcnce, that it is about nine 
feet liigh, and the prisoner is fastened to tho u[>per 
cross-piece by the wrists, and to the lower one l)y the 
ankles, with well-tightened eords, which thus sujiport liini 
in (he air. The}' remain in this posture half an hour in 
th(! morning, turned towards the rising sun, and as long 
in tlie evening, turned towards it setting. 

The first day they are not subjected to any other 
torture ; but they receive nothing to eat : ami all the 
time that they aro uidjonnd, they are forced to dance. 
The second day tlioy aro tied up before sunrise, and im- 
mediately the whole village assembles around tho frame, 
men and women. Each family lights its lire, and heats 
a dish of water. As soon as the sun rises, four old 
men M-ith knives cut gashes in the arms, legs, and 
thighs of the suil'erer, and catch in dishes the blood that 
Hows from his v>(niuds. They tiien carry this blood 
to other (jld men, who boil it in kettles juid give it to 
the women and children to drink. Tho author of the 
manuscript, from whici' I draw these details, does not 
say Avhether these poor creatures are bi;rnt, or allowed 
to expin^ in the frame ; but ho adds that when they are 
dead, they are stretched on a table, cut in pieces, and 
these pieces distributed to tho whole assembly ; that every 
family cooks its share ; that till it is cooked, all danct', 
after which thev eat it.' 

' I't'iiicaut, Ht'latiou ou Aiiualo uicaut/liulrttionoii AiiiiiileVrntulilo. 

Veritable, cli., xiv. ^ 5. cli. xiv, ;; .T, wlioiv ho duijcriljHti liis 

■' This iiu\ttor is tukoii from Pr- own vi.iit to thi.' CViiiH. It in no' in 

4 ^^ 


lllSTUUi V[!' M;\\ I'li.ANi 1;. 

Tlic! CV'iiis liiivo US iiL'i,L,'lib()r.s tlio Ayt'iniis,' witli wlioiu 
llicy live ill hiiriiiouy, iuul who arc iVwcr in miinln'i', 
all!i(ii!';li tilt' Ci'iiis tliciiiselvos, iicconliii;,' to Joutul, Imvo 
not over ii tliniisaiul iiicu ulilu to licai" ui'iiis. Tlio L.vo 
iiiilioiiH ni>i)aiviitly at lirsl constituted but oiu', tlicir 
laiii,'uaj.';t', tlu'ir customs, and tlicir toms of mind In.'ini,' al- 
most identical. Tlu'ii" cabins aro <jiiitc i'ar apart, each 
family liavin-- ils iidd aioiuid its own. Tlicsc cabins 
aro round, and Joulil comp.ii'cs tliciii to b.i;-liivcs or 
coclr 1 luiy. There iiro lar^e cabins, not used as hal)- 
itations, but only for assemblies of Ihe iu!0|i|i', either for 
amusement or tlie Iransactiou of puhlic all'airs. 

Those used as re lidences are also Ljeiieially very lar.L; '. 
Some aro wixty fi'el in diameter, and contain fifteen or 
twenty households, havin;^ nothing in common but the iire, 
Avhieli is in tlu? middle of the e ibin, and is never aUowed 
to J4-0 out. To iuiiid one of th(!se, cabins, they plant in a 
circle trees as tiiick as a man's thij^h, in such a manner 
that they touch on top ; they are then connected by 
crosy-jneces to hold ihe grass ■with Avhicli the cabin is 
thatched. Th.' furnituvo of theso Indians consists of a 
few very well-dressed bulValo or deer sldiis and somo 
liuely-worked iaats, and well-made eardienwaro. Thcso 
they use to cook their moat, sagamity, and vogetables. 

.Iciitfl, pp. 212-337, Futlicf Alias- 
tiiniiis, liO CliTCq. ii., p., IWll, II ir in 
CtVcIicr, lichition du Vnvnuc, pp. 
;!J, iMc. Kiiilicr Morli iuclii.l.'s un- 
der the 11:, uu' of Tt'xns (wlilch lie 
I'XpUiins iis 'I'cxiii, " t'riunils") the 
'I'l XiUs AKiimis, Niivoilaehiis, Kult- 
codiiche.a, Niiroirdo •hes. Niidi)COi;B, 
Ahijites, ('()diif,'diicli. .;, and Nas- 
soniti. These Texui', in 1T(!1, were 
governed by Snunte Adivia ((ireat 
I-iidy), a chiel'tainess with tour luis- 
hniidr. Penieaii* [itati's (juitu dear- 
ly tliat tile ] risoner was Med to 
deaih (ill tlh' iinme, 

' lilviih'iitly a nii.-ipriut for As- 
Sony, mentioned liy Jouti^l, .lour- 
nal lIi.;tori(|Ue, p. 213. Tliey met 
n man oi' this trilio who showed 
them a printed Spanisli dociimunt 
(.loutel, p.212; l.e (Mercq, ii.,p. ;!.>1) j 
but thip, ])rol)alily I'rom State mo- 
tives, is not hen- mentioned by 
Charlevoix. Cavelier aNo men- 
tions, p. 1:J, fitidiiiir nmonL,' a tribe 
next to the Bruoaiuos a column 
with the Spanish arms. The Asso- 
nis are evidently the tri'ii- else- 
wiierc called Nrssonis. Le Clerc(], 
ii,, p. 'i'''>. 


mSTORY Ol" NF.W Fi!AN(T., 81 

The}- have also biiskets iiiadi! nl" ('iiiie.-i, in wliii'ii lliov '^^S' 
keel, their Iruilrf and other provLsioiis. Tlieir beds, raised ""■ ' 
three feet I'roin tlio j;r(muil, are made of a iVauie-worlc 
of canuiS, neatly arranged with mats and skins dressed 
with the hair on. Both tlieso serve as mattresses and 
OTVerlcts. The beds are also separateil by mats huii^' 
as curtains.' 

When the season is come for tilling the i^'round, 
scnuetimcs a hundred persons assemble, men and wouicn 
apiirt. Thus they laliur till they have cultivated a eer- 
/ain portion of f,'round, the owner of which then re.^ales 
the laborers, and the rest of tho day is spent in dances 
.and diversions. The next day they bej,'iu again, and 
this lasts till all the lieUls are tUled. Tho labor is not, 
liowever, toilsome : they content themselves Mith turning 
over tho surface of the ground with a large stick, split' 
at the end, inserted in another stick that serves as 
,a handle: for tlieso tril)(>s have no iron implements. When 
all tiie lields are tiuis i)n'[>ared, the nuju withdraw: sow- 
ing the seed, as wi'U as all the indoor-work, beiug left 
solely to the women. 

These Indians, both men and women, are well-formed, 
and their features arc not miturally disagreealjle ; Imt 
they prick and [)aint themselves like the Canada tribes. 
This they fondly regard as a beauty, although it disilg- 
ures them greatly in tho eyes of Europeans. They are 
not l.etter dressed than the Clamcoets, except when the 
north wind blows : for then they cover themselves with 
bultalo-rob«;s or well-dressed deer-skins ; but they never 
ha^e any thing on their heads. Their manners are 
not very ilill'erent from those of the Louisi.uia tribi;s. 
The womea are not very ditlieult to S(;duc(j ; bat if sur- 


' .Tuutol, Jcjuiniil Ilist()ri(iue, pp. madu cloth nf Jkiiv and uf fcatli- 

C1T-','11) ; FiuIkt Aaasta.siu.-i, in Ll^ m's, 

Clorcii, Elabli>3ciiu'iit do la V»i, ii., ■ 'I'lii^^ sli.iuld Imj " iidiimMJ." .Tou- 

p. tl20. Cavoliur, F.clatiiin du VdV- U-\. Jonrnul llisturbiiio, [ip. ^I'J- 

aj-u, pp. o'.i-U, luiuii'iuti that iliuy i'M. 
Vol.. IV. --11. 


iiisToia (M' m:w riLwrr: 




' f 

jiiisud liy their Imsbamls in iuliiltrrv, they I'.'iro bri l(y. 
Tlio I(.'ii-l tliiit tan hul'iiU tlicni is i. piiili.ition. 

Tlu'V liavi) no d n;[)lij or imy lliiii;r Ji n()lii>,L;' tui or- 



Avursliip Yet tin v do not .'-acih devoid of ndi- 

or v/iHi 

1 tl 

■rain is v'un\ tlp'V "•ivthor a cfrt 


quantity, uliirli they ]>nt into ;i liaskot, end tlicso liaskol^ 

arc placed < i) n kind of podc-tal, .si't ai'art c-jH'i'ialiy 

for tliis puqio.ic. Tlun an old in;;n, i.vtcndiiiL^' his liandu 

over them, roeites (iuilu n, loir^- foi'nmla, beloro lio dis- 

Iribulcs the c-nrn among tho v.. »nion. [t is not lawl'id to 

eat tlio Jicw corn till a v/cek afti.T tliis cc remony. Thi- 

same ceu niony is ol)si'rvcd in some ropasts which arc 

inado in common. Tho sa'^'uniity is not handed ai'ovnid 

to tlii> gnosis till it is |int in a. ^■ess('l, set also on a stool, 

and an old man has recited . ■ nirmuLi ovi-r the viands, 

wilh outspread hands. So, too, when ii yi ang man is armed 

for the iii'st tinu', and is on tho point of sowing lii^s 

ground, his arms and .seed-corn aro similarly coiisecrutedj 

as it were.' 

Air. flola ■^re.anwliile do l;i Kale .".t last completed his fort, to 

i(( scfk till) V, inch lie gav<3 tlio name ol bt. Louis. Ihen, uiialue to 

by .sea.' abandon the idea that the Mieissipi enjptied into the liay 

where he l;ind<;d, and which he called also St. Louis bay, 

lie resolved ti; sail aroniid it iu his frigate, jb^ ( nibarked 

in the m.iiith of Octolior lea\ing in his fort thirty-four 

' ,Ji)Ut(.'l, i.ji. 'M'l-"JV!"i. li'Miy n lii s. Mddi, .MriMnrius ii:irn 

' .Iii\i1il, ;■, I2'!. clooi'ilii'.s this l;i histori'i do In |iMviii('iu ui' '^l■Xil^. 

I'cirt as nboii' '.^7 N., two Icr.jrui.a iu- It wcmlil, tlu-n'tViri\ nvm tliiu tln' 

laiiil Inim tin; buy, .iml near Uk; 1"1 t «iis uii tlic Sun AiUonio, wliicli 

rivrr, (Ml a liiU in lliu inurir.-i, iiiii)tic.s into ^i^•l'i!•itl.I Sieito buy, niul 

with tliii l..ay S. uiul W., uml \\i:: not (in the I^nviira, w'.iich (.■inpiiu.s 

liver !•". (() N. A lilufV run ulmi!; into .M;.ia>;iir(lu l)uy, n" us-.nnu(ll)y 

<lic riviM', nnil l)'-t\v<.'(.'n til..' blu'il iipil Spurlis. l.ili. vi l.a [>uk'. p. l;JI ; 

til' Ibrt bill Wiis a .swuinji. 'Hie ?it" l^'inc'-dl't, Hi. t. ol' the V. Stutc!'., iii., 

wus visited by Dun .\nilr. .-i ilc Vr:-. p. l^ii; Vdukiim. History (it Texas, 

in I'iSO (li,,!'('i;:, Kn--uyo ('i'|...:i('o, p. I'.i. nlujin we'd on p. ds. 

;>. 'Jl).")) ; un 1 on tlu' lllhol' .\]'i :!. 1 i'J .', I'l c l!iM-nuhi"d \. i i i- (p. ', 'r |ih\cc3 

a iii'.v oc:.i :'.;■■. il i'"rl, culli .! ^'..lllu I'.n- pn>',;i i of,;.) ■ ii .Mui;i;;'.nla 

Abii-i.i ilo i.or, 111 (!i' la iiuliia lUI i'.iy. w liil,. bo u.infiis Hut llir laiw- 

]'.,., iiii:u .'aut'i, wus bu'.it ii"i'i, on ^-iou \vu.: mi tii>- .--un Ajiionio ; bn!, 

iIk- t-iio oi' b.i S.iIK'h, by (lie .Sj.uu- iViiin ->lorliV hiui.iaiiii, tli.' ; losiuin 

iauis:. \\ ',: : ■ >'ii, __,■.',;;■, tlicy louul .vi,; el. ,u'ly or, ;:>;.iri.i\ S:.!;,.' I .ly. 

ni:9T0H\ OF NKW FnANCl'!. 


■rsoiis wnilcr tin; coiniiiaud <>[ .li)nt( 1, fi.vl)iil(lin" t!i 





!I1V (>l 


Ki.-iO. wliuiii lie IdoI; with liiin, 

tmliiss till V liiiiuli-'d ill, a letter in liin liiuulwiil; 


was V. very ^^ood i.)iina;j;or. IIu was 
loss do la Halo most ktioulv roKi'ottod. 

ouo o 

f tl 



After tho departure r' 


'lad roeiMitly Inst the Sii'tir Le Ores, who, having' Ixnii i>il 
iiy 11 rattl'.'Siiakc, and iinl kiiowiiifj! tho prcsoiit rtMiudy 
'oviiid o\(("ro Imi' tniit Mti', liad bciii oMij-'vd to stili- 
uiit tl) an au;|.uliilioii ol' thi^ I17;, and died somi iil'tcr tho 
opei'ation." Tliis storckiM^por, useful iu ii'aiiy rcspocts, 


L.ato, more linn three 

months ckpsoil boforo f ly tidinr;s roacliod (F(irt) St. 
Louis. At la-it, towards tho middle of January, Knii, very 
'^ail iuti'lii'^onco was brou^dit by tlin Sicur .Duhaiit, whose 
Vdun^-cr brotlior, Douiinic!, had r.'Uiainod at IIp.^ fort. 
Tho filler, who iiad followed do la S;do, arri', ed v.!ihi>ut 
briii;,nii^ fujy Kltcr from him. Ho was ulouo in a (.'aiioe, 
;i!id was hoard uno ni'^lit calliD^' his brother. The sonli- 
•lel iiotiliod tho commandaut, who at iirsi feared l!i if 
.some mi'laiichiily aoi'ident hi^.d h:!pjM.'i:ed ; ho advaiiood 
to addi'css Diihaut, a)i 1 after the latter had assured hin; 
that lie la Sale A\as iu perfo'-t health, ho aslceil him 
whether he had his wiitten pcrmissiou to ri'tuni to the 
I'ort. Duliaut replied iu the ne;j,ative ; but he e'avi; so 
nj-ipareutly sinren' ini aeeMmd of what nceasIiHicd his 
return, that Joutel believed he mi:^ht waive eiifurcin^'j; the 
order already uumtioued. He ueeonliiiely ])ermitteu 
Duhaut to cuter the fort.' Thi' man's aeeuuut of liis 
■adventures was as J'ullov.s: On arriviiif^ iu si,e;jit of his 
.1'rigale, do la Sale, he said, sent live of his best men to it 
fujoiniug- them to advise the pilot,' from him, to sound the 

uiehora''c h) n 


The pihit obeyed, aud^sjient a, 

' Jeiiti'l, Journal lii-tiriijuc, IK!, • Ilr ilicd .\ug-, -JIJ, lO^o. Juuti l 

III! tluTu clian,-".-* with iiincoimry p. II'J. 

till! nwiuiii lit' F. Aii!islasius (l.c ■■ .Foulel, .leiinml Iii«-lnii(iiii'. jip 

Clurcq, Ktablisscnii'ut de In l-'ni, 11 . lOtl-l. 

p. 2'.li!i as til wliat btur.^s Im Imil. ' 'i'liis piln!, 'I'.'vicr, was in ('(imi 

Cavflii'r, lu'laliiui ilii \'(ivaui', ]). in. iiiaiul, the iMi.tuiii having' iIumI nf 

savii tlu'y sfi out N')V. 1, Ulbo; Juutfl tiibijam'. Pmci'-.s N'nlju!, ,Ms. Hut 

; .;■■< in IX-tuliiT sci' imtf 4, iiugcj b(i 





<- v.^^ 









us — 



21 ly^ 










WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 



I ' 


nrsTORT or new FUANi^n. 






1686. •n-lmlo (lay in tliis duty; ni nij^litfnll, njiparortly, fmdiii;,' 

"^ ' "^^ liiiiisclf tir(>il, 111! went aslioro, witli those wlin ln'mi^ht 

Scvoini <if liiiii (li,. (inlor, ami Imilt u fire. Tlu'ii (liov fell aslcoi-), 

111.' Kr.'iKh . . ' . . •' ' ' 

iiiiui-iicre I williont takiii'' aiiv precaution against tlio Indians, wlio 

si'ciiit,', liy tiic liri', tliat tlioy were Frcnflinicn, cniil 

ii|> dnriiij,' tiio !iiL;lit, killi-dtlio sixinen wliilo sound asleep, 

• and di'sfroycil their bnat.' 

Ji.i Sal(! not seiMn.L,' them return at the tinio appointed, 
went liimsclf foi them, ami found the sail remains of 
tiieir corpses, whicli wolves or other carnivorous beasts had 
almost completely devoured. H<3 especially de])l<>red 
his pilot, a skillful man, and soon had still ^i-eater reason 
to rej^'ret him. Jfe then made the frij,'ate eome further 
up the hay, and sent on board ail tho provisions which he 
needed fin* tin; enterprise that he meditateil, and left 
in it some of his j^i'ople, whom lie forbade to leave it 
without an order from him, or ^'o ashore without an escort. 

'I'his do!i(\ he embarked with twenty iniMi in two cmoes 
to cross tho bay, and, as soon jis he reached the other 
side, h(! sunk his two canoes in the wat(>r, and j/ursued his 
joiu'ney by hind. After some d.iys' march, he canu! to 
the banks of a tine river, which he called tho 3Iali,i,'ne : 
a litth' farther on. Duhaut, havinj.,' loitennl behind tlio 
rt>st, 1,'ot lost, and before he knew it, f(mn<l himself in 
sit^ht of Fort St. Louis. As there was nothin,!^' improb- 
able in his story, Joutel could not refuse to credit it, and 
contented himself with a close watch on DrJiaut's move- 

About the middle of the month of March,' de la Sale ar- 
rived iit St. Louis in a most wretched j)lij;ht with his brother, 
Mr. C.avelier, his nei»hew Moran.u;et, and f;v.> or six m(Mi, 
ha\In,n' sent the icst to look for his frigate, as to which In; 
felt sonu' anxiety. Althcmgh he Innl not found what he 

' Jiiutil, .Icmniil llirtor'M|iii'. jip. •■ .Imiti-l. .Iimrn;i) I!ist(irii|iii>. |i|i. 

I'.M-;!; CiivMi". Ilcl.ition. p. :)(). V.':',-i;;i>. T!ii' IVoci'sWtIiuI nayn the 

' Diiliiuii's statiiuc'iu in .Tmitcl, p. !2 Itli iif,Marc)i ; C'lvclior. Hiliition dii 

VJIl.tiiuki sl,ii S;vll.'wii 1 \v.f lin.ili T, V.iyii^'c, p '.".i, says Miircli ;^0, lOsi! ; 

(';ivcrKi', on lio:inl (it'ihr IJuUi; ; liut !•". .\lms!a3iu4^LcCl^.■^Cll,ii.,u'JiiJiaT» 

('aVkJicM'MluT.iUiit (.'lualiuri. '>H»l. 

HisTouY OF Nr:w riiANci;. 


Boiil^lit,' lio Roonii'il, on tlic whole, sixtislircl with his cNciir- i''S6. 
Rio.i, iiiul said ho liful Iruvcrsi^d vcrv line distilcts. ~""~<'"~ 
'I'iiis dill not iiii]irove his alViiii-.-5 um<h, as no one knew 
l)rtt<i' than hinisi'lf; but ho felt the iicocssity of not dis- 
(.'oiiMi^in^ his men, and he was an a('Ooni|ilislu>d master 
oi' the iirt of oloakin^' his disa])i)ointnunt. Tho si;:ht of 
Dnhant, whom ho (h^oinoil u deserter, troubled him some- 
wli It at lii'st.and 1h> asked Joutel why he had roocivrd him. 
ooi trary to ordi^rs. Joutel oxphiinod his reasons, and he 
seeiiu'd satistiod. 

';"he next day ymn;^ Cavelier, his nephew, and all whom 
he had sent to look for the fri,L,ato, returned to the fort, 
and told him that tliry could learn nothing of it. This 
tlinw him into a ^real perjiloxity, bocauso ho had left on 
l)oard his linen, olothos, pap(>rs, and most vahiablc ctVicts. 
]\r<roover, his design was to uso this vessel: first, to ascmd 
som(M)f the rivers that he had discovered ; tli(>n to dis- 
paU'Ii it to tJK: "NVost Indies to ask assistaneo ; or, to em- 
bark in person, and reconnoitre all the shore of the (lidf 
of !\rexico till he found tlm ^NFieissipi, il hi -honld lose 
all hoiH" of enterinj,' that river by one of the streams 
emptyiuL,' into the bay.' 

lie, howevir, adopted his course with his u-<iial Tirmiiess, 
anil, towards the c nd of Apiil, set out on a new expedition.' 

' .louti'l, )i. lliT, says " nltlmimli 
l;e iinil iii't liiiiiul till' filial rivir," 
T.'t Cnvclirr pi-.'icnilH (Hi'lution dii 
Viivii,;,'!-, \t. •,".)! tlint he ilid rcncli 
tl,.' M'!>sissi|i|.i, MnrHi, Kith, llisc, 
:uiii li'!'i 61)1111.' nun in a t'nrt tlnn'. 
iifUT liillinp in witli Konii' Shitw- 
iiOL'.*, wlio liail liiliMijicil to thr ]!inly 
wilii whidi he ilcwi iiiU'd tli.' Mis 
:<i»Ki|iI'i, in KiStJ. Knilicr AnnslnKius 
(I.o CliTci), ii.. 11. 'J71I; lli'inu'iiin, \i. 
',M7i pays " Tcli. l.iili, Iti^il, lie 
tho'ight Im fniinil the rivrr." In 
'I'unty'rt Wdik. ii.« t'lbl I ."inU'd, Cave- 
lier Baya tlii' Baiiio ( Vnyagi'H au 
N'lirJ, v., \\ IVl) ; but Juutul rul'uli.'» 

it. .Tiiiininl Ilistorii)iir. ji. .iri. S'M' 
Kariy Vnyiifi-i's iiji and down llic 
Missi.-iuiii;ii, ]i. 'i'.K 

'•' .loiiti 1, .Iimrnal Histnniiiii', \<]<. 
lliT S ; ('avt'lii'i'. iiflatiiin ilu Voynf;!', 
11. CD : F. Anaslasiiis, in I.i" ('lirc(|. 
Klalilissiiiii'iil di' hi Fni. ii., |i. Vl'.is. 

" .Iimtfl, ■Iiiiiriial IlisHiiii|Ui', |) 
1 to. Cavi-liiT. Iiiliiliiin. p. ".', siiyf 
April llitli : liiit Cavi'liiT. in tin' 
ToMty in thr V. nil Nurd, v., p. ]">. 
and Falhrr .'.naslasius il.r CIitcci. 
ii., p. "0;>; Ifiiiui'piii. p. 201 », eay the 
2','d. FutliiT Anastiisiiis dii lares hi- 
was oni^ 111" till-' party. Joutol. pj) 
110-lir, is coulubod. 



1 1 

J ■ 1 1 

1686-90. Sonic days after his dopfirtiiro,' Mr. do Clicfdovillo, tlie 
""^^'^~~' ^laiqiiis di' l.'i SaMouiiii ri', and somo nf tin' oilier-',' wli) 

Wreck of ],n,| remained on tlu; I'clK , arrivod at St. L )uis in a lioat, 
witJi his clotlus, a )iai"t of his ])a])-'>r , liis liiuii, and sonio 
provisions. Joutd askod thciii whom liio fii^'ato was, 
and tlii'v rcpUod that it IkuI run ashore, and f^ono to 
pioc-s. Tlioy rolatcd to liini the circnmstan • 's of this 
now niisfortniK>, whioii (h'jjrivcd d'' la Sale of the only 
rpsourco on whic'i ho could v^'ly alter si. many disa])- 
pointmcuts. Accordin;.: to thorn, it happoiiud iu this 
way : 

Tho ship boinp; out of water, tho Siour Plantoro-o wont, 
with six othors, to ;^'ot a frosli sniiply fro;a tho noan-.t 
rivor. As they wori> returning o!i hoard with their I )a 1, 
head-wiinls detained tln'm a long time, and, night overt il:iiig 
them, thov (MHild not I'eaeh tho vessel. Those on lioard, who 
liad witnessed their oil'orts to return, liglitod a tiro to 
guide them in tin* darkness;' Imt when tho ih'o wont out 
soon after, no one thought of rel.indling it, and neither 
the boat nor any one belonging to it ever apjieared. 
'I'hey waited for them som^' days, but in vai.i ; at la 4, the 
crow of tlu! frigate, ]n'ossed l>y thirst, or.^leavored to get 
nearer in to tho settlement, which was only two haguo.s 
oil', on the bank of the rivei'; but, th" o\treme wo.ak- 
iiess in whioli all had fallen — jierh ips, l,)i), waiil of skill — 
prevented their working the sliip in'opialy, and, an advorso 
wiud sjiringiiig uj), the vessel driv, ,1 a-iioro on tho 
opposite siih^ of tho bay, and stranded.' 

.leulvl, ■Iciurn:il I!istiirii|ii('. p. 


.avcncr .'^, 

t''n sliiii 




liy il;" l!i!ic'ua'is. Hilntioii, \y II'). 

'I'll.' !• 


•rliiil tri'ii! 


I'licMcvilli', llic «'ai)tnin, iiinl Inur in Inlsc. niul cliarjios ihiit iho.j.' on 
othrr-i. !.(> ('IiTiii. lCl:l! 'is.icmriU tin' lirlli' cill tin" c.iMiS, and WiTi! 
c!i' la V»\. ii,, \>- -ll!'. .louiil m!\s cndi'nvDi'ing to jrit to m a, whi'ii slic 

(.'lifCilcvillc. tlic 
(plhiTf. .Jniiriial 

■ iiii'i|Mis, all 

1.. :;i. 

1 1 r<| 

iliT (■ niai'.n'Hi 

MVSlT.iS It 

Xl'l, 111" 

■ ( T. 


■' ,Ii)iiti'1,'M.-il llisliiriiine, p)). — a sccoii 1 iiiit' 1 I' tln' niiiii.;. appar- 
Itl-'J, citiiur Mr. ClirM.'vill.'. '111.' .nily 
lire was biiiiply a camlh' in a Ian- 

illlnliV or NKW rilANC!:. 


Tlu'so poor jiiMj.l-, tliiis wrci'l;.- 1 in ,i (ksjl.-ili- CDiuifry, i''>^^>-0°- 
ami (Irstitiilc of lioiits, siiw no means nl' isim[io luit !iy ^""^ ~^' 
biiililiiii,' It ral'l t.) cro^; tli.' Lay; \,'.\[ tli 'V Imllt it so 
urctclicill;- lliat lln' IVw who risktil iIumumIvi s on it, w. ris 
nil ilrowiicd. 'I'll" otliiTs Imilt a sceonl, whicli pi' 
lH-it(n'. On tiiis tlicy put fill they coiilil save of the :ri,-;.itc', 
aiu] crcssiil ovrr sat'rly. TIkt then rcinaiiuHl so;neti:ii'> 
on ihu short! in -nat |icr|ik'\ity, bee lu^i^ tiiey durst iu>\ 
Oil iu\Mnnt oi lh(> Imb'aiis, hazaiil inakiii;^' ihi- rest (.!' 
Ih,' way !y huid, aud their ral't could not ii-.(ind tlii> 
lisir, At last, they foninl a wretched cuiioe, whieli they 
repaiiv I as Well as tliey could, and in it reached St. 

'J'w'o l!l')nlhs tlicll ]ia ■ .ed willioill th.'ir liein;,' a''!.' to Mutiny icd 
learn what had lieconi:' ot' delaI'Mle. .\or was 1 hi.-, pro- l.uuis.'' ' 
loniM d absence' what nio4 dis.^•u^l, d the conunandant : to 
his LMi>'i', he beheld his colony daily diminish; siekne ■•; 
carried olf his best men : tlu' Imlia;!.-, lintehei'ed all \\ ho 
strayed oil', hnntin,:; ; some desei'ted, and wer.' nu{ 
ashamed (.> tak(> rel' amon.i,' the sava,v;es, and conl'i-nn 
to their lilV' ; iinally, scmu' be;;an to muiinnr, and from 
nnirnnirs diey proceeded to th.' odioun plots. 

The elder Diihau;, wIms.' yoiin.^'iM' br.)tiier had !,'ono 
uith:Mr. de !a Sale, ]iut himselt' at tlie head of the mal- 
contents, and .Touted learn.'d thai he pretended to nothin;.; 
lehsthan niidun;;- himself the li/a I of tlu' band. 

Ye!:, to all apjiearance, tilis wr.teh had m)i yet I'dvnu'd 
th.; bl.-ick dosi;^'n, which ho subse(piciitly ciirried out. 
Tho hciL;ht of wickedness is reached oidy by de;^r, ; 

and ])nhaut had, 

IS yei, no iiii.iivo to inniel him tr 

(•••mmit a, parricide. Thc^ fact is, that on the threat 
made by his commandant to a.i-. -.■ 1 
ti) cabal, ho restrained himself 

iin) II Iw contiinii- 
jnvt.y well, till Mr. d, 

la Sd/s return to o:, L luis, in i!i:> inoiiiii ,,i' Au ■iist. 
lie ill 'a leaviied the lo^s of liisi i' 

ri,,a..' Willi an 


Jm-.A, JnuriMl II.-.: )i;.i!i , 1 p. U.'-l: s • .• Jlviin.' in V,.y; 
-Nvinl, v., p. '.'l-i. 



iiisiouv or .m:\v I'ltANcK 


\\ ' ii 

i 1 

m ■■• 

16S6-90. iniity, tl.c nmii' iHlniiniMc', ns In- liad, ('iiriii;^ his voy- 
^^^''~'~^ iv^r, iii'l with irniiiU'filtli) Idsscs.' 

Mr. .lo i:i ][^. |,;|,1 |M ii«lrat(.'(l to tlic Ciiiis, with winmi ht; IkuI 
(iii>i..ii .0 fonui'il an alliaiRM', ainl lie was iiici'ssantly I'xlolliii;^' tho 

II.' \,<*r< a 

purl 111 lii- 



y and cXialK nee of tlir country whivh lie Iiad 
travcrsfd ; Imt ho was no wiser as to what lie soM,:.',ht, 
and thcj wliohi inolit of his excursion was reduced to 
live horses, loaded with sonio provisions, furni.-<hed hy 
liis new aUies. On llie otlu'r iiand, out of twt nty n en 
wlioni lie had taken with hiiii, he brought liaek only 
einhl. On arrivin;^', he in(|nired wlu'ther youii^ Duhaiit, 
I.e C"Iere(|, liurier, and two others, who are not named in 
my memoirs, were in tho I'ort, to whii'h he had ;^i\en 
tliein leave to ri turn. He was toiil that not one of tliMii 
hail maile his appearance. Ho iidiKnl that the Sinir 
i>ilioreI had got astray on tho way, and hail not lieeii 
seen afterwards; that Dunienil, 0110 of his ser\ants, had 
lieen dra,i;;-;ed under tlie water, and devouiel hy a croco- 
dile ; and that four others had desi'iled whiK he was 
!iiuon,L( tile Ceiiis.'' 

So many losses ])roduc:d a iiad impression on all 
wlio remained at St. .I.,cmis. La Sale did not j;iv(,' Mif- 
lleieiit alt( iitioii to this fact, and at oiici' dLlenniiK d 
on a third expedition; hut, as the heat was excessixe, 
lie deemed it hest to defer it till tho month of Octo- 
lier. Tini Cliinicoets kept harassiii^L; him incessantly, 
and killed two mole of his men almost before his t'ves. 
This continued his already-lorinod resolution to gel 

' .Iciiihl, J.r.iiiiiil Ui.-l iriiiui'. |i|p. troiijri'or Wi'i'iMTs, |)as.-iiii; till- Kini- 

11T-1.")I. 1". .\n:isiH -ius il.i' ('li'!vi|, ii.iiiiis, till llii'y rcucli.d ilu> ('ini>.. 

ii.. i>. ;JJ7: Ili-Miniiiii. |>. ',M"i) sav.s lliic l,u Suit' ami .Miiniiij,'rt IMl r-nU, 

iic r.-acliiil llii' lull, (JcloliiT 17lli. uiid timr iiii'ti iksi-rii'il. C)ii lii.-; 

I'aVfliiT f;ivr,- nil (late. n.-i''rv l,a Sale flarlcil hac!;. .\ii 

■' .\s III lliis i_'\]irililiiill Wi' have a.-<l;;siifi, ill I,.' Clrl'i'ij, ii., ;;(i;i-:i'.i7. 

till' ail' units 111' KalliiT AlUl^tll^■ius, Sparks ( Lilo nl l.a Salic, \. l'>'.i} 

mill 111 .'ill-. I'avi ili-r. 'I'licy inaifli- lliiiilw- In- n-,-^il tin' ( 'uliirailo, 

eil N. 1'... |ia.->iim' liiiliaii> i viilnillv Dia/.os, aini 'J'liiiiiv, aii'l i'.':irliril a 

ill iiiiiTriiiii'.--' Willi S; a Ilia Ills, rios^ iininl iii'artlu' lii'ail\vali'rs..l iln Sa- 

iiiu' llu' liiilu k, Maliiiiii', ami lliriis liin', lK';uci.'a ihi.- Triiiiiv a:u| lii il 

riviTs; lliiii "iriirk K. lollii' Hi.-ka- livirs. 



aw.'tv ti')iii iliiisi' suviit'i's. 

'^'f'H \v;is to fiiili'.ivor to 


rcacli llic llliiiitis, iiiiil lie was 1(11 llic |ii)iiil of lit;,'iiiiiiii,'^ 
liis iiiaicli, wlicii Ih- was .iKackrd l.y a viol'Mit hernia, 
wliicli tiltli^ctl liiiii to ilclVr liis <l('|tartiii'i'. 

mill I, HJL'Ui^' liiiii III 



il ti> iiialvr (lio 

j(;nnii_\ witli lil'lccii im n, Imt his (MI'it was noi atx'i'iitcil. 
FiR Sale tiiM hiiu tliat iii^- ini'sciu'c was lll•(•t•^sal;v at tlio 
llliiiiii'-, and that licwishiMl Ihcin'i' to dispali'li his liroth-i', 
{'avclicr, to France. 'I'oward the end <il' Diceiuliei' lie was 
relieved Iroiii Ills iiialadv, and nmdi; serious |)re|iaralions 
for liis .naivli. lit; wished Joiitel to aeioiii|ia:iv iiiiii on 
this trip, and in his stead a|ii>oiiited tiie Sieiii' Daihier to 
coniinand at St. JA)iiis. Siiicu his rotmn Injin tiie Ceiiis, 
he had I'ortilied tiiis |iosl i|uite well, and he llattered him- 
self that he had put it bevoi.d reach of insult I'ruin the 
Jiidians, Jle left as 'iiiicli provisions as was re(|uired foi' 
all who wci'e to remain there : that is to say, lor twenty 
[iersun->, iii.'ludiiij;' seven wonu'n, or ^,'irls, the iteeolhet 
i\uh«!rs 3Iixiiuiis and Ziuiohius, .Mr. de C'heldeville, lliu 
Maniuis de la Salilonniere, and a surgeon.' 

After j^iviii.L;- his iinal orders, he lieu^aii his march .Jaiiii- n 
ary 12tli, llJoT, with sixteen men, iui-ludin;^ his lnother, 
Mr. C'aveli ■!■, his nephews, Mor.iiii^et and the youii;;»;r 
Cavelier, Father Auastusius, Joiiti'l, i^idiaut, Larehevcipie, 
de Marie; .1 (ieiinaii from Willeiilierg, naiiied Hicns — an 
old liuccaneer, eiij^a^t'd at Petit (ioave ; l^iotoi, a siirj,'eon ; 
the pilot Tessier, yoiui;,^ 'I'aloii, Sa.i^et, .Mr. de la Sale's 

• ~.I- nlll 

lor 111.' 

' lliciviUi', i 1 a niitutn an cxlnK-t d.c ('lirci|. ii,, p. :;:;| 1 iiii'utlniis any 

tViiiii 'I'nloii's Inti'rTouaiidiis, m^vs iiiniilirr. Jnlni Dai'ii.-i 'i'lilnn -hvk, 

lluc (iiil'iicl Minimi', er I!:iiliic'i'. in lii> iiiti'ii'.'j.i'iinns, iwiniy 1 r 

was i«!' :\Iontn'al. an.l llna In' kiirw iwriily live. 

liim. Harliiir imiirit'il, ai lln- I'urt, Sonii' call iniii .i.'iiini.. an.l sav 

u t;ii'l \i'li() iiail ninic nwr witli llir 1h' was an j'ji^'i.-sli Miiili.'i'; Ina tlic y 

(•i.liiny iViim !•' 'anci', ami acliilil waM ai'f n|'[;arc'nily nii>tal^i'n. i//i'ri>- 

lidrn of till' ni i(in. rn .r. 'fliis i-» wlatfil in tlir Inter 

• .Iipuii'j, ,lo irnal ll:>,(ii'ii|iu", pp. rnjralit.n-i iaili'> Ti I'lcrrn c! .ban 

l.M-7. <'one|ila ns iliai oilnTs nnnle 'I'aldn, .'^I'pl. I I. lliiis. Ms. Ilfnnrpin 

tlic nniHlicr 11 iirli lai,i''i'r. .Nriilicr think:., nr Hicns, a nii.'iiaUi-' 

Cavfiicr 1 pp. .'i-'t-l!) noi- 1'". .\ntt.stasiu.'< for Hans. " .John." 
Vui,. IV— 1',' 



lll-loij\ Ml- N'i:\\ I'l! WCK 


I \ 

lackey, (iipl II ;,'(Miil liiilinii Innilcr. Tin no ii;iiiich lui' nil 
.vi^^l^ 11'^ iIh \ u'll :'i. ijii. iitiv nci-iir in (lie siiniij. '!'■> 
h|i.Mr t lie li'a\( li r-. .|i' 

Im S;||,. I(.;,.1. il Ihr li \ r li 


111' lliul I'i'illlvllt ll 'I file ( 'cllis W it'l lllr '.•iratil' pari i>r 

til'' lifiLt^'a'jf ami (irnvi^ioii.s. 

Alllioii^'h IJK'ir ctiiivsc lay Hikmiu'Ii h very Uiif cniiiitw, 
tli'V Hi vcrtlii'Icss snirmd (•niisicjcvalily, cspt'cially by 
icjKi'ii i)t' llic rains, whifli liaii caii-'MJ most dI' tin' riv< is 
I" iA( rlliiw tin ir I'anl.s. Imlii iis were lV('i|iic!'tly riicnnn- 
t. I'l li : ik; la Sale cniiciliatiil llain all liy liis Uiinl niaiiiicr; 
\m\ tills dill not tlirov,- liiiii oil liis j^imnl, or lU'i'Viiil liis 
< iicaiii|'iii.u V. illi till' ;^n alr>l ]irrcaiill')ii. As tln< dillicnl's 
<it I'inssiiiu' til" livfTN iiiciiasi I— soiiK' lli;'.t tlicy caiin' Id 
lii'im^ vci'y u iiif, ami w itiio'.il lu'ds — lU'ccssity su^^i-ti ■! 
till' iii\i'iitii)ii I)' a raiiui', wiiiiii 'vas cariaeil on poli's. mul 
jnovi'il liit,lily iisi I'l;!. 

As tiny advaiuiil iiiln llii> coiiiitiy, tliey l'i>nii<l it iiioi'o 
tliiilJy |i(Mi|>l(d, and \> Li ii .1 ily Idity Icaj^'iiosfrom the Ci'iiis 
I hey Irariicil that tlicKWasa i''ii nrlimaii innoiij^'tlic fmlidlis. 
On till' ITtli of .May.' ^I(iraii,e( 1, \\hil<' out liunliii-, liav- 

' Imt, 1 I'lv. Ill' c i\!,-, l-;r , lai .'v Iv, ll.' j'iiv> ■'! tin- t^!iiiii->. l!io 

• ■i_%- iItv vv -.■ 1 ; in 'll'. •'• Mi:.'. uii (,!,.• ilvii-. i!,.' (.^iiiiin mrl 

I].. I'm-Si (■;i\ li>T siivi-- ti.. It'.; Aniirliiin inn liiiliaii''. iiml Itiil.i'C 

•mil ' 'lit l.;i Siipr 111, I, 'J- III.'!, livr. '111! 'linn crii.-sini,' tin' Suli 

I lli'lli' ''111, I'. ;■"! I ( Mtl ■•?■ Al'ii'-'iiilis I' mil' ■. tJii'V Ii'iirlu'l llii' .Mlilii'lli' 

lin I,!' f '!' rcq fill'' in liinii'i ill' -.iv^i !Ki''i. ;.'■, wlnri' hi' iiindi' lii!) liiilc 

ll' n i-cl.i; 'J(> ni '11. Hii'l i-tii'ti'i| till' ' 1 nt i.ti'iiii 1 : Anii^lii>iiisi,nni!. ci-nsi* 

;i)i .Iiiiiiiiin , Ifi' ;. ill;, l>i'|'i (111 I" ll;r I'liin- i.lnuti'l. 

' I't.r. \\:i(i 11 iMiiiir-v.'c'i!, Ill ).ii'r~, |i. 1 1ll . ni'i'iin'ii'lv Mii' Hm-hs ii\cr 

T'lViT'.! uitli liuHiilii-rkiii. !i l"i'it "i' 1". .\ 111. -Infills ( |i, ii:i.")i. pn^^'iiii; 

lil;i' til' nn>'uiit ririirli' <),■ tin 1 in- iMiion- triln's. lAlilf. p. i^.i l.n 

Ml l.-Ii'v .Jiiiiii I, |>. 1 > ;'l!' ilitn s-tnicl; X. \. i: . 

II li-nmi'il itii'^ l-Vn. i;, iri'in ;'.i-].''l tin' 'I'ttniliii. Tyiikii|.ii.iii, 

till' Ti'iii'S. 111., ]'. I>;!. .iiiil t'liliitiiin. i.\iiiiMii!-iiIs, I Cavi'licr 

• ( iiurli'Viiis 1. 1'' I a-.-^i's nvcr in.ilitrt I.ii Snllc rciirli tliciii. .liin. 

tiii'i 1' iiii'iilliH. I.:i Siill.' I'l'iu'Iicil -'n, ■,'•.', mill 111!' Ci'iiis. l'\'li. t< : iiit 

rriiii'i.-- riv.r, tin' liriiticli ul' ii lii-i dulcs urn rviilciitly wrmiir. 

rni'i- il'.wii! ;• ii\ii) tl IP liny und, ni - .lnun-l innkis lin ."^ullo nrii\i' tiiinlly 

ii'ili' til rro.-s it, ii.-i'i-iiil'il it» Imnk, Miiou,' ;hi' Ti-inw, I'r;. ii'Ik ul tin' 

tliriiUfrh cniU' ainl thicket, to thn Ayiinn. <ir ('aiioliiainiio. uloutel.) l!y 

IIi'IiiiliiuiiiiH (•!• Bni'-iini'm i.Iijutcl : Kcliriiiiry 2(». tiny (anir ti- the 

('uv« lii-n. whi's.' war i riiit-s upuiiii-t I'liiii'iucchiiuiii' ur l*alni)UcsM)ii 

tin' la'iyoaiiiiu 111-' iiiol 'rjdii alicr i Anabiuaius. j>. tlil'ii, iiliics ul' the 

surtiuij. (I'". Anastasiuij i Kccj'injj Ciiiiis. 



lllSTui;"! ()|. M.;\\ I'liwri; 91 

ill},', it i>i siiiil, si'iikt II iii-iilliii \\ to r)ii!i.iul, (fiiii-:. ;iii(l '' _' 

till' sui;^'(iii Liiilnl, liiCM' tlncc iiicii Vi'Siihnl io iiiiiK^' 

awiiy with liiiii its spciilils iis iins.siMc. mnl tn l'i'.;ii' l)y 

'M,\ (1. lii .Siil"''s lacKrv, ;iiiil Nici, lii^; Indian Iniut'r. 

ulio ;ittruilcil Minan^cl, iiii'l ini;4lit ill iVinl liiai.' 

'I'liiV lil'ojichcii tliuil' (Irsiua to iiiU'cllc'VcqlU' (.111 \n M'jinnjr.t 

. . "* '' " '" 

'IV.-sicr, till' pilot, wjiu ;ii>iii()V(ii it. mill olforcd to ioin m hMi.'Hi:ii'- 
, , . . ,. '"' V '""' 

c-iri'viii^ it out. Tliry.-iii I iiotliiii,' to iln- Siciir di! .Mnilr, un'u-r .■-■ 

who \\;i> with iIhiii, .lid \'i liom tin'V \wnili! ijiidly hasc 

L,'ot iUVllX. 'i'iic Ur\l lli,:hl. wllil" I hi' tlll'iN' iiiilor- 

tniiatf viciiiiis ol' their ^' ii,t laiici' Wi'ic ijiiii'lly ashi j-. 

I.iotul dealt each sev ltd Movv.-; with a hatidii-L on Ih' 

head. The Indian and th ■ laej^ey e\|Mi('d on the .■.p"! : 

.Moran.Liet >at n|i, hiil wiunait iitteriiiL; a sin',d(.' word, .md 

tlie us.s.a.'^sinH cuinpi lied the iii'icnv de Marie lo iini.sji liini, 

threatening', if ho rel'used, to deal witli liiai as iliey liad 

with th<< ; they doul>lle.HS wi.sli.d i.> la ike him an ae- 

<()iii|)liee ill their eriiiu', SI) as to iiiaiu Mile that he Would 

liol aecilM' liieiu.' 

Neverlladehs. as it i.s rai'i- that i t'u>t crime is not 

hijiiiwed liy thai une;i-lii'-.s 'vliieh t!ie most h.aideni I 

lainuna's have always -uiiie troiiiij' in eahiiiiiL;', the miu- 

dvii Is I'elt that it uoiiKl not he ea'.y to ( >ea|ie La Sale's 

just vun.^'ea.nee, unless they aniiei|iated him, and on thi.- 

' ('ri)!-»aiic<-'iiii'"' I'ivi iMin ihc(rt;i ihi>. I.'nuii, lliius, uuil I'u'.iuir, 

Miiirli. l.ii Sail''. ciM tlin Ijili, ^.. Ml ili-ru nil', iiiiil IWrmi il ilirir jilut 

oft" l»iiliiiul, lliiiis. I.iiitot, Kiliii. lui'i .IiMie'i..l(Hiiuiil llif^torii|iic, jip. l.i;- 

Jjiiiii't. Id jrct s'liiie iiriiviMdiislii' linil llii'. 

|UU ill 11 iiii-/ii\ oil his last tri|i, .Inui :. ioiivniil !l>eii'i.|U", )!,• 

'I'lii'Sf ijii'y riiiiiul !i|)")ill, 'lilt killrii ID'.-S. l-'ailuT Aimstusiii'^ il,^- 

luD liisuii, anil liiuiraianil \\\i- Cli'ini. ii., p. liiiT ; llciiiir|iin in Vny 

UH'ui. LcarnMiir tlll^ li'mi S;i.4'. ' , „._, s uu Nuni , v.. j.. -.'It) Vuake- 

Ln Sail.' sent .MiM-aa,:;ri, (!,• .Mi,il(, .\:,,i-mi;;i't lin ror two lunirs, li.iniiin 

lui.l Sag'.'!, topaihe m.'at. .M.irHii i,i., „si,r,l, r, is, kr. Tin- ii.-c.„„ii 

gel. fimliiifrtlmt tliey ImillMiiiriuiiiri ,,iv,.ii liy !li.' iwn 'falun.s i liiicno- 

it lu^rorr it wa> siillirinaiy ilry, ll.'W ,,.uiMiis. '&•.), RippoM-.l loiir killi-tl. 

iiiiu u 1 iit^si.m. ami tuul; !Voni tliim ■p],,, j,,,!,.;,, X\k», or .Nikaiui, aii.y 

llu' iMarrow-lx.iio.M unil iiuni, wliidi, ),,,.,,. i,..,,, ;i,,, ,„„, ^jv,.,, .„ i.,, M,ii'. 

am.riiiug to, tlicy lm>l luiii |,_v -.,i.,,. ir.iiuoi.s ii"rtli..n,-ik>/i;nc, 

I'bidu tn idiisf, us pcr<iiiibili:s. Oil ;,| ii;i,ii (, 1,1,11. r. Mf 


1 68 7 -go. 


tlioy ii'siilvod. AftfV (Itlilii riitiiiv; to'^'clliir <>ii tlic nifini'^ 
of sitciTss, tliov flnni'.'li) it till' siirist |ihin to "o forwMi'l 
to iiiitl liiiii, nmrilrr nil wlio opjiosi'il tlpir 'li-si, i'. iiiiil 
tliUM o)>iii ;i wav for llir imrriritlc, wliicli tlicv i icditati'd.' 
So stniii;.'! (1 rt'solntioii coiilil Iw iiiH|iirci1 o'lly liv lliat 
Mind drs]iMir, wldcli IinrrirK oiiiniiiids infotlic aKv^n tlx-v 
liiivi' dii',' for tliriusclvcK : hut jiii iiiciilint v,-ImcIi tlifV 
'>otdd no) liii\i fi.K seen. )>liu'i'd ill tlirir liMiidv tile victim 
tlicy so\i"ld. } yiM'V. wliicli divided tlicin iVon fin ciiii)!. 
niid wliicli liiid swollen coiisidcr.'dily iiftcr tli'if )>jissiiiLi 
it, dctiuiird titciii t^^d dnys ; mid tliis dclii\, wliicli ill 
first seeiiii'd nil oli'^tnole, facilitntod tin" cNffution of tln-ir 
de«ifrii. I>i' Im Sale, siir|»riH(^d at not sooinj^ lii>t iio|>Iir>w 
rrtnrn, nor tlio two nwn wjin n<'roni))iiiii<'d hi ii, resolvod 
to fro I'iniscif to olitniii sonio tidiiifrs. Tt \va'. rcniarkiMl 
tltnt, ft tlie nioniont vlicii lie startr'd. lio scciniMl tionliliNl, 
aixl fi><l<" (1. with a kind of nnofmiucsH nimsnal in liini, 
wliotlior ]\rorMnj.'i t liad not liad a niisiindcrstnndin;,' witli 
Komo one,' 

TTe tlieii called .Toiitel, committed the control of the 
eanip In jiim, instnictiiiL' him to make the r( iiiids from 
time to time, not to let any one stray o(V, a nl to li.Lrht 
fires, so that the smoke miidit serve to hrin^' liim to his 
tino course, in case, on liis wav hack, he slio ild lose it. 
He set ont on the "iOth. with Father Annstas its and an 
Tndinii.' As he apiironclicd the spot wIkm'c th • assassins 
had halted, he )ierroived eajrh's flyinj.' quite lear to it ; 
this led him to think there was a carcass of some kind 
there, and he fired his crun. The cons]iiratni>, who had 
not perceived him. inferred that it was ha Salo npproacli- 
iii'.', and ])re]iared their aries.* 

' .l(iiitil..Iiiiiiniil IINlnriiiiic. p.His. l!l!l-';a(l I'"ntliiT A iMSliisiim (l,i- 

' .loiui'l, p. 1!i!i. siiys li(> nskcl <'I»T<<1, ii . pl'- ■'•l'^-!' Ili'niii'piii, p. 
wliiiluT I.i'itdt, Hicni), nnil Diiliniit IVh spcakH of |,n Snlli'V pimiv 
lind not Klinwn ilisrontont. ronvorfntion on t!ic wn.v. iiii<l of 

' Fntlior Annstiisiiis (I,i- Clcrrci, liis Kadiic-". He si.vw Mint nffor 
Ktiili1i!^»iiiicnt. ill' In Koi, ii., |i. l!;iSi poinfr two |i'ii_rii''' I'li'.v foiiinl tin' 
wiys two Indiiiiis. iiml nirntioii« the hlooily rrnviit of tin' liu'lu'V, 
20t)i ns tlic'dnti'. Tiiliinvnysonly r. fmiw thi' <'n'.r!rs. iiiiil ti'rn'i\ c'd nom.' 
Annstnsiii'* of his iicoplo. IK' li ^'S iioi nt"' lu' 

* .touti'.l. rouiiia! llist<jri<iiui. p|i. firi'd 



IIIS'IOlt\ <»K NKW I'UA.NCI 0.1 

Tlir livcf wiiH lii'lwcoii tlicm niitl liim ; I">nliinit ninl Fiivr- _ . '' ^', 
clu V((|ii(' cioHsi'ti it, mill. |i<n't'iviii<,' di- la Sale advaiiriii^' iiu,'!!' 
kIowIv, liallt'il. Piiliaiit liiil liiiiiM'ir in llic tall ^'lass, with mV. •i,\n 
liiH^'ini ioadnl a)ii1 cocki'il ; l,ar('li«'Vi(|Hi' I'lvaiicril allttlo 
ftlillii r, and. a ii'inni'iil aft( r, dc l:i Salf. iccd^'iii/iliij; liilii, 
iinl>'d liiiii wlii'iT Ids ii('|dir\v INforMii'.'rl was. ]\i' ri'iilit'd 
tlifd ln' was ali ii<.' tlir river.' and lliat instant Dnliant 
fiidl. |)t< la Sale iTciivcd the liail in 1;is licad, ami i'l-ll 
«tink dead. Fo Jcnitcl Vflatrs tli<' fact.' He liad l.arncd 
it rinni Katli.T Anastnsius, wlio was lu.'scnt, an<l wlmsc 
t( -liniony caniio lie susp('ct(<d. 

I'atlicr Fjonis H(Miiioi>iii, who a1s>cili's his rcliow-vi'li- 
i;i<in-. lait wlio is far Ifss cvt'dililc than Jiaitrl, jirctiMids 
that di' la Sale lived an liiMir afte'' li" was Wdundid ; tliat 
he made a kinil of p-nernl ooiifof-sinn to I'atlier Anasta- 
siiis, ].ai(loia'd his innnlerevK. and enti red with a ureiit 
ded of ].iity into all the other sentiments sii;,'i,'ested to 
hii I I'v his confessor; that h(> received, with lively tokens 
of relipiuii, ahsohilion for his sins; and thai he had 
niiproachi (1 th( sacraiiicnts before settinj,' out on his 

\ n)aiiuscri|it nlalion. which T had i.i my hand, and 
which is ])resor\('d in the l)e)nit de la "Marine,' and the 
anthorof wiiich seems stron,t,'ly ju-ejndiced aj^ainst '!\Ir. do 
la Sale, in re-.'ard to whom he e\|>ressi's 'limself in a very 
co.idemnatorv style, auroes with Joutcl as to the manner 

' Till- cxi'ri'HPinii "i. In drrivr," lit- 
t'riilly "mliil'f." is I'xiiliiiiii'tl I'.v .Tmi- 
til, 11.201, tniiii an 'HloMu'tlic river." 
I". .\liiiMtiihiiis -iiVM tiiry Ii'iinlcd. 
llllll llmt I.!l Sllllr Win ^'oillf ill tlllll 

cliri'ciiim. wlnii two ol' llifiii I'lriil, 
cni' luiH^inir. tin' diIht s'rikUij; liiiii 
in till' lii'iiil. Ill' Hiiy-* lliut La Salli' 
iliril nil liour iiftrr. lie oxpreted 
tlio tiixim- fall'. 

• .loiili'l. .Inuni'il Ilistnriinii-. 1'. 

■ ilcniii'liiii. ill VnyiiLri'saii Noril.v , 
|>. 'JtH. (.'liurloviiix ovirli'iik;' Futli'T 

.ViiiisiasiiisH own ai'dnuit, as pivin 
in l,i'<'liii'i|. I'.ialilissi'nirnt di' hi Koi, 
ii., p. ;i;i"-:in. m\i\ \\\\wU ii mrrely 
ni|iii'il liv lliiric|iin. I", .\imvlasin8 
ailils Iliiit. iil'ici- I,a Salli' i^Npirril, lie 
wnipp •(! liiiii ip. liiirii'il liiiii :is wcH 
as 111' conlil. ] lariiiL,' 11 rroh.i (in hin 

' TliiK i> a (lofiinii'iit. oiitilliMl 
" Intt'rroL'ntions I'aitos ii I'ii^rri' la 
Ji'im 'I'nloii par onlrc dr Mr. !.• 
CoMi'i' ill' ('"Mi'liartiain, .i Irur 
arrivi'i' ili' la \'i ra I'riiz. li' 11 
SptfuilMr. 1(11)8." 




lllsrUKV u\- M.W KIlANCr 

i'l uliicli lir' was l.illiil : l^nt it i'linn'j;i>H intiiiy (•iivMi'i^fan- 
ns ill tilt' iifciiiiiit of lli<> iiiiiiiliT. fi:nvlitVii|it(< is r\u'\'o 
stvlcil d' Yvilol.' .'iikI iici'liiips IxM'c liittli li.iiur.s ; no i>ir|itl(ili 
is iiiiilf fit' tli<' ( liiiii.iii. .'iiiiis, lull ill' an Kii'/lish ><i)|(lit>i', 
wIkmii it culls ■li'iiiiiii', nnl of out' .Miinii'i.' [t luMs tliiit 
it \v,i« II scrviiiit III' lli(> Sii'iir irYvolut. nf wliniil .ir. (li> 
hi Silc iisju'il where \Iiir,iii;_'(>t wits, iiinl tlivt he, iiicofdhi^ 
tu Ills iiiMHter's orders, replied ,'iliru|ill_v, with hi-> li it on. 
Hint lie WHS aloiiv the river; that In S'iU>. sliocivi d at this 
iiiN'>|<iil I'asliioii o|' iiiiswrr, threatened the servant, who 
replied still more insolently; thai la Sali' iidvancrd to 
strike him; that tin servant, as Mv,'reed upon aiijon;^ the 
assassins, started to nm tow.inl the spot v.ln !■■ the\ 
were coiieealed ; and tiial when do la Sale canie within 
n acli, they all lired to;.;tther ; lint only one aimed W'dl. 

lio that as it may, sindi nuarly was tho trai.;iciil end o'" 
i.'olierl Cavelier, Siciir d" la Sih-, a man of a CMpaoity, 
.'jra^p lit' mind, cniirauv am! Iiimiie--i of sold, that iiii,v{lil 
iiave raised !i;m to soiuc jj;raiid achievoiiieiil, ii", with 
all tin se ;:>Mid (|iialitie-;, ho fonld have iu:ister>d his 
somlire and melauclinl', disposition, cnrlied his se'vority, 
or r;ith< r the harsluie-.-. ol' his leinper, ami r< pressed the 
lian.!.;htiness with whieh \\o tuated, not only those who 
dep( iided entirely on Mm, Iml evi'ii his assooiiiles, somn 
of wlioiii, as ^\e are assured, esjietdally two of his 
assassins, iial advanced a i^'eat part of the fiinds for 
his eati-rprise, and ciiii-ri|iuiii''. weii^ di'eply interested 
ill it.' 

' Tliix' HiaifinciitK an- i\<< in iiriii!i>u« a yo m.; imui, nf liiiyoiinr, 

my rMriu'l. wliirli xIhuh iluii liii iii'iiarciuly m' u (.-ooil riiiiiily. nuil 

Imiii iiiul Jaiiirii killi'l llii'ir I'liir well .-.'iiivitiil. He wa-< c.arii'il olF 

I'lmijiiiiii'iif, laiil lay ill wnii lor I.ii liy tli,- Simniiinls. wnli omulr, a 

Sulli': iliat Uiilriut liisi, ami Niilnr. 
kilk'il liiiji nil till' el"'!. • Si'c .!i utiTs (iiivrrcintiiiii <it iiis 

• I'iciTi' .^^•ll^nil■l• is ni'iuiijiuvl rliarartiT i.Iiiunial llist(irii|iii', \\ 

ns ri'iiiiiiir to tli ('.■lu^-, with I'riir ".'(IVi, nii'I I'ntln-r .•\iiH'*l;i>lii-i's, Lo 

Tnldii. aft. -r till! HHMii-j-iiuuicii. 1'Iitci|, ii.. p. U3'J; Veya,'os nit 

rluivii|\it' in niL'iilidinil ill till- "itli Niinl. v., ii. ^41. 

HISTmH\ Ol' NK\\ KKANn, 


]]i lin>< ;il-c) liiiMi jii-'ilv n'|iri>,ic'!i(Ml willi ih'\im' i i';- ' '''*'' 

itig «'<Ulli.s<l i)f illV (il|i>. jiIhI liiivili',' liunr tllttll nlH'i' |||, I i n^. 

niiiicl lii«t itViii- Itv (111 iiliMtiii.i.'v Hint ii ttliiii',' cmuI'I """''■ 
ovrrriiiiic or jii.lilv. Soiiii liiiM' (Ircliiicil Hmi tlii>< 
!ia|>iii iM'il in rfj^'itnl to iln' iniiiili >il l!ii' Mi:'is.-.i|pi, 
\«lii('!i\vjis |Miiiil>'ii out III liiiii, iitil vsliicli I|M womII unt 
< M'li '\iiiniiii', licfiiiisc li.> |,,i>l lir!;rii it iiilu liis Ii<'tii| 
lliut it i'niilii lint lie tit tlir jHi^itliiii itiilic:ili>i|. lie 
ilonl'llcsK tlid 111)1 know or p ili it tl. • rorcinn.'i! men 
ill till' world ji.ivi' nit.'ii ii' I'll iiiil.litc.l lor llicir ;_ri'!il(.'.-*i 
sttc'C" js lo jK'isoiis fur iiil't rior 'li» lliriii in iin rit, ainl 
that tliosc ari' wis. si wiio lii-iiivr lii'l tlirv cm [iroii' 
liy tlic iiitrlli^ciu'i.' ami uilviiu! of lum U-ss Hi'lf'l ''kih 

tlll'lll^l'IVt N, 

Yi ! \w lllUv! imt I'K 'lit fill lli;i* iiii < Ikcii jiiilili-'iiMl I'aiiriiiiili. 
o( Ills |irctcllill'i| \io|i|lf(, ^Ulj less olliir llUH'r iiho- ''',V;1|J|.!'|' 
cioiix nrclis.itioiis, i'V wiii 'll lii- i lu'lilics liJlVO .'-(ill ill to '"'" 
Itlaclvi II liiiii. Niiiir li:ivc soii:Jii (o iliiiiiiiisli til" liiir- 
lor oi llir criiiic iiiiiiiiiii'i ■! on hi ; pcrMiii, li\' vin,.; limt 
lio killinl youiii.,' |)iiii:!iil w itii liis own liiiinl, tiint, he iiml 
isiiiiilailv Invited .s. nral oilici^, niid lliat t'n' d'>i''i' nf 
avi.'ii::iiit; so miicli Mood .dird wiilioiit any '.(I'oniiil, Mini 
ft.'ai* ol a lil o i.ili'. dro\.' i,nii. wiioiu on i'VcI'n occasion lie 
had ti'tiiti- 1 lu'iiiiilly and lorccd to r\li iim <. tn tlic ri'so- 
lutioii of assassiiialin-' liiiii.' A^aiusl siii'li (•aliiiniiioiis 
fliar'-'i's wf .should ho will on oiii ■^itaid, as nu'ii arc Init 
(oo iuoih' to cxa.v'^^i'i'ati) tli(> faults <if the iinrortiiii.iti', and 
iiii|>iiti' to tin 'in iinni' than tlicv ically |io>scs-('d, cs] . ci.dly 
when llii'V havi' contriimti d to tin ir own ruin, and havi' 
tailed to iiisnin' altachiiieni to llnir iMrsmi-. 'i'hi' s.nidi st 
ciiviiiastanci' ot' all in rej^ard !o tiir nnnioiy < f lids eeielir:,- 
led is, tliat lie was re-Telted li\ luil l'« u. ,iiid (i!;it the 

' Hi-' l!-itiTi<i'iu liii'k iiy Ui/iia.ii.'U. .MiciMins wn In ^llui^ill!l ■ Lii 

I'iti'il i:. Till ums-iv, ti.'oloj;!,. I'l;;. I'ajv ,lii I'imi.', i .i\ii1.;;i' l.a>"lnii. 

liilltc (k' 111 Limisiiiiir, tli>iv(fris cf dl' IVllnr I.avill. 'I'lirV lirr in 1! :r a 

'"""• (Nmivciiux \'<i_viiui'!<, I, ]i. Mil. Iiiit 

' 1 llo not lilldW wluTC tlli-r hi-. U.irU i>. |«.~ir.ii)r ID ( l.lilllVllix, 

clinrps Will' Hindi' ; nut in DuuhhiI, nn I lii'wcopi.jiliini iilniust llirully. 


IIISTOHV !)l' NKW i"i(;\.MI- 




'■ I 


»' 4 

'''-^'^' fiiiliirc III' Ills ('Ut(>rprisi's uiiulf liiiii sccni ii lUiTc advcii- 

tnicr to tliosf who ju(l!,'(' only liy iipp:ariinc'os. I'l'is, 

nnfortnnat(?ly, comprises tlic majority, and dtH'idos llio 

public voice. 

Whatoc- ^Icainvliilc, Father Anastasius, liavinj; soon do la Sale 

ournd after ,, i • ,. , i i 

liiH ui;ith. lall at ins ieet, (^\pl't•ted that the murderers woiikl sluw 
him no mercy, if only to rid themselves of such a witn -ss 
of their crinu; ; Jut Duliaut, approaciiin,!.-. reassured liim, 
tloclariug tliat the deed he had just committed was a:i let 
of despair, and that he had long liarbored venge.iiice 
against -Moranget, who had sought his ruin. At that 
moment his accomplices interru[)tod him, stripped the d( ad 
body to the very shirt, a?ui, after insulting it with ewry 
indignity,' dragged it into some bullies, where tlii'y left it, 
unburied. There is no foundation f«>r what Father lle)i- 
ui'pin ha< written," that Father Auastasius buried Jiim, 
and [ilanted a cross on his grave. Jouttl does not men- 
tion it,' and wo cannot but believe that that traveler, who 
outers into the greatest detail as to what occurred before 
his eyes, would not have omilted the circumstance ; he 
himself, IkuI the thing been possible, wmil I not iiave i'ai ed 
to join Fatlier Auastasius hi rendering tiio last rites to a 
master, whom ho had always esteenud. The assassius, 
after thus giving the last stroke to their |)arricile, 
proceeded to the camp, b) which tlu^y had already 
sent the fruit of tlu'ir iiuiit liy some Indians, who \\it- 
ue^ised the ali'air, and were scandalized at what lliey 

It was from Father Anasiasiiis that IMr. Cavelier learned 

' Ijiotot, i.'r.|]rciaUy, iusuliiil it, dc I'iivnir ciilr. .r, ct luis nil-' ciniN 
call iujj out : "T'n'rr ymi iut, <"!:iii'l Mif ^'ll Iojsmv" It is not rijfht, Iriiw- 
liaslmw ; tin.'!' ' vou urel" .lout 

.luuriiiil lli!<t<iri(iiic. I'. 'JOi;. 

■ lliiiii('[iiii, Voyaj;o a uii I'avr, 
Ac; Viivairi s nil Nonl, v., ; ;>. 

ever, to iiiiikc 1. Mnopin ri'spoii-'blo 
in this case, as ho follows TailiL-r 
Anns;ar.iii!-, who stati's it hiiii.rll'iii 
liis aic-uuiit, j;ivL'ii in Lo l!r:Ti|, 
IClnlilisi-t'ini'iit Jo la l-"oi, ii., i'. 'il. 

" Joutul is not luticl)- bilcnl asto .Joiiti.'I wa- nc I in cainp \vli"ii lli'' 
tln'sf points. Ill- s!Lyie, fsprfss-lv : a.Si-a^hiii;; <-.uui' in. unl I'onM ii^il 
" IVicn loin, onininc .lit u.i auunir, iiav<' aiilni Auastasius. 


his l)r(>tlioi''s doatli.' Ho at unco told the ctJiihipirators i6S7-(;o 
that if it was tlieir ilcsi^'u to riil thciiisi Ivt.-^ lu him alho, ■— ^- — 
he panloin'il thoni his dcalli hcfori'lian.l, aiid tliat tlieoiily 
favor lin asked was, tliat tlicy would ,L;iaiit liiin a (|Uai'tei' 
of all liour to invpaiu to die. Tlicy iciiUi'd that lie had 
uothiii,^ to fear, and tliat no uiie eoniplaiiied of him.' 
JdiUi'I was not thea iu tlie cami) ; Lari'lieve<|i;e, wiio was 
friendly toward him, started out, to warn him tlial his 
deatii was decided u[)on, if he showe;! the least rtMntineiit 
at what had happened, or j)rel(uded to e\( rt the authority 
conferred U|)Oii liim hy de hi >Sale ; but that if lu; held his 
peace, ho (Larcle'Vecpie) would assure his lii'e. 

Joutel, who was of a very mild dis[)osilion, rejilicd that 
they should bo well .satisliod with his conduct ; lliat he be- 
Heved they all were pleased with the inaiiner in which he 
liad exercised comniaiid ; and that In; would be but too well 
pleased to have no pari in it. They tjun returned to 
cam]), and Duhaut, as soo.i as h,' saw .font-'!, cried out to 
him that eacii one luust eoniman 1 iu turn. Ide had liim- 
.self already .seized all authotity, and iiie ilrst (fXerciM'of it 
was to take posNessioii of all the stores, wiiicli he shared with 
[jart'iievc(]ue, sayiii,i^ tliai: all iuloM^cd to them. It is as- 
sert(Ml tliat there was tliirty tiiousand francs in .Lioods. mid 
twenty thousand iu specie and silver-))lat(\' Tlu' p.iiri- 
cides had streiii,'th and audacitv on their side, and liad 

The :o:l- 
sills ii— mill' 

' .limti'l, 11. 2tr:'. l-"iitliiT .\iu',s- - .li.iurl, .(iiiu'iinl HisKiriijiir. |.|i. 

vn.sius s;iys tli.Ti ho I'litcri'd th-' I'uhiu '.jO-;-."). FalliiT .\ii:isiii'.iii~t (Lc 

first, ami tlmt I'uvfliiT, tiffing liiiu ('ltn(]. ii.. iip. m|:1-Ii snvr. lie iuid 

in tears, lunl tin; (■(nuliict of tin- lln' Ctivclifis till oii their kiUMf, 

lucii, who licgiin iihiiuU'riiifr, fried ami tlmt I'lf iiv^;i->'n- wcif ll:;,^•^•(l 

out: "All' my lircithfr is il.'nil !" to shuif thi in, o;i CDiflilupii of tlifir 

Lf (.ifirii, ii.. ji. ;!l:l : llfii!if].in. ]>. mit I'ftuniiiif,' to I'raiiff ; thnuirli 

24"i. 'I'iilciii (Iiiii TMiraticins, .Ms.) smiif wliii wishfil to jro lufk to 

says that, ci.i futcrin;;. Oiihi-.ut tnUl France, were to: Uilliii:: tip ;ii. 

tile Cavfl.ei-s wliat lie liad donf : ' I do not l.iiew wliere I 'liailevnix; 

thai l.f hud done it to ave iiiv his t'onnl lliis, Nolhinjr of ilie Kind 

brother's deieli ; and that ilifv fould apjuais in t!ie iiapers of Cavelier, 

retire wlicre they pleased, ns he wlio states, howevfr, that the taiii- 

riMiM no l.iii{;er bi'ar the sight of ily ;,(lvanced iiio>t of the IJdO.ollO 

thfin iivves tliat llie ex]u'dilinn ("'.-t. 

Vol,. iv.-i;i. 


'.' I 

liisToiiv OF m;\v rijANCL:, 



•I '^ 

N :.r 


I.I ii> iih 

sliowii llicn;'~.'!vis c;i])iilil.- (jf tin- !j;i-i> crinKS ; lu'aco, 
llirv iiit't, at lir.->t, no ivsiMtaiicc. 

'J'iioicxt (Liv, May *Usi,' all {\h\ Jm-imuOi, with soiiio 
fiiilians, M-'t out for the Ccnis villa ^o, -wliirh was Jiot I'ai- 
ili .!aiit ; luit llic \vi uIIk r wrs so biul, aiui tlio road so (lilli- 
L'lilt, that ihcy wen: soon coiupcllwl to lialt. Oil the ^'.Jii; 
•fuiiu'i was (li;t:u;lu (!, A\itli tlie siirift'on, Liotot, Hiciis, an,] 
TcsMtr, to set! v.hotlur thrv fonhl not obtahi soiuo ])rovi- 
sio;is i'i-(,iii tli(> Cciii.--. O'i til,, ih'st ilav th^'v inM'f'ivcil 
thi\'e wcll-inouiittHl Jmliaiis one ilivsscil in Spaiiisli styh', 
vlio earn • io moot thi'iii. 'J'hcy al: lirst took this one for a 
(o;il Sp.iiiiar.l, laorc csijoci.iliy as thoy liad lioard .say that 
S()!i~a' were ciiiiiiiiL,' to join tl.i C'ciiis against auotiKH' )iati(jji ; 
and as they wcro iiuu'h afraid of ladling ivio [\ic hands of 
the Spania.rds, wiio wore loth t-<) sec otlnn' Ivaropeans ii 
their vieinity, their llrst thought was to make away with 
this on:', and then lake liight at once," 

tiowcve;', Joiite!, goiii;;- aJiead, hiet him, and aihlressed 
hini in Siianisli and Lt.di;ni. The Indian re|>lic,l, in tlu' 
(' 'i.i- lan,.;n.i;;'e, that he did not understand' what he said, 
a a, I this answer relievt-d hiin. Tlu; two otJier Indians 
wvf iiak ■(], and one of tin ni had a line gray i ,are, eai'i-y- 
ing two mat ]i.Lniiiei's, made o'i vane, and fnll of parehiil 
indian-corn-inea]. i Le -oreseiited some to the J-'i'ench, and 
.ulded il.a!. his iiiiu.ter was impatiently iiwaiting them, 
•'outcl !ts!.{>d whether tiiere wen; any Spaniards amon ; 
!hem. 'j ia>y replied that Ihen^ were none among them, 
hut that there wcw sonn' aniong a ii.'ighhoring nation." 

The Iii.lian dress; d in Spanish garl> added thai he Jiad. 
'•een i'l ihi'ir coimiiy, ;nd ieid returned e((nijipiMl as d.ey 

' .)culi'l. ^|.l•:lKil\;;■ ol I.:'. i-::V.i-.- ii. \k oil): llri.n,-|.iii, |i. •,>!;:) ...-ivb 

''.■;i;li, .-.'VJ ';>. IV'ii i!i:i: il !i.'i;i;h.ii.'!1 llii' r.ilii ; liiil .l.inn i :■.■,. ni J Mcnnit ■. 

■i\ t!i" '.'i':'i : iiii-l, ill anntliiT ])\:\i-' -' .Iduti'l. .'I'liiial I!is'i.ii(jiii'. , :■ 

;i. -JOI .. Ill- .-ii.VT^.i:! il.r iiiiii-iii.tlmt ','ll-.>--.MO. 

1. li:i|'|)ciii'il ilii' r.Mli, «hic-li !ii;i..|'-i ^ " ('ou>~iiM — 1 do not iiih'.i r 

sviill llKisI 111' till' nvrolluN. I!ilt il f^rniil." Jdlltrl, Juurmil llistoriqilr. 

ruist 1». r.'i'i nil." r."l t'liiit li.'iiiil ni.i ji. ',!11. 

1 iniM'if |.iiii; li':^: work. CJnii'i- ' Airoii;;- lhi> A:-;n|iys, JoiUrl, 

f > ■!■. Fntlior AiK','tn..iiu:i (I,,. CNtcii. .Tonrii'tl lii--tovii|H.>. ]). '.M'.'. 

iiisroiiv OK .\i;\\ FifANri-: 

siiw him. He llicu (lit'\.' Inmi liis imcki't u ]>riiiti ; Iv'iii- . 
i->li 5);iiif'r, ooutjiiniiip; the iiuliil-i'iicrs <j,i:iiitiil \>\ ihf i li.iy - 
S;'e 1(1 tlic ijii^siounrii's of Xcw ]\[iNici, ; ;iii, r wliicli, iic 
ami liis l\v(i (•(Piii]i,iiiiMiiv> ( (Miiiniicl tlicii- i mil" (iiwiird [t'-- 
i'Aiii\i ; llicv, iicM I'lhclcs-, i'li;iii:;.''l tlicii' hiihils iil't'TWaril. 
■iiitl rclniciil tlii'ii' sicj.s. Tlic l''r. iirli culN'd tlicni luirl;, 
.■iml otlrl'cj tllOUl foou. >'l)<)lll_V ;iiV r rali'l-j', ;.- ni-^llt h:;:! 
;^:'l ill. tlic I'micli (Ijil iiDt wish i'l ;m» uiiy I'm llicr, an i lie 
iir-t I'ldiaii rciiiaiiKMl w i;ii llicii ill' two oli'-r-^ n .-.inai::,; 
ilr ir rDiitc to llicir vi!ia,u;c . 

'J'li(> r'rciicli ami Ihi'ir new ^lu-l Wi'Ul ila . >• in flic ini n :i- 
iii.U, and inofcrilid diiiclly ti; l!i(^ cliicrs imImii ; Im! lii'-y 
liad sc irccly a|)[!rar('d a; tlic cnlraiu-c of th-a viila,ui\ v.-in u 
till y ]ic:\<'i\t'<l the old incii (aniiiu.'; la c u laoiiy ti> nictl 
tlaiii. Tlicy across their slrail 1. rs, a ^ n .(-■. d; vsi'd 
(h'or-slciiis, pahited various ciloi-s, nr.d mi lli. .'r hi^ad a nit'i 
'if fcaliic! ■;, t'orhiiiin' a kind ol' cro\'..M, Soia.' wire sijUarc 
sword-liladcs, such as ^S|lalliards iisi^.w ith >!i- hili mioi-acd 
iv'itli feathers vA hells; others wiVi' aiuiid v.ilii iiows, 
arrows, and tomahawl;s. Some had j;rcat ]m'C; s of whili 
eloUi ])a->iiiL;' I'roiii one shoulder imdi'i' ihc oiccr ; all had 
ill! ir tiua's dauhed wilh i'lack and ud. 

'j'hese old lucii \\ eii i. el'ic in nnniijer, and iKe-sed 
amid the youn^ Juen and warrior ., van^^ed in liii'. in 
2;n()d o!'d(>r. As soon as tla y v.cie i:car iMione-h ' > lie 
French, the ^aiide of the latti r motion, d lo them to hall. 
.and the old men at once rais( d their hind.- aliove their 
heads, utteriiej; loud cri^s ; tljey tin n ia:i u[) to embra.ce- 
the French, and e-ave theiii, in their t'a;'i!on, evi vv hiiii] of 
caress; next they jiresent'al them with j.ijicr, ,ii.d loli.aceo, 
and at last hroueht them a Frtnchman from rrovencc 
oao of those who had ih serted from de 1 i Sale on hi-. lli>! 
journey. Ho was naked, like i]n. Judians, and co lid 
scarcely spoak his own lanun.i^o. Ho seemed cliariiiei! io 
BCO men of his own country .and .acijuaintance. 

The French were conducted, Milh the e.-cort just de- 
scribed, to the cliief's cabin. whcK' thevwiie verv we.l 


: 'I 



lIlS'l'iiUV dl' m:\V I'liANC 


■i i 

H M 


' * 

if)8;-f;o. received, 'riieiu'c iliey Were led to n still lar.L'er ealiiii, ii 
"■^''~~^ (|Uiiiter of 11 league distant from tlie first, ;tin! set ii]>art 
for pidilie r<>joiciii,i,fs. 'I'luy found tlie floor spreid wilii 
mats, OH uliii'h tliey won; made t<i sit down, (lie old im n 
vaiijjiiiu; tliemsclvos around. Tlio Indians Iie^'an liy 
livin'^in;' them sajjaniity, and ■\c<j;ctaliles of all iiinds; 
during tlie uieal, and while oat-h smoked his pi])e, tliey 
t'oiiversed witii thorn on sonio warlike projects. 

'J'he l*i-.)\iii(;al lived in .-nioiher \ i!la<j,e, to whii-!i he took 
the !''re!i( ii p.'iily, and tliere thry were received nearly as 
they Were in t!ie lirst. Xi^ht coniini;- on, tlieii- j,'uide took 
them to his cahin, where they siieiit tiie iiij:lit. The next 
day tlie oM men of the liist vilia!.r(! came for tlnun, and 
took them to the eahin where they had boon feasted tlio 
day Ix'i'ore. Hero the;, oiiiained prcjvisiotis in exc!ian,!j;e 
for goods ; liut as tlun'e was not ^rain onou,!j;h in the ^ illago 
for the wants of th(> Froncli, Jontel sent his c()i;i])anio!is 
liack to camji with the Provencal, and remained anion;.; 
tlie Cenis to .uet the I'ost of his supplies. 

Anothor motive also induced him to remain some time 
amoii}^ tliese people. Ascert.'iiniuL,' that there were two 
uioie of la S;iie"s desi-rters amoiij.' a nei;<hl)orin,L; nation, 
he hopi'd to derive mo/e information from tiieni than lai 
had from the Provencal in regard to the ^lieissipi, and the 
route to be taken in order to reach the Illinois. Ho ac- 
eordinpjly liad those two men sent for, and one night, 
while he was lying in a cal)in, but imt asleep, ho heard 
s«me one walking softly beside his bed ; he looked, and, 
by the light of the tire in the lodge, perceivi'd a man, 
perfectly naked, with a bow and two airows, who, without 
11 word, sat doAvn beside him.' 

1I(! regarded him iV)r some time, addn ssed him several 
questions, and received no answer. This silence excited 
his susj)icio'i, and made him grasji his two pistols. Then 
the man lose, and sat down by the tii'c. .loutel followed. 


' Joutrl, .lounial Ilistoriquc, \<\' >M-l-(i. l!:;0-;5. 




and t,■y^^i\ liini (•l.)S:iy. wIumi tlic ii'i'tnidiil liulian fell i;!i i'')87-9o. 
his iH'di, iiddrcsscd liim in ]'r(>ncli, find made hiuisi'lf 
known as ono of tiu> dosorlcrs wIkhh lir sou^dit. .loutol 
asked liini wIk'I'c Ids comrado was, and lie i'e])lied that ho 
had not ventured to come. Th(\y wen; liotli sailors ; this 
one was a Jireton, named liiiter ; the other, (Irollet, was 
from la llochelle. 

They liad in a sliort time so completely adopted Indian 
haliits, tjiat they would never have liecni taken for Euro- 
peans. Not only were they 7iaked, lait they Imd their 
whole body jiainted and tattooed. Tiiey were married, and 
had several wives. The Cenis Imd taken them on their 
wars ; and, as lontj as their powder lasted, they had won 
admiration liy the elVeet of their muskets ; but as soon as 
their ammunition failed, they were (jbli^ed to liandle the 
liow and arrows. The ioose life which they led had great 
attractions for them, and lli<v had scarcely a sentiment of 

Jontel pavo Hutei' an account of do la S.ile's death and 
iiiat of his nei)he\v, Moran^'et, and he seemed touched. 
When asked wliethcr he had not heard the ('cnis speak 
of tlio Micissi]ii, ho told Jontel that he had not : that he 
luid oidy heard it said that there was a iiie.-it river forty 
leagues to the northeast, the banks of wliit'h were densely 
peopled, and where they had seen men mad(; and clothed 
like us. This river Joutel felt confident was that which 
ho sought; and, as he had k solved to jtart company with 
la Sale's murderers as soon as possible^ his only thought 
was to ascertain tlie route to be followed in order to reach 
tliat great river. Uuter returned home the next day, 
Jcmtel giving him whercAvith to make some little pres- 
ents to his Avives, and begging him to persuade his 
comrade, Grollet, to come and sec him. 

On the (Ith of Ajiril they both arrived in his cabin, 
equip]ied in the some manner, except that (irollet had not 
tattooed his face, nor consented to cut his hair in the Cenis 
fashion — a fashion odd enough, as it consisted in wearing 





*,■ -i 

\i n 


'I J 

i ^. 



imrl «itli 

lllf oil l|:i. 

iii>n>:;v oi' m;\v i-kwci;. 

till' hair v.rv :,li,ii>l, ..\.'('].liii,i4 'i till'!, which the liiliaus 
l(>:iv(> f)ii llic toji of Ihi' h( ,1(1, (ir soiiK'tiiiK s 011 tlio sides, 
mill l'r;iiil in :i (|ii<mi('. 

(ii'nllct coiiliriiK .i his coiiira Ic's slMlciiiciit (o .loud 1 as 
to a Lii-.v'f river lo flic northeast, on llic liaiil<s ol' whicli, 
Enrojieaiis had l>e( n seen ; and lioth oM'ered to accoiiipaiiy 
hiiM to Ihe camp. Jie was clianned with tliis resolution; 
and, on t!i(! Kih, two J'^reiiciinien liaviiii'; come lo (he Cenis 
with a lioisf! to cari'V tlie inovisions purchased hv doutel, 
all set out io.uether, and arrived on tiio Idlh. 

DininL; Joutel's nlisence, la Sale's murderers had m -;sed 
apart, ami t'oianed the desii;n of returnin;.;- to St. Louis, in 
ordi^r to Iniild a lioat, and proceed to the West Indies. 
>iothin;.;' was more cliiiiierical than this laojecf. 'i'liL'\- 
lacked most of the tools necessary lor tliis work, ami not 
om^ of tlnuii had ever lear'a'd how to handle any. ]>ut il 
was the iu\st elfect of the verli-o with which (lod oi'ten 
punishes those wlio have tilled up the cup of their iin(piity. 
Vet, as He did not desii.oi to involve the innocent in the 
misi'o'-lune Aviiich His justice laid iij) for the ^uiUv, He 
inspin'<l the foi'iiier with llie desi-n of separating' from 
the latter ; and, in fact, their only tlionght was to tak(i up 
the route in the direction v, here they deemed the Illinois 
to be.' 

:\lr. Caveliev, who was at their head, liavin-,' learned 
that j)uhaut and his accomplices were ju'eparini^' to send 
to tiie Cenis to buy hoi.-cs lo cairy their baggagi^ to St. 
Ii(juis, went tohi!ii, and told him tJiat he, with some others, 
whom he named, we!(* too exhausted to undertake the 
march he contein]ilated ; thai it was their idea to remain 
for some time, at least, in the first Cenis villa.c^e ; and ho 
be.irged Diihaut to make them a jiresent of some axes, a 
little powder and ball, and to add wliat would enable them 
to buy provisions; that, if he wished, he nii,i.dit even .set 
down the ))rice he re([uired, and tlnit he would ,t;!\ehini 
his note for it. 

' .loutf!. .ronrnal Ui-loriquo, pjv ',':;i-!l. 



li;sTou\ ui' m:\v Kiswri' 



Dnhiuil (Ifi'iTcil his to tlic ui\[ (Liy ; ainl, iit'tci' i''^~-yo. 
coiisiilliii'4 \vi;ii his Imnd, he l"M Mr. Cr.iiiT tliat l:c''^''~~^ 
C'oiis.'iili'd !i) c;ivi' Iil' i liall' ilic .-tii'c,- tliat wt re It It. 
Ho a.iMi'il till! if !m' alrl lii> il'l .1)1 suri.'.cil ill iilliiililii; 
abaii.lluy wniiM r. tnin; aiul liia' in- woiilil iln thriii a 
faviii- ti) aci'iiiiuilatf in'iivisioii.s, at all liaz.anls. -V I'cw ilavs 
afliT, lit rhan,i,'t'il his iniiitl abnut rt'tuiiiiii;,' ti> St. Lmiiv, 
and |irii|i.)Sftl ti) iii-; fomrailt's t > rcjuiii Mi'. Cavclit r, and 
pi'ijfi'fd In till' llliniiis. I lirii.-. aiiil sniih- nthfi's Wfi'e nt)t 
of tills ()|>iiiii)ii, and ili'iiia!iil''d llitir ^liai'i- til' llif ;.'iH)ils, 

Diiliaut raised iiliji'ciiDiis ; ihfv (jiiariflfil ; and, at last, m,] < i 
Hifiis ili'fw his |iisti.], and shot Diihiuit in thtj licaiL i.icnni. 
He sl.i'j^cri'd liiii'' jiatM'S IVoin llif s|iol Avhfi'f In- was, aipi 
ftdl ilcad. Ai til'' saiiif liuif, liiilcr, the Jhftoii sailo;. 
wimiii Joiittl had hi'oii^hl iVoiii tlu' Ccnis, and who had 
takfii sides Willi lliciis, tir-d hi 4 lllll^kl■t at Liolot. the 
snr;;i'.in. That \.-rt'tf!i. although he rt't'eived tlirrf hilis 
in his hixly, iiiiLi'crc'il soini' hours, and was so hajipv as {>> 
rPCt'i\(' the saeraiiicnt of iieiiaiiee, al'tei' whitdi the one who 
wonnded hiin shot iiini thail with a ]ii>-iol. Thus, tlie two 
who niui'tU'rt'tl de la Sal" mil his ne|ilitw, were the l'ir:>:, 
vit'tiiiis of the sjiirit of niatbiess wliieh they hail ini'nsed 
iiiio thai ill-staired ctiloiiv.' 

Joutel, wlio witllessetl this Iiiassael'e, at taiee sid/. d his 
Jimsket It) tlefend liimstdf, in case they soiiLiht his life as 
W(dl ; Imt llieiis t-alletl out to h'lii not to In? al.u'ine.l : that 
lie iiad no ohject, exeejit aveii-in^' the ilenlh of his iiatr^.n ; 
he added that althouuh he had heeii in Duhaiit's jiiot, he 
ha>I i.ut I'onsonted to his pairieide, ;iiid would have jUi - 
ven,,ti it had he laeii pre^en:. The Iialians did not know 



' .IciiHi'I, .Ii>i!rn:il lli-i(iric|U", y]<. On- \n<[ iiti>, oin- i>\' tl.c n.-si: -si.i.s 

^41-;l. i'lalii'.' Aiin.-iiir-iii,-. wh.i Is ii.v.i u c.iii 1 i.^ur al lii> lifU.l, wli;^ !i 

lus< .'. t i'iIimI, -,1;.' Duhaut vm.s shut >. 1 lire lo hi- liair iilul cldthfs. iiii-l 

thniu-:. til.' l,.art. l,i't'l.'ir,|. Kuili- tins li- Iliiil. I'i.'H;.- 

ii.ssrni-iit (ic 111 l-'oi, ii , |i. :M(i; llrii- 'l\iUn\ u-\ rvM\,\>, Duliiuit »;• lolli-l 

m-liiii, |>. ','17. 'I'hf ilnuli (.!' l/i ) 'ov .Jiuiii>, .hir.U's l.y IhitiT, lauur 

III! ili-iTiiMs as liTl-ibli' : ,\i'i.r al- Iv 11 siii-friini. wlm lied ti^ tlic I.olios, 

lowininn .ol't'i.- in-i.'Sfs t'M^iv,. Ii;m a'l 1 was k;';li,',l in \,-ar. 

1 ^j 


HlS'l')i;V (»!•• M;\\ lUANCE. 

1687-90. what to tliiuk of tlicsc nuuili'is, wliicli scaudiili/od tln-m 
^— v—' gi'i'iitly. Tliey wwv ri^^lit, and iiii;^'lit iiiori" justly treat 
tlu(SO l''renL'linu'U as sava.m's lliaii \m', \>y any ri^lit, coiiM 
I'l'^'ard tlifiii as siicli.' 

Still, as tlicy witu ui'L-dcd, Joiiti'l t,'avo tliciii to uiidcr- 
staiul tliat tiii'su two iiiou d<'.s( rvid tlio tivatim-iit wliioli 
thoy liad just fxporicucod, for liavin;^ dipjuid tlioir hands 
iu tho blood of their fomniandci's, and vinlintly s('izin,L( 
what did not l)clon;^'to tlu.'ni ; ami this LXplanatioiiscenicil 
to satisfy tlifni.' Laic'lH'\i'(|Ut! was not at tiic- villago whilo 
all this occurred ; lio had -^imii oil' early tiiat very day to 
hunt, and llii'us was hent on treating luni, on his n'turn, 
ns he had just dono Duhaut ; but ]\Fr. Cavelier and Tather 
Anastasiiis suceeeilcd in dissiiadiu,!,', and Joutel went 
iu search of Jjarcheveiiue, to warn him oi tiit; peril that ho 
had been in. lie tlien look him t<i i liens, and thosi; two 
mou niutuall}- plcdj^etl their wmd not to allempt anything' 
a},'ainst eaeli other. ' 
Some of Ai^'jr this reconciliation, they a;4ain i)roceeiled t(j delin- 
:i('!(iinpaM.v' <5i''do on tho course to 1)0 pursued; i)Ut iliens deelareil 
"" wiir.*'" tli'^t lie had i)romi?M'd the C'enis to i(o to war with tiiem, 
ami that if thi'}' clioose to wait anioni^ thoso Indians till 
his return, they would then see wiiat was best to be done. 
Mr. Cavelier and his party were obli^'ed to ac((uiesce in 
all that tlujso niadnien proposeil, inasmuch as tho ju'operty 
was not y( t ilivided. They accordingly proceeded with 
them to the C'enis villa,ge; and, early in March, Hieus took 
tho war-path with tint Indians, toL-etlier with hix i-'rcnch- 
mon, all mounted. 
\ictoryc.f On tho I8th, those wlio r>'mained in liie village wore 
''"' ''"'^' much surprised to sei> women entt.'r their cabins oarly iu 
tho morning, all daubed witli clay, and begin to dunco 
around. Tliis lasted threo hours, afier wliich tlio master 
of the I'abin gavi; the dancers a piece of nati\e tobacco, 

' Jiiutfl. .I(jiinial pp. 2 Ill-T. ^ .IdiUrl. .luuiiiiil lli»toric|Ui", ji. 

' Jo'iti'I says llicy only iilU'gcil ^ |8 ; Fiitln-i- ,\iiii«tai-ius (Lo CUtci). 
takingtliP powder mil ball (p. 3tS). ii., p. ;;i(ii. 




wliicli rosi'Mil>loil ours, cX('7'|)l tliai i':. iciivrTwi'U' ■ffTTiflttti. i'fi;-9 
'I'lic Froiich wi'i'c tlii'ii iiifniiucd (liat tin* Ciiiis liiiil won n ^-^'-^ 
com] (let I' victorv, uiul tlii' licncrof tlic iiitolli^^'ciicc 
tliit, lor liis j)iiit, lie had IvilKd alunit forty of tlio 

'i'lic woiiioii nt oiico 1)i',L,'an to )tropiirn rcfroshmouts, in 
order (o },'o and iiu'it tlie vietors, who reached the vil]af»o 
ill the aft-riiooii of the :,aiiie day. Tiieir eiieiuies, the 
Caiiiinhatiiiiios, liiidawai^ d them resolutely ; but the uoiso 
and elleet of the Frcneh liro-arms so nliirnieil them, that 
they took ili,L,dit after the first volley. The Ceiiis pursued 
them, and killed hirty-eigiit men and women. Of tlieir 
pri.soners, they s[)ared only two little boys, whom they 
brouuht to their village, with the scalps of the dead; all 
the rest were butchered on the sjiot, except two women, 
whose fato was still more de]iloral)Ie. 

One was sent home, but not till her seal]) had Iieen torn TiiLii 
ofl'; a charge of jiowdcr and ball was tlieii ]>ut in her hand, 
and she was told to carry that jireseut to her mition, and 
warn them that the Cenis would S(jou c(jme to visit them 
again with that kind of arms. As for her comjianion, nhv. 
was delivered to thoso of her own sex, wlio, armed -with 
large pouited stakes, took her to a [ilaee a])uit, where 
there were none but women. Tliere, these furies began Iheii- 
work : some Ijy giving her a thrust with the point of the 
sticks ; others dealing blows on her body with all the might 
of tlieir arms. They then tore out her hair, and cut oil' her 
lingers : in one word, subjected lu'r to all tortures that cau 
be imagined, in order to avenge on her the death of their 
friends ami kindred who had been killed on various occa- 
sions. At last, Aveary of tormenting her, tlie_) .itablied her 
to death. Her body was then cut into pieces, which they 
made the slaves eat.' 

The next day was set ajiart for rejoicing. The chief's 
cabin was well cleansed, then s])read with mats, on wiiich 

' Jouul, Jouriuil Ilistori(jU(\ jip. lintinos, not cnptiiri'd tlji'ii. but long 

'J i '.(--.")( ;. 'I'lii' ^liivi's wcr,' i'liiiiKi pri\ ioiisly tiikcii. 
\..!.. 1\ . -Ij. 







' ) 


IllSI'dU^ 111" m;\v I-I{\N«K 


>'. ho siiclu'ius mill till' Frciicli woro scati'il. Win ii (jacli oin 
•—,-'~ liiid tiiki'ii his pliicr, Jill oral"!' rose, iilid iiiMilr (piitt! ii h'U'j, 
S))Ct)i'li, n)ipaitiitl\ in )M.ii c dl' tlic wairiors, niitl thiij^rcat 
801'vic'o Avhicli llii'ir jji wallifs hiul jiisl umlorod tho nation. 
Thou il^\■o!ll!Ul aiipcavcd, lioidiii;^' u Ion;.' reed in her hand ; 
(lio waviiovs I'oHowcd hrr, cacii, afcordin„' to his ran!;, 
carryin',' a how and two arrows in Iiis Inind, ^^reccdcd l)y 
tla'ir wivrs, vlio hon' tlic seaips Ihrir iinsliands hail 
hron.Ljht liacl^. 'VUv two voiin;; prisoners, whoso lives wero 
spand, closed tlio line; and, as ouo of llioin liad liocn 
wounded, lit' rodo on hor.-eliack. 

As t1ie-e waiiiors pasf,i(l before tlie orator, Ihev took 
tlie scalps from the hand-, of their wives, and presented 
them to iuni. lie reeeived them with Imtli hands, turned 
them toward tlio four cardinal j)arts,and laid them on the 
ground. After the procession, fjroid platters of saganiit_\ 
wove st-rved np ; and, liei'oie any one tnuelieil it, tin' 
orator took some in a hiri(0 wooilen bowl, and presented 
it as an oll'erine to the scali)s ; thon he li,t,dded a pipe of 
tobacco, and l)lewsome o'' the smoke on the same scaljis. 
This done, the ban(]uet l)e,'jan. ]>esi(Ks the sngamity, 
they served uji the tonf,'nes of tln! enemy who had been 
killed ; somo of the llesli of the woman, whose torture 
has been described, was brouL,dit to the two youn^i,' in-is- 
oners, and they were forced to eat it. The whole termi- 
nated with sons:s and dances, and the ceremonies were 
then renewid in other cabins. 
Cour^cpui-- After this expedition, there beiiii; nothin;,' to detain the 

BUC 1 bv till.' , ,1 .ri • 1 111 11. 

French. J.' rencli amoUL,' the Cenis, they assembled to take their 
final resolve. 

Hiens bep;an, at first, by declaring; that he did not ap- 
prove the project of endeavoring' to tlnd tin; Illinois; that 
he foresaw in.surmountable ditriculties ; and that, iiKu'e- 
ovcr, he did not wish to return to Franc,-', to lay his ]u>!id 
on the scalTold. The last argument was unanswerable ; 
but, as it Avas the only one that had really induced Hiens 
to take the dospernte course which li" rollowed, thos(> v.ho 





liid iiDt iVol guilty iii'iisihtnl iu llic iiroject <il' |Mi->!iin^; (Hi i^H'-go. 
to llio Illinois, uiul that vt rv iliiy 1k,';;;iii to [injiaro in ■'".■""' 
riinu'st t'di' llic'ir ili'|iartiiri'. 

'rim Indians liail viX'atly cxiigf^cmtcil to ,Jnu(fl tjic 
tlaii,L;iis to wliirji 111' ( .\|io>((l liiniMtll' iiy tiavi'i.sii)g so vast 
an I'xtfnt of cuiintry, wlu'iv ho couM not avoid uici^tiii;^' 
ninny unknown nations, nor oxiioct a friendly rt't-cption. 
'L'hcv used t'Vfi'v ai'unnu nt (o induce him and his iiartv to 
i'/nniin w'lli tln'iM, Iml tin'N' diil not jircvail. llu he ;,',!.■;(; d 
tlicni to I'uniish liiui guides, to whom hu pvoniisud a lai'.i,'« 
reward, aii'' iliusc tluy (.'liccrfully alt'ovdod him. Jlims 
^'avo Joulil all lir a.-.k('d; hut tho latter know well that lu^ 
niusl: not ask mnel;. This ruJlian retained possession of 
uhuost all <lu la Sale's elieets, and inid donned his ;^'old- 
laeed scarlet coat ; Imt, het'oro {^'ivinj,' any thiuf,', he exacted 
of Mr. Cavelier an attestation, written in Latin, and signed 
hy his iiand,' exoiieralint,' him from .all suspicion of com- 
plicity in iiis lin.lhei'",s murili'r ; and it i^, jurhaps, soh Iv 
on the i'ailh of this document that some have pulilisiicd 
that he renily took no part in that ci'ime,' 

Those who took uji their march for the flliiiois were .sonv 20 to 
sevi'U III mimiHr, namely: Messrs. Caveiie.r, uncle and 
noph(!W ; [''alher Anasta^ius ; the Sieiirs JiaiLrl and do 
Marie; a yoniit,' Parisian, named Jhirthelemy; nnd the 
pilot Teissier. Larcheve(]iie, Mnnier, and Ituter, had 
piedj^-ed tiieir word to join the ]>arty ; but a Hj>irit of liber- 
tina^^'c retained them amouf^tho Couis ; and, to all appear- 
ance, tho same fear thai seized Heins made an impression 
on Larcheve(|ue, still more guilty than he.' M'c shail see 
in the seijuel what liecame of these men, after Ave have 
followed the lirst jiariy to France. 

I shall not stop to dcseribo their journey iu detail. Tiiry^Miivr 
Jouiel has made a very circun'stantial journal, which con- '"AkausM." 
tains nothing very interesting for our purpose. T"hc only 

' .Iniitel, .luuniid llis!ciri()iic, pp. •'• Jiiulcl, .lomiinl lii^<t<M■i(|lll■, p. 
-'."i()-'Jt;:l. '.'(nJ. [■'ntlicr .Annbtubiiis U-'' Clcrcci, 

' I do mt finrl thip Pl.atPtl, ii., p ;ilT| fav5 they ^\■,_■\■r^ only six. 




f .1 

; 1 


friSTnllV i>K M w ii(\.\(|; 

I. •? I 

i6H7-yo. nntdwfiid nccidciit which li(>f(II tlicm in thi'ir loni' niid 
tfiilsdinr tiiiiich. aviis tiic Iohh of thf Kiour dc sialic 
nccfirdiiiL' to Juiilol, a vorv woilhy ninn who wn% 
drfiwjiod oil the 21th of Jinio, whilo bathiiii,' in a river.' 
On tlio 2nth of Jnly' thoy nnivod ainony tlio Akansps, 
wliiM'f thi V found two Frciu'liiiKii : one, naniod Prlniinny; 
the otlicr. a cariti'ntei', calhil (Vnitiiiv/ 

Tt wftH a Liroat joy for tho trav( lors to lind tlu'mwclvos 
Ko Hear till' ^ricisNi)ii mid in a known country, 'i'hc two 
Frciiclinicn h.'id Iummi sent to tlic .Vkansas hy tlic Cheva- 
lier I'onti on his return from a voya{,'i<, wliich he liad nnide 
in ]ierson to the month of th<^ river, wlierc dc la Sjih' hud 
proposed to meet liim. 'I'liey Imd hcuun a Iionse, and 
HPomcd roHoIvpd to s( ttle tlicre, liavin;,' lost all hopes of 
receiving' .'Uiy tidings of de la Sale. ^fr. Cavclier informed 
tlicui of liis tra;,'ic;d end ; lait it was af;recd amonf,' tlieni 
to say nothin;,' aliont it to the Indians, who had been 
held in awe liv the mere name of tiie deccnscd, and iVum 







' .Icmti-l, .F(iiini:il, p. '-'M ; An.">t!i 
HJiiK. 1,1' ('l('iTi|, ii , |i. ;'"i1. 'liny 
|iiiKSf(l Crniii tlic <'i'iii- ti tli.' N;i 
lidtidiUlir, tlic .\ssfini!^, or Nii'sunis 
(O") IcnL'iw.-* 1'. X. I" I. ulicrc. stiys K. 
AnastnKiuK, tlicy »|irnt tlii" optnvc of 
("(iriuis ClnistK.Iuiic fiK .loutcl Fiiys 
thi'V left .Tuiip l:t, nnd went N. R, 
or N. N. K., iK'ros^ I'onr Inrirc riviTs. 
with till' lliii|ui liiiliiins (III till' I'"., 
Nnliirl (or Niiliirii and XminHi up 
jiiiri'iitly on tin' \V. On tlu' ',''.M 
tlii'V lii'iinl lit' rill' Kii)i]i!i». wlinin 

C'ttvclier n triii/i'il ii.~ n trilii' iml 

by Ills liriitlicr on tlir Mis><isslii|'i. 
(Joutcl. )i. OrO) On till' '.':!il tiny 
rcarlicil tin' ('nilnilarclnw (I.i'('1iiti|, 
Ii., |i. :!-1!h, forty Iriiirucs from Na-;- 
sonis (ill., ]i, \)i\(\), whom .Joiitrl liicn- 
tions (('uilo(lii(|uio) ns ono of four 
allies, the othrrs hi'inif the Abisony, 
Nalsiilio-^, and NiitchitnH (ji. 278 : or, 
ai'i'iT iiim- ill Anar.tiisiiis (p, li.'j'Jl, 

N'nti'lioo.< (Niiti'hr/, in V. an .Nonl, 
v., )). '.'."ill, Niitihili»i, niid Oiiidii'hiH, 
t'li' his' iiaiiii' proliiilily nmri' nir- 
riTt than A^^nny, in .loiitil. 'I'licn 
jnarrliini; twintylivc li'iiirni'S K, N. 
K., (hoy rciirlicd, on the (itli .Inly, 
thi' ('iihaynolioun, or Cnlmiiiilioim 
(till' <'nliiniiiii of Aiiiistasiiisi. At 
law, |iriiri'rdin;; sixty loairms fiir- 
lliir K. N. K,, ihi-y cainc to tlio (>:■ 
sotti'oo/, or Oisotclioui', nil Arkaii 
siis tr'lji-. and, to tlnir iiitt'iihi' Joy, 
iliscrird a cros.*!, and fi'll on their 
kiu'i's to thank 'Ood, (.loiitol, \>. 
\<]\ ',".IS-n ; Aiiastiisiu..<, [,|. Clorcii, 
ii., p. •>oi').) For the death of tlio 
.■>ii'ur do Mario, ftv Voyn^'os nu 
Nonl, v., ]), 'J.')!). 

• This (Into KocinH correct. Coin 
pare .loiitil, pp. 207-8. 

'■' Hoth were of Koiien. Joiitel, 
.loiiriud, p, 2!is ; Tonty, Memoir, 
l^ouisiana Historical <'oll., p. 71, 

iiibTKUY or .m;\\ I i:.\Nrt:. 


wl mil tliry Htill wiHhfd to dlituiii iiroviHimis, i-iiiioi'H, ami 168--90, 
glliiliH.' ■— 'r-^ 

Mr. Cavi'lii r tlnii ln'^'t,'iHl Coutiiri* lo ^40 to hoinc at tlir 
cliitt's, iiiid </\\r tliiiii to iiii(U'l'Htuii(l ' that di' la Sale liail 
IciiulhI ti very tine Hottlenioiit on tlio Ciiilf i>f .Mixint ; that 
llitisc who Iinil ju«t ^'ivcii hi:ii this wt'lcoino iiili IIi'i.tuci 
iiili iitUd to |)i'occ((l to Canada for ^'oods ; that this 
would snoii return, with a i^'irat iiundM r of Frrnciiiin n. to 
wtth' in their country, in onlrr to defend them a;iaiiist 
their ciieinies, iiiid all'ord tlicin ail the iunelits i>f re^^ular 
coninicrci" ; that, in order to n at'li the. Illinois, they lioped 
to obtain from them the sanio aid that they had received 
from all the nations wlmm they had met mi the wny. 
Tho Akansas ashciiililed to delilicratc t'li these |)rn|H)si- 
tions. and mranwhile rcL'ali^d their new i,'iiests \\ith the 
best they had, and smoked the calumet with them. Tliey 
novertlielcsrt liesitatt d to turnisli tin in euides lur so Ioiilt 
tt voyage ; but promises and |)re.scnts siicceeiled. The 
yoini},' I'arisiiin, who was unable to walk any I'lirlher. 
remained amoii^' the Akansas, and Couture, for a time, 
ncconqiaiiied tho others, Tlioy set out the "JTtii ; doceiided 
the liver of ihe Akansas; and the same day reaciud ;i 
village, called Torinian, wliore, for the first time, they saw 
the ^Micissipi. The crossed it on the "JUtli, and the same 
day reached the village of the Kapjias,' where Couluio 
tool: leave of them. 

' .Imili I, .Idiiriiiil lli>|(irii|iii', |i|i. 
MiO-1. !■". Aiiai<iii>ius, l.c Clii'iij. 
ii., ii|). Iloli-i. 

' .loutil, .louniiil IIist(>i'ii|iif. |i. 


■* Jiiiitrl siivs ill his .Idiirniil, lluit 
this villii::(. is the lust iil' llii' Arkan- 
sas; l)ut it npiH'urs frimi (farcilnswi 
lie la Vi'ira's Ilistorv ol tlic ('(m(|iii'st 
of Klnridii, tlint tin' Kajiiuis, in the 
tiiuc of I'"i'nliiiiinil ilc Soto, wire ii 
B('])iii'at(' iiiid viM'v iiiiniii-diis niitinn. 
Noni' ninv i-i ni.Tin : lu Iraf-t, in I.ou. 

i^iiuia. ('idirhioij-. ^if .Idiiicl, 
.Iiiiirnal llisti)ri(|iic, pp. ;!(ii)-:;i."). 
'I'lifv ri'iulii'd till' Kappns un tlii> 
:!(llli. (ill.) Ah the ynajiaws slill 
I'Xist, it is not I'lisy to sec li i\v Cliar 
Icvoix oviTlonkcd thcni in lii< time 
Tin _v now alonr rc]irrsi-nt tin' .\r 
kanstts : the Toriinan, To;rinf;a, &(*,. 
having' di.<appi'arc(l. 'I'lioy liad 
lii'cn on the Oliio iliravicr. .lonr- 
iial, ]). 1(1), and wcri' diiviii down 
tlic .Mist^issippi \'\ till' Illinois, who 
lonp rnllc d the Oliio tho i-Imt of Mi.' 







i.i.;ioi;i Ui.' ^LA' FUAM !•:. 


1687-yu. On tlie iid of S<'](t(mil)or tliey entered the river of the 
' Illinois,' and on the 1 Ith' rearhed Fort St. Louis, where 
TIkv nacii the Sii'ur de Bellel'ontaine lield I'oniiiiaiid, in tin; al)scnce 
I, .lii-c'i liio of till! Clievaiier de Tonti, who had ,^ono to join the 
iiiaUc'iiiJ Martinis de' Denonville in the war against thc^ Scuecas.' 
wiioiii'iiuv livery oni' eagerly asked for news of (ie la Sale, and thoy 
I'il'vr'tii-.t I'l'pli'Hl that thi'y liad left him forty leagues Ironi the 
^'smi'(' i' ' ^'"-'"i^- 'i"I"T t^ii^ not deem it well to be more exi)licit, 
full (4 hu'. .^^ they wished to j)roeeed to Canada as soon as possililc ; 
needed assihtanco to make that journey, rendered dilH- 
cult and dangerous, since war had been declared against 
the lrot|Uwis ; and feared liuit this ;issisiance would lie re- 
fused, if iiifi.vii.aliou were given of de la Sale's death. 
Tiiivnio Jlaji) lily for them, tlu' Sieur d(^ IJoisrondet, his agent, 
«iiri"iiiii was ]n'e])aring for that voyage; and the meeting was 
equally agr< calile to both. They endiarked on the 18th, 
but they did not go far; bad weather eom])ellod them to 
return to the tort, fi'om which they had started. This 
accident disconcerted them all the more, as it deprived 
them of all hope of passing over to Franco that year, 
and sending assistr'nce to such of their ]ieoi)le as had 
remained at tlie sell lenient of St. Louis, near St. Lernard's 
Bay; but they had to be ])atient.' 

On the *27th of Octobt'r, Mr. de Tonti arrived at Fort 
St. JiOuis." .>[r. Cavelier deemed it necessarv not to be 

Akaiisus. or AlkansuH. illi. ; com- '•' Ji)Utcl. ji. ;!>'ll, savs prooisi'ly 

pure l!i'uiic|.iii, Viiy. au Xiinl. v., p. Suinlny, Si'pl. II. 'J ]'. .M. : Annstii- 

'i')'!.) 'I'his iiu'n-is Willi li('ikr\,cl ^■^ls, in l,c t'lrrci|, ii., :j(i7 ; llunno 

d'f. iiiiii iclciuitics his 'ralliu-'wi. or \>'m. Viiv. uii Xnr,!, v., |i. '.'.i:^. 
Alk'ui'wi, nl'ih'' l)^'ln\vnl•c■^, willi llu: • Tiiiily, Mciiioii-, in .Mai'trrv, Kelii- 

Avkaiisii:-. ! Ili'i'ki-wi'lcic!, An.'i.unt linn-;, iVi'. ; l,(lui^ialla II. I'., i.. |i;i. 

of tli.r liulian XH!inii-i. |i|i. 'Jll-;!!).) (i!l-70, 

'I'lie nanii', wlicihi r Ak:.iisas, Alkim- " Joutrl. Juurnal lIistorii|iu\ \t\< 

sas, Arkansas, Allrnvwi. or 'I'nlli'- liol-."). 

gowl, is i'vi(lcntl\ the AI,ffoni|iiiii ' ■rouU'l, .loiirnal Historiiiiu'. \i. 

name for tln' nation, ir't llicirmvn. lilH: 'loiily. Memoir, in MarLTiy. and 

' .Toutcl. .lonnial Ili^ oriijiii', ji. in I.. II. Coll.. i, p. 70. His nniiioir, 

o'.'il. '•'. .\nas!asius i he i 'lorri|, ii., |i. as -ivrn in \"o_v. an Xord. v., y. l.")0, 

;jl!(ii sa.\s the ."itli, an l inakrs a loii_' niaki's hini iTlnrii to his I'ort at tin' 

.ittucli on Miuiiiiiiic .Tnil .loii. 1 end nl' Ma\-, 


il^>r.JliV UK .NKW ll'A.NCK 




more frank witli liiiii tliiiii lie had Imtd witli tlic otlior- 

ill l68;--(;o. 

rogavd to il(> I;i Sale's dcalli ; aiui, as lie liad taken t]i.> ^■. — ' 

l)re('anti(in to (jl)tain from his brother, 1 

)t'iore Ills I 

leal I 


•r of cri'ilil, to rc'C( ivc in tlio Illii 

lois a sum oi nionov, 


or its vahio in ])i>ltrios, Tunli did not insitati^ to luiv 
goods to the vahn^ of four tiiousaud francs. Our travel- 
ers, a; hast, left llie Illinois on the '21st of Mareli, IfISS, 
witli iioisrondet, and Faliier Allouez.' who, iinding no 
oiieiiiiig lo ]ilant a ]iermanent mi.-sion among those In- 
dians, wa.s ix'turning to St. Jose]>li's Uiver, where h,o died 
soon after, among the 3Iiamis.- 

On the lOtli of 3[ay they arrived at ^riehillimaddna-,' 
where tliey made l)ut u sliort stay; and, on the 14th of 
duly, Mr. Cavelier landed at IMontreal, where his [lartv, 
wiiom lie had left at Laeliine, jouied him on tl'e ITtli.' 
Tlierc they met Messrs. dc Deiionville and do C'liami)i;.;ny, 
wlioiu they informed that they were obliged to ])ass over 
to Franco as soon as possil)k., ju order to send aid to Mr. 
lie la Sale, and those gentlemen believed them on tiieir 
word. A ii'w days after, Teissier, who was a Calvinist, 
made Ids alijnraiion in the parish church of :\[oni!va]; 
all tJieii end larked for (,)uebec.- Tliero they did not long 
await a vessel ; they lauded at la Kochello on the otii of 
October, and on the 7tli, Messrs. Ca.velier and Joutid set 
<mt lor liouen,'' where I saw and couversi'd at h nvlh witli 
this latter, in 172;]. 

Tlh'V jvim 

to riMiicc, 





' J.mtt). J.,iirnal ni.^toriquo, pp. .April (!, 1(;s8,;uh1 tlicir cn,ir..nlnirnl 

"•■■'-•■•"''*• cfLft SnIli'V(ic;it!i. 

•For l,a Snllr's llo^lilit\■ to Al- ' .Foutri. .Iniininl lli-.i(,n.|U^'. j.p. 

idno!!, ».■,■ i.'ucr (•:' l.ii Salli', ill if;so. :;."i;M;a. 

(Tliomastiv. (i;'.)l<c.-io l'r:uif|UO do la - Tlirv r.'ac!,.'.! Ciui'lKc, .]v.]y 'T 

L.msi.ims pp. l!);)--;(ll.) AWonv?. L,. t'N irq. ii., ■.,■,:■ Il,.ni„riM 'in 

.hoaatlMirtSt. .I..MM.I1 ill 109O. II,. V.,v. ;r,i Xiu-d. v.. p. -Jlil, or •J'Jtli 

had ronio to Canivia in 1 ':.>•, .^nd .lo„t,.l ,pp. :!(;i!-i),. ..mlwrUrd for 

aa^r la'. ring at Tinv liivcivs nii.l FraiKv, .\iiuust 'M-\. ,11,.) 
Mont: d, wont wosr. in Klii.-,. and • ,1, „;,.] ,,,,,. ]„. roacli.^d Rorli.-llo, 

cniiiiniird ill that fioldlill liir^dealli. i-aliirday. (V'^olxr !). li'.s^^; and a 

■^.Ii'Utrl, Journal llistoriiiii.'. p. nuMiioir of M. Plot, our ol tho lirirs 

;?.■)•). La l.ontan ii..p. IMlmcnti m^ ,,f Ln Snilo, sav.s tho same c' <av 

lliKir Kvrival „. Fort St. Jo8,.|.!i, lior. wlio roacijod riicbor, ,ln!v ■.; 




1 1 :» 

I \^^ a 

'H •> 



■'.( '«■,! 


lliSiuUV UK NKW 1 KANlK. 

\Vll:ll liC- 
Cillilrof till 


1687-90. Ill all piubtibility, hfid these gentlomen not boon obli.ijrd 
^-^r^^' to winter among tlio Illinois, but reached Franco .a year 
sooner, nietisures might have been taken to relieve 1 r 
withdraw the little colony left by Mr. do la Sale at 8(. 
Louis, among the C'lameoets ; but when they reached 
Paris, they I'elt that it was too late to think of it; and, 
had they thought of it sooner, it would have been boot- 
h'ss. T1h> C'l.'imeoets were not long in learning the deatli 
of the leader of the French, and ihf dispersion of his 
party ; and, at a lime, when the settlers at St. Louis lea^-t 
suspected it, they fell u]ion and massiicred them all, fx- 
ci'pt the three sons of Talon, their sister, and a Parisian, 
<if good family, Eustace de Breman, wiiom tlioy carrieil 
olV to th<>ir village.' 

An Italian, who had traveled IVom C'an,;da, by land, io 
join de la Sd", and who undoubtedly would have been of 
great service to him, by iidorming him of (he rout(^ he 
should take to r.'ach th(> Micissipi, had Ik; reached that 
huider in season, also saved his life by quite a curicnis 
stratagem : As some Indians Mcn; prejiaring to kill him, 
h'.> told lliem that they would do a great wrong to kill a 
man v,]io l)or(! tliem all in his hearl. These v.^ords 
astonishi.'d llio savages, and tlie ilalian assured them 
tli;il, il ihcy wonld give him till next tlay, he would i!Oii- 
viiice IIh'ui of the truth of his iissertion ; adding, that, if 
l!(^ deceived them, they miL'ht do with him as they chose. 
Wilhdul any dilliculty he obtained the ilehiy he sought; 
•i!id. bavin;: adjusted a little mii'ror on iiis breast, he went 

f.n.l Ici'i it, Aujr. ;iO. (Plct, .Mciiioiro ' JnuTroijaiioiis tiiiu'.^ i\ I'icviv ft 
j'.Hii' Irs '.■uliuits I'l licriliri's tin siiui' Jean Talim, piirorilri' dv M. Ic Couui' 

I'. 1''lit. Ms., Cavrl-iT kc]il up I'i-; 
Ci'iiii'i'.iiiu'ut of till ^■:ll^•'s (i''aiii. 

( Ili'lliiMVilli', in .\. ^ . e'n!. t)nC.. ix.. 

\\ AV.'i I J'A-cn ill rfiiiu'i', lie cuit 
(M'lili'il it from tlic I'aiuiiv and civiiii 
iirs of l,ii Salle for two vears, ami 
rvliiiiij;' to Koiicn, to tiio house of 

ill' !'oiilcliarti'ain, a lour arrivro di; 
Vera Cruz, 1 \ Si'|it., Kills. .\!s.. An. 
■"i ; H;,i.'i:i. Ijisiivo ('roiioloL;ieo |iani 
!u hisloria li'' la l''loriila, p. '.'It") ; 
Moi'li, Meiiiorias jmra la liistoria de 
'I'rxas, M;s., Lib. :i, ),. 11 As nl- 
v:u]\- remarked, In identifies the 

Mndiine' Fortiii, n Cavelicr, died Clamiwts witli t!ie (.'ar.;iiea;;uace.s. 

lllSli)l;V OK NKW |.-|vAN('K. 



uf SOIIU' 


to t!ii> Indians, wiio wore lanoli surin'iseil to spc tlioiu- 1687-90. 
si.'lves, jis they supposed, iu the heart of this iiuui, and -^-^f-"^ 
tlicy spared his life.' 

On the other hand, the Sjianiards of New Mi'xieo, vaiious 
greatly alarmed by do la Sale's exjieditioii, resolved to '('.t'snim 
leave uothiiij;- undone to defeat it. Tliey, at iirst, sent 
five hundred men, wlio, on arrivinj^ anion-- the Ceiiis, 
found Lareheveipie and the Itoehelle sailor, (Imllet, wiiom 
they took prisoners." It is not known whether these two 
men told t'.ieni ol' de la Sale's death;' but it is eertain tiiat 
some limo after, anotlier party, of two hundred Spaniards, 
arrived at the same jilaee, nieetinj,', on tiie way, ^[I'lnier, 
and Peter Talon, bi'olhcr of tliose just nu'ntioncd, and 
took them to the Cenis villa.^-e, wli('i-(> thev were; toh'rablv 

'1 • 




' 'i'lii.i story Iiki'is ;i]'iicryiilml. Li'oii, nf tlic liisrov.Tv of tlip-'' 

ami is, I tliinh. older. Frciiclimcii. who attested I.a Snlle'.s 

■ Accordiim to liiirci.'i. EiiBityo alii|i\vreck mid ruin. Dim Aloii/.u 

Croiiologifo ])nra In Hi.-.|cirin de hi do Leon, (ioveriior of (.'oaluiilii, wh-; 

l-'lorida, ]i. ','-^7, Itapliael lluitz. iui tiien sent (Ilaivia, 'iST-S); an!, in 

l-;n<,''iislnnan. and a prisoner at lla- January, liif-O, set out fVoni Coa- 

vaiia, in lOSS, assured tlie (ioviinor hiiila, accomi'anii'd Ijy Katlier Oa- 

that the Kreiieli liad iinuh' a set ;le- iiiian, says jMorIi \\ 5-1) ri'aelied 

iiient on tlie (iiilf of Mixico, uhii h F(jrt St. l.oiiis, Ajirii -Vt. and lound 

li(^ liad visited, aud descrilie.l. On threo dead lioiIi,\s ainnn^- the niin-i 

this, a fri.irati! was sent to Vera Cruz, (Carta, in Smilli, Cole, ,n de Docu 

to inform tlie Viceroy, ilie Count nientos, \i. 'iXi \ I5ar.',;:. |ip. iJ'.ll-.-n. 

(k' .Moni'Iova. Alter examining tlie They learneil that the iiiasMK r • 

iiKiii, he.sent Pmiii Andrcrfde l'( s ill a took place tlirec ueiiths h.-fore, 

lri;r.'ite aiidai! IS-oared l.'iiicca lo ex- afler tin' Frenidi lost one luindieil 

plore. Tliey leit Vera Cruz, Mareli l,y siiiall -pox. tCarta, .^Iay is. \\'\\\K) 

•,'■), IfiSS, and soon readied .Mobile ; .lames (irollet, and .lolm Larche- 

IiereHiefriL'ntewassafelylaidup.and vimur'. df Bordeaux, two of livc> who 

I lie f ■! urea, with twenty-livemen and wer.' aiiioncr the Indians, srave them- 

ilie iMiulishmr.n. coasted aloiii;- .■ e; selves up (Hi., •,",).■)), ar.ii were taken 

days, till they reiudicd tlie I'alieada, to Spain, when' it was decided to 

or .Mississippi, and seem to have run fortily Peiisacola. Then, in I(!!)'^ 

up thirty li'agues. liiidiuj,' iio'lunji', I'cs, v.'itli Crollet and l.archev (|ue, 

the Knirlishman was iiut in irons, explored the coast I'r.ini Ti n.-:iio!a 

but suli.<equently tried iiK a pirate, to tlu' Missi.~-iippi, wliicli tiiev 

niid Hi'ut to the galleys, liarcia re- leached May .">, Harcia. Ihi-avo 

fcrs to the description made hy John ('roiiolocric. i, p, .'ia; ; .-ee l>i:;covirv 

Henry I'.arrnto, the pilot. On the of llu' .Missi>si;'pi. p. Ol >. Chari,' 

ISih of Se]itc>mher, .Mcjiiclova. and voix follows Ta!i ii, 
t'ount (I'alves, who liaci come tore- "• It is evide;,;, from 'I'aion and 

I'lace him. were informed, from Now liarcia, thai ihey <.\'A. 
Vol,. 1V,-1.V 













fi ''■'' 


if)j!7-go. wi'11 trciit.'il. Willi llio fnir(> wore soiiio Fraiicisofiii IViiirs, 
•-"'^ — who wislioil to sctllo amoi]^ tlicsp Indians. Sfciu;^; 
that tho two Frenohracn, who nndovstooci tho hiuj,'uaj.'o 
of tlio conntrv, niifj;ht be of great assistance to these new 
niissionaiies, lliey tlionght it a ilutv to imlnce (lion, by 
iniklness, to remain with those Fathers.' 

This kind treatment induced Tah)n to tell them that his 
tlireo bvotliers md a sister were slaves among tho Chim- 
eoets ; and a detachment was at once sent olV for them, 
lait the detachment could only bring the two Talons, 
their sister, and tho Italian — the Clamcocts, who had tid<en 
a liking for them, being very loth to give them up. Tlie 
next 3'ear, two hundred and fifty Spaniards returned to 
the same village, and drew from it John l>a])tist Talon 
and Eustace de Ureman ; and, at first, led tliem io St. 
Lcniis de Potosi, a city in Ni'w Mexico, and thence to 
'^^<•xico, with tli(^ two othei' Talons and their sister ; and 
t;ie Vieevoy took them all into his service." 

LarehevH]ue and (Irollet had, at lirst, been sent to 
S]iain, where they were compelh^l to re-endjark for Mexico 
some time after. There, they were ])ut into prison, await- 
ing an ;)eeasion to sen 1 them to Xew iMexico, a])parcntly 
to work in the mines. Tlie Italian was traus]iorted to 
Vera Cruz, where he was eonlint^d in prison ; and it is 
very probal)le that he, too, left : only to be sent to the 
mines. AY(> are not informed what became of Eustace 
de Breman. He was, ])crhaps on account oi iiis youth, 
treated iike the Talons ; for it is supposed that the reason 
why these were betti^r treated llian the rest was, that they 

i i 

' 'rnloii. liitciTOLi'iitidnH.Ms. Hiuviii rcc(..-crc(l lln' Tiiliiii^. Ijcdii iiicri'ly 

<locs nut mention tlhis socond cxijc- luiuvl i if other Frenclinien Ijpj-ond 

(lit ion, (ir tlie'l'iilons ; but Mmli siijs i lie 'IVnus. Siiiilli, Colcciioii, |i. u'd. 
timt Ddiirimo 'I'ifiiu lir los liios, 'rnloii, IntiTrogations, .Art. ."i 

tiovcnmr (,r Cnnlniihi, set out tVnni IliervilleV note, diitcil KOI, s.iys tlial 

Moiielovii. Miiy l(i, lli'.U, witli tit'teen all tlu' siirviviiin' Freiirh were res 

r. liirioiis. iinil ten soldiers ; l)iit tlie iMied I'min tlie Indiiuis liy Don I'V.'in 

soldiers, rmdincr winter too severe. I'iseo IM.'irtine. wlio cotnniniideil tin; 

insisli'd on returning. 'I'l'.is imrty liisi t\v<i imrlies. 

msioiiv oi-' m:\v I'-hanck. 


were of an tigo wlicu tlicv could not liiivc acquired any i6S7-<;o. 
knowledge ol the country, wlule the others were men — ^, —• 
grown, who might;i|)e, and give inteIHgence in Franco 
of wliat tliey liad observed in tlieir various journi'ys. 

At tile end of eigiit years, tlie lliree eldest of the 
Talons, being of an agn to liear arms, wore enrolled in 
tlic Armadilla, and shii)])ed on the Christo, which was the 
N'ice-Admiral. This shi[) was taken in Ki'Jii by the Chev- 
alier des Augiers; and the three brothers, having thus 
recovered their liljerty, rtiturned ij France ; and it was 
from them that all the circumstances, just related, wvnt 
hjarucd. It was, subsequently, ascertained, that tla; 
N'iceroy of Mexico, who had retained near himself their 
youngest brother and ilieir sister, having been relieved, 
took them both to ^jjaiu with him.' 

Such was the disastrous result of au enterprise, which 
many circumstances contributed to defeat. It would, 
a[)|iiirently, have had, at least, a portion of the succt'ss 
expected from it, had there been in view only a settlement 
at tiie uiouth of tho Micissipi, as many people were per- 
suadrd; for it is certain that de la Sale, seeing himself 
cast ashore in St. Bernard's IJay, and ere long convinced 
that he was west of the river he sought, might- -had he 
iio design but [o find it — at the time of his tirst j(juni('y to 
the Cenis, have obtained guides from those Indians, since, 
in the sequel, they gave guides to Joutel ; but he was 
desirous of approaciung the Spaniards, to obtain inforina- 
li(ni in regartl to tiie mines of Sanl.i Barbara; and, in 
-endeavoring to do too much, he not only did nothing at 
all, but ruined himself, and was lamented by none.' 

What (Ir 


:\ Sali^'.st!ii 






■ Taloa. liiiri'nijratinn:-. M>. liiin U) liavo In en. a^ an (xplnrrr, of 

■ 'I'liis iiii-a ol' iharlrvdix is nji- Uic iniuns! iiicaiiacitv. lii (Ivxi-ml- 
lii'ld by llciiiii-'piii, in liif Nnuvclli' iiitr 'lit' Missi>si|i|.i, lio iiM-nlv tdl- 
Dccouvi'i'tc; but, in l.ii Salle's actual lnwrd \hv ciiir'riu a shurt distanct: 
I'Dsition, sei'ins wild, iia he liail mi lievoiid Mar(|ih'tte and .luliei's limit, 
force lij co]ie with the I'celjlesl I,efi lo his own i-esoiirces, lie showed 
Spanish setthnncui. In fact. Iiis no enerj^y, skill, or judgment. After 
course, after hi.s shipwrecli, shows discovering' the fVni.-. lie should 




^ » 



I ' rl 

, ^^ j 

Hi: : f 

r I' 



i687-(yo. Wlini it wiis soon what dofoutcMl his onterpriso, iiotlilii^ 

— . — ■ was (>asii>r than to prolit l)y liis faults to carry ont tlxi 

liiiiritiori'i icallv solid pari of his i)roieft : liiat is to say, to socuro 

(HI Mr. '- ... 

(If III siiuv (li(> whole course^ of the Mioissipi ; us it was of very ttroat 

iniulllcl. . ' " " 

iiiiixirtaiici' tor us to liavo a scltU'inciit in that part of 
Florida, wcro it only to ^ivo us a crnisiiij,' statiou in tho 
Gulf of Mexico, and to strcui^'tlion tli.' iVonticra of Now 
F^'ancc in tlH> direction of the Ji]ii<,disli colonies. It was 
even as nnich to the interest of tlaj Spaniards as of our- 
selves to put tins ])arrier beyond iiisul(,as they niif^hl well 
li.i\c' foi'',!^ ". n that the English, masters of one part of 
ancient J''rei:ch Florida, to which they had given tho name 
of Carolina, would not halt there; but, step by step, 
woidd p;idi (heir settlements down to St. Augusthie, as has 
I'li'.ily hapj "IK d by tin; settlement of New Georgia; that 
Ihencc! Id iiH' Aricissipi, nothing could long stop them ; 
that it would then be easy for them to cross that great 
rivei', and give them nuich trouV'e in Old and New Mexico : 
when as, if tluy found the French on the banks of the 
Jlicissipi, the jealousy of these two nations, naturally 
incomj'atiiile, '.vould insure their safety. 

But men's minds in France were still so preoccupied 
with the mines of Santa J3arbara, that they long obstinately 
clung to the desh'o of realizing la Sale's chimera. They 
even liaiiered themselves, soon after his death, that they 
had succeeded by an intrigne, set on foot with the Count 
do Pinalossa. This resource faiUng — a])parenlly l)ecauso 
the Count raised his pretensions too high, and because 
there was no security on cither side — the charm, it seems, 
vanislied. Philip V. had ascended the Spanish throne, so 

liiivc sent Hoiii'' on, to liiid the MU- i)i'oili,iriously ovcrmtiil : luid tlint lo 

sissiplii, iis tlicy would I'iiriily have iictiuil in(.'n|iu'ity, nil Ids inisfor- 

iloni', iind tlioii brought uii all liiw tuurs .iru |roM,>ily to bo nscrib<'d. 

men from iMivt St. Louis; but it is IIo Wiu . do;llltIl•^s. :i ]iri-suusive 

i'vidriit that 111' scut out no cs- iind id!iiriu^- tal 

■ttini' forth 

;ilorir.-, only went on, in a sorl ol his jiiojrcts, tbMnj;Ii vt\i r\y iiicapa 
: iMud horoic way, wiih no fixed bio n/ inii'yiir.r omi v\. n ilii- bini 
[iur|io,.-i'. To mo, ho srcins a man i^h ■<; 



thill the court of Franco would not have pcriiiittod the S| mii- i (^^ ; ■)o. 
i.mis in America to bo nioh;st<ul ; but, after the death of """v—- 
Louis XIV., the phin iirojiosed in the Council of the ile- 
^eiicy, namely, to plant a strong colony in Louisiana, 
t'liabled some adventurers to ])r(jtit by the disagree- 
ments that ensued bei-'reen the courts of France; and 
Hpain, and revive the project of the Sicur do la Sale. On 
the faith of some apocryi)hal relations,' they indulged 
the hope of soon pouring into the kingdom, treasures 
which never exi.sted, except in tiie heated imaginations of 
some men ; ■ I this new enchantment ])roduced still more 
di'plorablo results' than those we have just seen. We 
shall have occasion to speak of them in the course of this 
history, of nhich it is time we resumed the tiiread. 

' .Mludinir, iii'iinnutly, to Sngcan. •' 'I'his, ot'coiiiVL-, iiUiiJis to l.ftw's 

Sft; Kxiniit elc In IJi.'lii'.iun des Avnn- Minsissiiipi ]ii-ojc('t. 

turos rt Voviipcs (ii' Miitliicu Siip'aii, IJcs'ulcij tlio ri'l'mMici's iilrrudy 

New '\'iirk. I>*1). |iriiilc(l in an iib nivcii, tlio ri'uder iiiiiv, iii rrl:itiiiii 

riilu'iid I'oriu ill till' .MiTcuriMiiilaiit, to Uiitrl, thi' ^ail(l^, ami liis mhi, 

NovimbiT, ITU. Ilisidrical .\laga- si'-' i'.vb..u. i'. l'.'"). 
■/.iiii' iv., 1"J8 ; X., (ip. (il-"). 






1<; ;! 

1 1 



i M--'- 


i I 

r. ! 

.1 * I 








BOOK X 1 \'. 




1 J k . 

Hi , 





)iisiiM{> oK m;\v nuNtK 


r^ o o K X 1 \' 


1\ the position ill wliicli tlic Coniit do l'"roiitt'iuu' found i6<;o. 
the allairs nf Now Fmiico on liis n'suiiij)tion of tlio (icii- -^ r"^ 
vral (iiivciiiiii.iil, we hiivo socii, ;\l the close of Book XTI, 
how iin|iortiiiit it whs to ;,'ive tho Kii.ulisli omploymout at 
liomc, and ivstoio the vopntalioii of tlic I'rcm-li anus in tho 
minds of thi> ludiaiis. It was tho solo moans <if hunililiiif,' 
tho insolence of the Iroquois, and niakin;^' them nioro 
tractable, by showiufj; thoin that tlioy must not rely so 
much ou tho assistance of tlie CJovcrnor of New York. 
In this way, our allies, seeing us chanf<o au ill-managed 
defensive to a vigorous otlensive, could not but resume 
their former sentiments of esteem for our nation ; or, at 
least, ajiprehend that their new alliance with our enemies 
would entail ui)on them, at our hands, the very wo(>s that 
they sought to avoid by abandoning our interest, and t'\u3 
bind them to us more closely than ever. 

'i'ho Count do Frontenae, having formed his plan ou this Fiomcnac's 
principle, began hy notifying de la Durantaye, who still com- ,„',;'i7,r'p,. 
niaiided at Michillimakinao, that he could assure the Hu- '•■"'"'"'• 
r( ms and Ottawas that they should shortly see a great change 
in affairs. He was, at the same time, preparing a large con- 
voy to roinfoi'co that post, and taking steps to raise three 
corps,' \,liieli were to enter tlu' Enghsh territory by three 
diO'erent routes. The lii-st was formed at Montreal, and 
was to be composed of ontt hundred and ten men," 
French and Indians, commanded by Lieutenants d'Aille- 

' Canndn Doc. I!., v., p. yi. Iroquois, sixtwn AlijrniuniiiH, tlio 

■■' Di! Monscignat, Uflatioii, &c., rest French ; and Lo C'lcrcq, Kliib- 

ICSO-OO. N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 40('>. lisscmont di- la Koi, ii., pp. ;iS7-8, 

says two hundred and ton, eighty also savs two hundred and ten. 
Vol.. IV.— 10. 

. |,| fill 


").' ' 











iiisToiiv III'" m:\\ I'UANn.' 

Iidiit (!<' Mimli I ' mill Ir Mux ik- dc Siiinlf Hclciit>, uiidi i 
wlioiii I\rcsHis. (!(' 1I( |uiili;.'ii_\ ,' (rilicivillc, (Ic IJ'mrcpoH, do 
1ft IJrosso, mid d«' ^l()iiti(,'iii, dcsin-d ti) Hcrvi* iis voluntoiTH. 

Tliis ])nily wuh soon ready, and took tin) lidd' hcforo it 
lii\il dclilx rati'd in Avliicb dirfction to turn its iirni.s. Jt 
was iidcndofl, ^'cnomlly, for Now York ; bnt tlm (-'oiint do 
I'roiitt'niic had left to the two coniiniindftntH the choice r)f 
tin! ])Ost which tlicy wcri' to attack, and tliry deemed i( 
(idvisablo to announce notiiin^,' till they had nearly entered 
the enemy's (eriitory. It was, aeeoi'din^dy, only after four 
or live days' march thai they lield a council as to what 
was to ho done : tho French inclimd to luarch straij,dit on 
Orani,'e (Alhany), hut the Indians rejected the jiroposal 
totally, aud cue of them asked, shice when lliey IkuI j^rown 
so bold. 

The reply was, that if tho Freuch had shown auy weak- 
ness iu the past, they wished to redeem it by takinjjf Oranjijo, 
or j)crish in tho attempt ; but that he erred, iu attrihutiuf^ 
to cowardice the c<Jurso pursued by tho Fi'ench the last 
few years; that (h?siro for peace had alono induc(>d them 
to remain in that inaction, which had given our allies occa- 
si(m to insult us, only because they failed to pcuetrato tho 
motive ; and that if they had received some checks, it was 
because they liad relied too implicitly on tho good faith 
of the English and tho Iroquois ; bu*^^ that he should see 
that th(! French had never lack(!d eon o. 

The Indians, aware of all the di Hculties attending an 
attack on Albany, persisted in their opposition, and tho 
council broke u]), without coming to any decision. Thoy 
continued their march till they reached a spot where two 

' NiclioliiH d'Aillclioust, Sicur de " Hppentignydo Montosson. N.Y. 

JInnt<'lit, the lit'th sou of Charles Col. Doc, is., p. 400. Uc la Pntlim-iy 

(rAillilioiist, Sicur lies MussentiN. cuIIk him by the liUtcr name. Ilist. 

was born in 1003 (Uiiuiel, I'nc Page tie rAin. Sfjjt., iii., p. 'is. 

de Notre llistoire, p. '.207), ;iiul was '• 'Die party siurted, from Mon- 

killcd in lliidsou's Hay, in llu'.l treal, early iu T'luiiary. N.Y. Col. 

Charlovoix, ilist. do la N. F. 
p. 340. 

Doc, ix., p. 400 ; Le Clercq, Ktab 
littemeiit de la I'oi, ii., p. 3bT. 

lllS'l'nllV (»K NKW I-IIANCK 

vikkIh nuil : i>iio loading to Anmny, tlin other to Holiciin;- 
tiidy (CorliiD ; tlion Miinti't, wlio tlcspaiml of rliaiij,'ijjj^ 
tlic opiiiiiiii ')!' Ills ftllics, proposed to attack Selienoet.uly, 
and tliey a^'i'eiHl. Tliey at ouoo took tlio roiid loadin;,' to 
that town, riid for iiiiio dayH tho forco had much to sutVer. 
All were ou foot, somotiraes kneo-doop in water ; oftcui, 
indeed, they had to hreak tlio ico to find a place to step ; 
and, moreover, tho cold was inteiiHc.' 

One afternoon,' ahont four o'clock, our braves arrived 
within two leagues of Schenectady ; hero tho (Iroat Mo- 
hawk, chief of tho Iroquois of Sault 8t. Louis,* iiarangued 
them with great eloquence, speaking with an authority 
acquired, not only over tho Indianw, but even over the 
French, liy his great services to tho colony, actions of 
admirable conce))tion and heroic valor, eminent virtue, 
f'ud untiring for religion. He ixhorted them all to 
forget past hardships in tho hopo of avenging tho evils 
sutt'ered the last lew years, on tlu! perlidious J'^nglish, wiio 
wore tho i.iain authors of all. Tnoy could not, lie added, 
doubt of Heaven's assistance against tho enemies of God, 
and in so just a cause. 

They liad scarcely resumed their march, when tiiey fell 
in with four Indian women, who giivo them all the infornm- 
tion required to approach the jilaco securely. (liguicre, a 
Canadian, was detached at once, with nine Indians, on a 
scout, and discii.uged ids duty j)erfectly. Unperceived, he 





' l)i' Monsi'ifjmit, Hclulinn, &c., 
1fis!)-U() ; N. Y. t'ol. Hoc. ix., pp. 
■liWi-T ; Lo ("Icrocj, Etul)lissi'mci\t dc 
III Foi. il., p. 388. 

• Snlunlny, Kcbrimiy S, C). S. ; 
Schuyler, in SiiiitliH History of Now 
York, 1", p. ()(! ; N. Y. Ducuiiirutnry 
llitstory, i., I). l!ll ; Ccilili'ii'.-i History 
(if till' Five NatioiiH (London IMi- 
tion>, p. Ill; Matlicr'.s Magniiliu, 
Book vii., p. 0.':^. 

' Tilt' Iroijuois of this village liail 
remained at La Prairio do la Magde- 

li'ir.c till the .Mnssacrr of I.nrliinp* 
After that cheek, they ri-tireil to 
-Montreal, where they remained 
sometimo.f At lawt, a litth before 
the departure of this party, they 
H'ttled op])osite Sault St. I-ouih, 
[('/iiirltriiij'.) ^'I'lii.e is wroii^'. 'I'hey 
left La L'rairie in |(i7i!. and settled 
nl Portiii,'!' liiver, iii'nr the pr.'seiit 
cross of Catharine Tehf^nlikwitu. 
Helation, lliTli. Here they reinainod 
till after lUSIi. + N. Y. Col. Doc. ix., 
pp. 138, 441 



: .'11 






I 690, 

!M1 ) 

.-J I, 


' 5 

Tin- p.iicc 


recoimoitfii'od (■v-licnoctady, loisuroly, and retm-iirrl to the 
force, whicli wMs only a loap;no distant. It was at first 
proposed to dolVr the attack till in(n-nin^' ; bnt the (jxccs- 
sivo cold clian,!j;ed their plan. They resolved to march at 
once, and attack on avrivinj^.' 

Schenectady was almost rectangular in form, and was 
entered by two gates : one leading to Albany (Orange), 
which was only six leagues off; the other opening on the 
main road, where our men were. Tlio order of attack 
was thus arranged : Mantet and Sainte Heleue took 
charge of the second gate, which the Indian women had 
assured them was never closed, and which they, in fact, 
fonnd o])en. D'Ibervillo and llepentigny moved to tlio 
left, to take possession of the first gate ; but they conld 
not find it, and rejoined Mantet : so that there was only 
one attack. 

The gate selected for assault was not only open, but 
totally unguarded f and, as it was night, the whole party 
entered, uuperceived by any of the inhabitants." The two 
commandants at lirst separated, in order to r(>counoitro 
all points at once ; and, as they had enjoined strict silence, 
they met again at the other end of the town, without any 
movement being perceived. Then a yell was raised in 
Indian style, and each one struck where he Avas. Mantet 
attacked a kind (jf tort, where he found tin: garrison in 
arms. Here the resistance was (juite vigorous ; but the 
door was at last forced, the English all piit to the sword, 
and the fort reduced to ashes.* Few houses in the towiv 

' Do Slonsoignat, Uelation, &c., 
1089-00 ; N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., ]>. lliT ; 
Lu t'lcrcq, EtiibllssiMiunt do la Foi, 
ii., p. 388. Do la Potherlc, Hiptoiro 
de VAiii. S<'[it., iii., 07, begins lion- 
nliniptlj- ; oiuiltilifr, cvidontly, ]^;\rt. 

• JCntry in Mortj^airo Book 15, 
Albany ; N. Y. Uoc. Hist., i., [i. Ijiy ; 
Coldon, History of the Five Nations 
(Lnn.lou Eilition\ p 11."); Smith's 
ni.--ti)rv III' Now V.irU, I ', p <:'■'. <]:■ 

inft Col. Scliuylcr'a lottcr, Feb. 10. 

■' 'I'liey arriviil at 1 1 P. M., in night 
of tlio town, after twenty-three days' 
march. Lo Clorcq, Etahlissement dp 
la Foi, ii., p. ;!88-t) : X. Y. Col. Doc, 
ix.,p. 40T; Scluiylor says on Feb. 8, 
O. S., after twenty-two days' inarch. 

* Do Monsoignat, N. Y. Col. Doc, 
ix.. (v lUT ; Do la I'dtlierio, iii... 
pii. ii.->-!). 




were defciulcd. Moiitigni tilono was stopped at one ; tuid, 1690. 
iis lie persisted in endenvoring to enter, received in the --^r"" 
arm and bodv two blows with a partisan, which put him 
hors dc combat ; but Sainto Heleno coming u]i, the door 
was forced, and 3Iontigni's -wounds avenged by the death 
of all who were shut up iu the house.' 

It was soon only massacre and pillage ; but, after two 
liours, the h adei s thought it necessary to place gur.rds at 
all the avenues to prevent surprise, and the rest of the 
nin-lit was s])ent in refreshing themselves. Mantet had 
"iven orders to spare the minister, whom he wished to take 
prisoner; but ho was killed without being recognized, and 
all his papers were burned.' Coudre,' Mayor (,f the place, 
escaped across the river, and seemed preparing to en- 
trench himself with his servants, some soldiers, and In- 
dians, who had followed him. The Commandant sent to 
sunnnon him at day-break ; and as they did not wish to 
hijure him, because he had, on several occasions, acted 
very humanely to the French, d'Ibervillo and the Great 
JMoiiiiwk umlertook to summon him. They not only pr(mi- 
ised him quarter, but also assured him that they would 
touch nothing belonging to him. On this pledge he laid 
down his arms, followed the two deputies to kSchenectady, 
alter troiiliiir Ihcm hospitably ; and they strictly adhered 
to all they had promised.' 

One of the first cares of the chiefs, when they saw them- 

' IS'iirnuivc of Occurrences, lilSi)- 
iiO; N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 4(18; Le 
Clorcq. Ktablissenient de la Foi, ii., 
\,\\ 8i)-00. 

-' NaiTati'-e of Occurrences, 1089- 
!iO: N. Y. C ol. Doc, is., p. 408; Do 
hi Potiiin-ie, iii., p. 00. This cleiiry- 
man was Kev. Peter Tnssi maker, a 
naiive of lloUancl. lie had previou^'- 
ly 1,'een at Khiirston, and Newcastle, 
i)el. N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 108. 

' John Sander.s <ilen. O'CalUighiiii, 
in N. Y. ' 'ol. Dof., ix., p. 40.S (note); 

Sehuyler. in f>initii, |i. 07. De la I'o 
therie. iii., ji. 09, writes " Cendre, " 
which th{! copyist of the Froiicli 
doeunients wrote iJondrc, and Char 
levoix's printer transformed into 
" Coudre." 

' Narrative of Occurrences, 1089- 
1)0: N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 408; 
Frnntenac, ( 'anada Doc. 11., v., p. 83 ; 
De la Potheric, Hist, de I'Air.. Sept., 
iii., p. 69; N. Y. Doc. History, i., p. 
191 ; Colden's Hist. Five Nations, p. 
11. -J. 



if 11 











,1, ' ■■ 





]■ r 

(.•-; t 

•If ! 




1690. solves complete niiisters, was to stave in the barrels of 
"'*'"~^ liquor, I'or fear the Indians slioukl beconu? intoxicated. 
The houses were then set on fire, only the Mayor's being 
spared, with that of a widow, to which Moutif;ni had been 
carried. There were about forty, all well built, and well 
furnished ; and no plunder was taken, except what could be 
readily carried away. Life was granted to sixty, chiefly 
women, children, and old men, who had escaped the first 
fury of the assailants, as Avell as to thirty Iroquois, who 
were recognized: the object being, to show the cantons 
that the French struck only at the English, whose loss was 
estimated at 400,000 livres.' 

They were too near Albany to remain long in the ruined 
town. The army decamped about noon. The booty ; Mon- 
tigni, who had to be carried ; the prisoners, to the number 
of forty ; and, after a time, want of provisions — as they had 
neglected to provide siifficiently, — greatly retarded the 
march homeward. Several even would have starved to 
death, had they not hail tifty horses, of which only six 
were alive w;h'>n the victors reached Montreal on the 27th 
of ]\rarch. 'Hiis uearth of food had even compelled chem 
to scatter. Some were attufkcd ; three Indians and six- 
teen Freuchnion were killed or taken ; so that want of'i: cost this party much more dearly than the attack 
on Se-iicnectady, where they lost only one Frenchman and 
one Indian." 

I N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., i>. 0!) ; De la 
rotheric, lli:-toiro dc rAun'riqun 
Scpt.,iii.,i'i). li'.i-TD. La Ilontan pives 
a slinrt accmmt ot' this cxiu'ditioii. 
Voviigos i., p. 'JOI ; ]a' Clcrcq. Etali 
liHHciucnt d(! la Foi, ii., ;JS!)-Ii0. He, 
says tUcy sparod ninety ; the Narra- 
tive, lii'twren fifty and sixty. Thu 
"la.^tot'y' people kild and destroy- 
ed, y<- l»tli day of February. KiS," 
makes sixty killed, including a 
French girl, prisoner, and a Mo- 
lia\vk ; those carried off, twenty- 
t-even X, V. Doc. Hist., i., pp. 1110-1. 

Coldon'8 History of the Five Nations, 
London ed,, p. 115, says sixty three 
killed, twenty-one Ciirried oU'. 

•' He Jilonseiguai, Kelation de ce 
([ui s'estpass' ; X.i". Col. Doc., ix . p. 
W< : Canada Doc, II., v., p. 8i. Char- 
levoix is careless in his figures. The 
narrative says thirty per.sons, and 
makes sixteen horses get through. 
'I'he English sent one hundred and 
forty Mohawks and Mohegaus, un 
lier Lawrence, in pursuit. N. Y. 
Documentary History, i., j). l'.)l. 
Leisler, in a letter to the Bishop f)f 



In tlio miiuls of tho Imliaus tliis expedition fully ro- 1690. 
stored tho ro])ut;ition of the French anus ; but tho joy it ^~> ' 
producod in tho colon v was soou dash 1 hv ouo of those EiTiit pro- 

accidents, not to bo forescciu, which dunrivcil us of tho iiii3 uou- 

.... i(i"'*t- 

vory man, in all the world, whom it was most vitally im- 
portant for us to ])reserve, situated as wo wOiO, and wliich 
tended to array our most faithful allies in arms against 
each other, at tho time when we had most need of uniting 
them all against our enemies. Thus it happened : 

Lieutenant Tilly do 15eauvais, and seconded Lieutenant iiiir Mh-t 
La Brosse — tho same who had served at Schenectady — e:ich otuei' 

. , witlioiu i-L'- 

determined, with four other Frcnclimcu, to raise a party coirnizhii;. 
of Christian Iroquois, of whom tho Great Mohawk as- 
sumed command. They embarked at Montreal,' and de- 
scended tho St. Lawrence to the Sorel lliver. On tho 
2(jth of May, their scouts heard some musket-shots, and 
soon after perceived two iield-cabms, containing fourteen 
Iro(iuois. These they attacked, and captured to a man. 
From them they learned that, on tho route they wort; 
keeping— and Avhich led to an Enghsh fort, that they de- 
signed attacking — they would iind a party these Indians 
had recently loft, and which comprised more than thirty 
men, without reckoning women and children. 

This news gave great pleasure ; but, when they least ex- 
pected it, they fell into an ambuscade. They cut through 
it, however, gallantly, killed four men and two women, 
and took forty-two prisoners, eight of them Englisl)." 
Learning that seven hundred Mohegans awaited thoni 
a day's march further on, they judged it best to retreat, 
not being strong enough, and being too much iucumherod 
with their prisoners to expose themselves to the risk of so 
unequal a struggle. What induced them to take a dif- 

Ssilisbury (ib., p, l9o) says tln^y ' lii cauojs, on tlic IStli. Di,' la 

kill'jil Iweuty-flve of the French ; Pothorii', lIiMtoiru du rAmeri'iuo 

thougli Van t'urtlandt, to Andros Septentrionalf, iii., p. 81. 

(il)., p. 194| says Hfti'cu ; Smith's • Kii'j;lish woiiirn. licUitiond.' sf 

History of New York, p. C(i, tiays, qui a'cst', I(i8i)-!I0; N. V. Cil. 

killed or ti.ok, twenty-five. Poc., is., p. 17:1 ; Canada Doe.. I., iv 


•I I 


ill .1 






. ii 









Dcjitli of 
tl Greut 
M' lawk. 


fercnt route li'tnieward from tliiit they lind c mic, I ktion 
not ; but it wns to cost tliom dcur. 

On the 4tli of Jiine they found tliinnsolvt^s, at noon, 
on tlic banks of Sahnon Piivcr, which empties into Lake 
ChampLiin. As thoy Lad left their canoes at some dis- 
tance from this point, they deemed it most (expeditious to 
make new ones; r .id, without loss of time, set to work. 
In the evening, at the time when they were ut prayer 
together, they were discovered by a party of Algouquins 
and Abenaquis, also out on the war paili -'Mrainst the Eng- 
lish. These, taking them for enemies, attacked th(!m in tlie 
morning before day. The Groat Mohawl; was killed on 
the spot with one of his men ; six other Iro(piois, two 
French aen, and two English slaves, were wounded, and 
prisoners takeJi on both sides.' 

Tlien it was that thoy recognized each other. The 
ra-isnic'iit ..n regret on both sides was extreme ; biit the Irocjuois, in- 
ivnd liow lu" consolable f(n- the death of tJieir chief, refused to set at 
himsi'ii. liberty the; prisoners whom they had taken. This refusal 
irritated the others, a bitter feeling ensued, and every 
thing was to be feared from this mutual resentment. The 
Count de Frontenac needed all his prudence and xbility to 
quell the rising storm ; and he succeeded after much nego- 
tiation. It was, at last, arranged that the aggressors 
should send deputies with a belt to Sault St. Louis, to 
j)rotest that the whole aft'air was accidental, and to ask 
for tlieir l)rotlircn ; that their protestation should be well 
receive i, and all the prisoners exchanged. The Abenaqui 
orator, wiio was si)okosmau, used the most sensible and 
touching terms, and eoneludod by showing tliat the\' 


.ic's cniljar- 

W -i! 

' Itrlation, &c., KISO-'.M): N. Y. iinqai, and had Ix'on a sluvo in lio;-- 

(\)\. Doc, IK., 11. -173; Canada Hoc, ton (Hook ii., \). OK), coiumandL-d 

I., iv., 1)1'. ;i(J.J-47I; IX! la Pothcric, Ids tribcnici; at Salmon Falls, an. I, 

Hist, do rAinLTiquo Sept., iii.. ]). .*>-; proliably, on tins occasion. Sip 

i., \\ ;!4T. .Mathi^r, in Ids Mairiialia, Pii'dick Occurrcncis, Boston, Scp- 

givi'S till' lU'Hth of lIopoliooJ ill tlds tcinbcr 'i't. I0'.)l), in llifltorical .^Ia;;a- 

way : lloi'c'.uiod, who was an Abe- zinc, i., p. ',';iO, 

i: I' 

i I 



ftliotild 'j^'wr. tlio (lopai'tcHl theii' tears, witlioiit iIistiu-1)tiiiL'o, 
a I'rieinlsliip wliicli was touiuled on volition alono. 

Tho Gi'oat Mcjhawk was not less deploi'od by tlio rrencli 
than by his eountrynieu, and it was tlic niissionariis vho 
most of all rosivttod this loss. This neophyte was himself 
a zealous missionary ; and, on tho plan wliicli he adopted, 
would perhaps, had his life been spared a few years, have 
converted his whole canton. His conversion to Christian- 
ity had been tlic v "ivk of God alone. Ho did not yet know 
any Jesuit, and had scarcely hoard our religion spoken of, 
when, by an impulse over which ho seemed to have no 
control, ho felt moved to visit his brethren, who bad 
settled at La Prairio do la Magdelcuic. Yet lie would 
not go alone : ho imparted his design to several Mohawks, 
and as many as fifty volunteered to accompany him.' 

They were extremely surprised to see their countrymen 
transformed, so to speak, into other mcu ; all that they 
observed in tho town charmed them, and they declared 
that they woidd not leave it. They were instructed ; the 
word of God found in them docile hearts, and they wore 
liaptizcd. Their example and words drew many others ; 
;uid tho Great Mohawk, especially, was so penetrated with 
the holy lire that makes apostles, that, down to his death, 
he never ceased laboring to obtain adorers for the true 
God. Heaven blessed his labors, even lieyond his hopes. 
Yet with this he ovoi; maintained tho high reputation he had 
accpiired in war ; and it was out of esteem for his personal 
merit, and still more for his virtue, that tlio I'rench gave 
him the name, under which alono ho is known, in tho me- 
moirs of that period, 

The Abenaquis and Algonquins,. whose error had such 
fatal results, had quite recently arrived from Acadia, where 
they had been greatly distinguished in an expedition, no 

' Do la PothtTio, llistoiro do Shea's Catholic Missions, pp. 'JTl- 

rAmi'ririui' Septentrionak', 1., pp. 2'J'J. IIi: (ivoi throw tlit' Mohctran* 

U47-iJ ; Uclation do la N. F., 1072-3, (Do la I'othorio, p. olTi. and is 

p. .'io ; — Ifli^-ll, p. 143; Mission do ovidontly the Kryn of Kjglish 

St. Xavi'i- do.^ I'K.'i., IPTI, M.", , ticcouuts 
Vi.L, IV. — K 


1 690, 


v> i> 1 


L i 


t* ■ 1/ 

:f..t ■ 



lUSTOUY OV M-;\V |-|!A.\(K. 

1690. Iti-s sncoossful or lioiioviil)]'! to IIk; Fn^ucli than lliii> 

^— >-— ' n;.':iin,-;t S'-lu'iicc't.uly. Mr. iU'. I'mntonno, Jis I luivo 10- 

Miiir niMkiul, had, during tiio wiiter, formed throo purtics to 

111 I'll'I'rtCX- 1 n ]• 1 • . 

I'cdiiioii. enter the Liiujlisli territory at tlio .Siiiuo tnuo, in tlireo dit'- 
fcnut directions. Tlint intended to aet agiiinst New 
York, and wliicli took elleot at Selieneetady, had been 
i"iii.-;cd at IMontreal ; tlie other two Avcro raised in the Gov- 
emnients of Tiireo llivers and (Jueboc : tlu; Cniueral intend- 
ing, in this way, to ereate an einukitiou between these par- 
ties, wliieh seldoin fails to produee a good effect, wlicn n'A 
otli'-r eonsidei'ations are carefully exchuled, as well as 
every thing that tends to ik'gradr a laudable emulation 
into a ]'( ruicious jealousy. 
s.-iiiciitiis TI.e (lovcrnment of Three l\ivers wa^, at this time, verj- 
' iiui thinly-settled, and could raise only lifty-two men, including 
' '* "^ '' live Algonrjuins and twenty Sokokis ;' but tlicy were led by 
a colonial otlicer, to whom the conduct of au enterprise of 
this nature could bo most fitly confided ; this is the testi- 
mony 1 101 no liim hy the Count do Frontenae, in a letter 
writli 11 a I tho time to Mr. do Scignelay. This oilicer was 
the (Sieur Hcrtcl, whoso captivity and virtues have already 
been noticed.' In the little troop under his command, lio 
had three of his sons, and two of Jiis nei)hews : tlie ISieur 
Crovicr, Seigneur of Saint Fr:uicis; and the SieurGati- 

Ho set out from Three Eivers on the 28th of January ; 
struck inland, due ':;^uth, leaving Lake Chamiilain on his 
left; then inclined eastward; and, aAer long ar,d severo 
marching, arrived, on the 27tli of March, ncnr i<n Englisli 
town, called Scmentcls," which Ik^ had ivcomioiten.d )>y his 

' \)v .Monr^cifruat, UoUuiiiu <h ce 
i;iii s'oBt paHs:', &c., IfiS'.M.'U; IS. V. 
Col. Dnc, ix., [). in ; Pe la I'otlu'ii", 
llistoiro do l'.\iii('i'j(|ur !S(']it., iii., p. 

iliiV,l:> V.rr,' C. UlllUUHli (i \,y lIo])(; 

■■' Anti'. \ol. iii,, p. 1;! ; MauuiuU, 
ilia;-, (lo.i .-VbrnrJiis, p. '.(.i), ii. Frmi.. 

^;3 ; Lo C'K'i'O'i, Kialilisscim nt <lo ci» llcrtul, Sit-iii'iii'CliniuMy, (li!.'il al 

la Foi, ii., p. 'Mi') : W, Hint. 
Maino, i., i'. (ilS; liclkiiui.V liist. 
New Ihnuii.-liirc, i., 'Ji,'?, .-.iv:' 'lir lu- 

llouchcrvilic, ^!ay 'JU, K','.'. Daniiil, 

I'ln,' I'iige i!f N'oivi' H!:-t.-,;r,.', [i. I'l'.i 

^ This phr.f, tliL-n cailvd i^aliuui'. 


' -If 

IIIS-!Mi;V ol- N|-\V |-U,\N<'|.; 

scouts. Tlioii li(M]ivi.l. .1 iii- Laiiil I'litu llircc: tlr^ (Iixt, rM.ii- 
sisting of lii'tccii iiioii, litul ordrrs to iittiufk a liir^o i'.ii lii'icd " 
liouso ; tlic second, •.•(Uiiiirisiu^- only cli'Vi'ii iiicii, lie sent to 
si'izc a siiickadi' I'diI, wiHi rouv biistimis ; tlic lliird, uliicli 
lio coiamaiiilc.l in iicvson, was iiitciidi'd to aliack aiintlicr 
,'111(1 lar^'cr I'ort, luouutcd with artillery.' 

All this was carrli^d out ■\vitli a, skill and hrav.'ry wliicli 
astonisliud the Euj^lish ; thoy, at lirst,Kho\vod a ]n\ il \ iiold 
iVont ; liut they could I'.ot stand the first lire of the assail- 
ants : the bravest Avcro cut to pieces, and the rest, to the 
number of fifty -four, were made jirisoners of war. It cost 
the victors only one .F)'enchmau, who had his thit,'h broken, 
.'ind died tho next day. Twenty-seven houses were }e- 
duccd to ashes, aud two tlmusand head of cattle perished 
in the stables, which were llred." Senuuilels was only six 
leagues from quite, a largo town in Neu" England, called 
Poscadovii't,' which was able to send out a force sulUcjieiit 
to surround Hertel, aud cut oli' his ivtn.'at. In fact, on the 
evening of the same day, two Indians came to warn him 
that two liuudred men were advaucing to attack him. Ex- 
jiecting this, he had taken his measures to didVat those of 
the enemy, lie arranged his men in fighting order, on 


I '>'/0. 

■9 ;1 


■ ■ 




I ' 



Kallr), is iKiw licrwirk, N. II. N. Y. 
Col. IJoc, ix., p. 4T1 ; Williuinwon'H 
MaiiK', i., p. (il8; Dr hi rotlifrk', Hist, 
do rAiiu'ri(|iu' Sep* , iii., p. 70, calls 
it '■I'l'iutMirnls,'' aiidl>i!('lcirii (ii..p. 
;iiil). "Si'iiU'litals"; aiul I ha 1 alwavs 
cciusidcruJ ''Sumcntcls" a l''ivm-li cor- 
niptidii of Salmon Falls, like " Kas- 
ki'bt;," for Caseo 15ay ; "Muniinilin," 
for Merry Mi'i^tiiii,' ; " Ki'-pan,'' for 
Ca])!' Ann; yet Maun'. :,liistoirodcs 
Alu'uakis, p. !200, n.. gives it as an 
Indian name, and says the place was 
formerly so called from tho Abenaki 
Sciumenal, "stone beads," from the 
<|uantity of pebbles, at that point, on 
the Pi-;cat;.i|\ia. Mather, linwi^'er. 

gives " Newichawnnnick " as the In 
dian name. Uook vii.. p. 7:.!. 

' One piece of cannon. De Mon- 
seitjnat, li'elation d(^ cc^ s'est p.isse; 
N. Y. (,'ol. Doc, ix,, p. 471 ; 1).^ la 
Potherie, Hist, de rAiueriiiue Sept. 
iii., p. 77. 

- De la Potherie, llistoire dc I'Amc'- 
rique Sept., iii., p. 77, says seven ; but de Monscignat, N. Y. 
t'ol. Dor., ix., p. 171, says twenty- 

" I'harlevoix, in his Errata, eavB 
" Pe-scadoue." 'J'his is e((uivaleiit to 
Piscataway. It is now Portsmouth, 
N. 11. According to Maurault, P''k- 
cadoue MK ans a " iiarkMime i)i;ii'e, ' 



r, I 
i •' 




IllSroliV Ol' NKW KliAM'K 


1 fii)ci. 

Tho Sicur 
Hcrtcl ic- 
pill-c- llir 
Kll'^li^-U 111 
n. lii'iil'j:c'. 

llo joins 

Mr. do 


till' li.'Mik ol' ,'i liviT,' over wliich tliiTi- was ji. vr ry iin' nw 
liridi't' ; llic liciul ol' this briilgo lio liad scizi.'d, loavinu tin- 
Eii^nlish no otiicr way to iip]ivoii(']i liim. 

TIkj}' jircssod forward to cross tho bi'id,L;o; uiid, desi)isiiig 
tlio ftinnll uuiiibcr of tho French, ciij;(iji;(>d Mith great C(iii- 
CuUmicc. Ik'i'Lfl id llioiii advance, wiflioiil liring a siiol ; 
then sndihiily sprangupou tlieni, sword in liand ; at tlio 
first Idow, lie killed eight, wounded ten, and forced the rest 
to abandon tho Ijattle-lield. In tids action ho lost liis 
nci/liew, the gallant Crevier,'' and ;i Hokoki Indian. La 
Frosulere, his eldest son, received a musket-ball in tln^ 
knee, of which he will bear tho glorious marks to Ins gi'ave. 
H(! is still a captain in Canada; ho distinguished hinisi'll' 
subsequently, on many occasions ; and, as became the 
eldest sou, shared his father's piety." 

After so brilliant an action, Hertel tliought only of re- 
treating, and did so with judgment and success ; but, after 
marching some days, ho was compelled to leave, in tho 
hands of tho Indians, his son, who was unable to sustain 
any longer the hardships of tho march. At tho same place, 
[fertel learned that the party ^rom tho Government of 
(^)u'.'bcc was only two .days distant, and Jiad not yet conio 
into action. On learning this, lie dispatched his ne[)hev>', 
Gatiuean, to the Governor- General, to report tho success 
of his own expedition ; he, at tho samo time, pormittiid 
the Siour Maugras, who had brought him tlio five Algoii- 
quins, to return with them to Saint Francis, and he hiniseli' 
prepared, with the rest of liis party, to join, at Kask'jbe, 
that from (Quebec' 

if hi 

k: ,,i 

' Woiistoi- Kivur. Belknap's New ICSJ."), ami Ciijitain in ITOl. Daniel, 

llaiiiiisliiro, i.. 207. Une Pasrt' ile Notro llistoiro, )). 470. 

' Du Monst'ignat .«ays four killed. ^ Narrative of Occurrences, N. Y. 

N. Y. C"()l. Doc. i\ , p. 471 ; De la Col. Doc, ix., p. 472. The prisoners 

Potlierie, iii., p. 77; and Le Clt.'reii, were loft to the Indian.-! ; andCottmi 

F.talilissenient, ii.. jip. :Wl-5, "jive Mallior, Mairnalia, Book vii., (i. CD, 

no nunilier. details their sutl'erinus at tho liands 

■' Zachary llerlel, Sieur de la Fres- ofllopehood, tlie Indian chief. 

niere, was a seconded lieutenant in so. Drake's Indian raptivitius.ii. 109. 


IIISTiiIiV (»!' Nl'W I'llANi'K. 


'i'liis jiMrly WMS CLiiiiiiMinlcil liy Mi'. ilc I'lirtiicul', lln' \fi)o. 
lliird sou ol' tlic Jlavoii ol' I'ckniicDurl, .'iml liiMitcn.uit of -" . ~ 
]\l!iiiiu;Viir.s coiniiuny. I' luul orckivd him tolako 
all Unit foiuiiaiiv whicli wus in Aciuliii, luciuise do AImu- 
TK^val, liis I'iiptaiii and lu'otlu^', was Ciovoriun' ol' ibit. 
proviiioo. Ilaisiuu', also, some Canadians, and sixty AIh';- 
naijuis, from the Falls o*! tlio C'liaudicrc, ho fict out from 
()n('l)(>c' tho samp day that Hortcl h-ft Tlirce llivors. TiUi 
do Coui'toniaucho acted as Ins lioutLMiaut.' 

From tho pi'ovailin,L,' iloiirth of provisions that yoar in 
Caimda, the authorities could allow tl .ait scanty stip- 
plios. This eompelli'd them to hunt ou tho way: so that 
it was tho middlo of Tday bei'oro thoy reached tho AIk'- 
uatini village, where Porliicuf had, apparently, reckoned on 
swelling his force. Finding no one ihero, ho ]>usli(>l on 
to a second village of the same nati(m, on the banks of tho 
Kiniboqni," where ho learned that some warriors liad 
recently returned from a raid on the l^nglish territory, in 
which they had killed six men. Ho persuaded 
braves to follow him, as well as some Indians of tho neigh- 
borhood;' and, on tho 2otli, ho proceeded to eneani|) foui' 
h^agues from Cas':' ■ (Kaskobe), uliich lie had resolved to 

Casco Bay (Kaskobe) was a town on the sea-coast, witli 
a very well-built fort;'' it had eight pieces of artilleiy 

' Dc jronspisrnnt, Kclaticn ilu cl> 
<|iii s'ci-t pass.', &(•., lOMMJO; N. Y. 
("ill. Doc, ix., p. 4Tii ; and Lo CkTcc), 
i;tiibli.-;si'mont dc ia Foi, ii., p. yui, 
{rives liim fifty Fronclinion. Tilli do 
Ri'[)cntifrny CourtunmnclK-, il)., p. 
3'J',>. Tlu'V left (Quebec, Jainmry 'JS. 
Tlio New Eiiijrland accounts, which 

• Kennebec. 

■'■ IjO C'lorcq, ii., \>. •Ml, says 150, 

' Do lu I'otherio says thoy readied 
iveskeliaye. May 2;!. llistoire de 
I'Am. Se|)t.. iii., p. TS ; Imt tlieXar- 
lative, X. Y. t'oL Dnc, ix., p. Ii ; 
and I.e Clercq, ii., p. '<")i , say 'S>{h. 

■'' 'I'he plac:' oallud l)y the French 

sadly confuse French names, and '' Ivasliebe " — their mode of writiiii;' 

divide Do Portncnif into himself and Casco I!ay, which tlioy took for tl;<' 

one UurneH'e, also briui.' in de St. name of the town — was Falinniitli, 

Cast in as acting a iironuncnt part ; now Portland, Maine. The fort v,;'.:) 

but it is pretty clear ho v;as not Fort l.oyal. It stood at the foot of 

there. Piobineau de Portneiif was King street. Maine Hist, t'oll.. i , 

a brother of de Menneval and do p. 2i)-l : N. V. Col. Doc, ix., \>. 

Villeb.m. 472 ; Willis, rortland, p. 2^1. 














X\ 1 

>iH II 





: ,.:^i '■■■ 


I I' 

\f'()o. inoiiiilc'l, mill I;ii'Kr(l iirilliiT !UiiiiniMiiiiiii imr |iiuvisioiin. 

■— ^r — 'J'lw c'lisiiiiip; nif,'li(, foiu' Indians and two FiiMirluiuii pi'o- 

sic'.iof i'( cilcd Id lay tin finiliust-.idc ((nito near tlu' fori, iin 1 mi 

Mini srvcrai l''.n:-:!i.-ilniian, falliii!;- into it ul da_vl)ival<, was shiii'.' I'ii" 

( iDl'lr). T 1- 1 '111- 1)1 '!•.■. 1' 

liHUaiis al once 1 .MM iMIicic «'i'\ ; .■aid, .'.IpmiiI noon, li'lyol 
the !;'a. /ison advmici'd in j^ood ordi'i' (oward tiu' ;;iot 
tVoiii wliii'ii ihc I'rics s. oiiuhI to conic. Tluty wore f.lmo.^l 
npon it, lict'oiv tlicy iu'vccivcd anything' ; but our ni 'n, ,soc- 
in.y tlii'in ap])roa('!!, poured in a volley tit ten ]iiict.'.s' ilis- 
t.'uici' ; llu'ii, williout f^'ivin;.,' thoni tinu' to rocovor, rn<';i'd 
on tlicni, sword and tomahawk in liand, andHOwell ava'l ■ ! 
t]i('ni--clvi s ol' till' disorder oi'casionnl l>y tlu^se two sud Icii 
attii''l<s, thai only four, and tlicy Moundeil, .suoccodcd in 
riMiriii;,' wiiiiin tlio fort.' 
'I'Ii(I',ii!j:1Mi 'riii'i'c were, near C'asco J5ay, four otliur snniUor forts, 
fi.ur loiiv wliii'li o]k'iiihI on tlio a-<sailants, coiapclling tlirni to drnv 
olV a little, afti'r liavini^' one Indian killed, and a Freii di- 
niau wounded. In the eveiiin;', ISlv. de Portneul" soiit to 
summon tlie Governor of Casoo, who replied lie a,-, is 
determined to hold out till death. Portucuf was sonii- 
what at a loss. ]Ie had L'ono too far to recoil with Iionor : 
yet Fronteinie's oiders forbadi^ him to attack any fortitled 
l)lace, and I: is commis.siou authorized him o)dy to ravaLjn 
the fields; luil he found them strippc'l, and tlie seflliTS on 
lli^'ir j^'iiar,!. 

Moreover, ii.; had iieeii informed of the eajiture of Cor- 
lar (.Scheiieei.idy) ; while Ilertel, who had just joined him, 
had shared in the success at Scmentels, and it ';'a1le<l liiia 

' liobiTt liiv;i.-im. Davi.s':* Di'clu- r.ViU('rii]iii' Si'pt., iii., p. i'.i. W'll- 

riitinii, Mas.s. llii-t.C'oll., i., p. lUi-.j. liaiiisun, liisldry n!' Main ■, i., p. (l.M. 

'' Dii la I'othi'rit', liistoiru do Bnvrf C'liirk, and thii'tix'u ii'll at tlu' 

I'Ani.'r'Kpi" Si'pt., iii., p. Ti(, say fu'st fire; bill in r note, nn p. 'l',"i, lie 

thirty; and tlii:4 is confirniiMl by brings tbc name matter in again as 

Davis's IXTJaraticin, anil by William- a masi^acrc, nl'tor tin.' .surr.'iiiltT. 

son. Hist. Maine, i.. p. Gii), who say Uov. Bradislreet, inaletterli) l-ei-ler, 

they \v<re cuiii iiaiuk'd by Lieut. May IJO, lOi'O.O. S., n.ak(':< tlie j irly 

'i'haddeus Clark fallyiiii; out. twenty-six. O'Calla- 

" De la I'dtherie, llistoiie de -hiin's D<:C. Hist., ii., p. lit!. 

ll.-.i'u:U VI' NKW I'hANCK, 


not ii littl(i to rotnrii with loss '^Inrv tlinn his onllcjir^nos ; 1690. 
hosidos, Hiiioo IIiTtci':! :ii'rivnl, liis wIh.Io loirc* cuMVily — r— ' 
clftiiiorod to he li'.l 01: lo i\u\ assault. All tliin^'.s well 0011- 
siilcrod, li(> coiicliiilcil that, Mitiifilcd as hu was, \w uu^^Ul 
iutoi'prcl Iho (loiicnil's will, luid it was i'csi-IvlmI to cou- 
timio tho attack 011 (Jast-o Bay. On their sidis tlir Kn-- 
lisli, se(;iii;,; tlio iaipasslhility of holding so many forts at 
onto, cvaeuntcd tho four smaller forts, coiieontratin;,' all 
the men to roiufoi'co i;i.' ;j;arrison at Casco TJay, and put 
it in a bettor ooaditiou to hold out. 

On the iii;.'.ht of 31ay -JO 7th, tho besio-crs cncajnpoil on 
tho sfa-shon>, tii'ty i)aeos from the fort, coM-rod hy a very 
stoop hill, whore l!'.oy had uothiuj^- to i'oar iVoiu tho nrtil- 
lory. 'Iho next ni.idit thoy opened the tivnchos. \oilh(!i' 
(.'auadians nor Indians had any oxperionco in tliis mode ol' 
attack; biit crau'a,i!,o, and a desire h r \iftory, atoiiod lor 
want of skill. All worivrd witii tho f,'voatest ardor ; and as 
tho'y wore fortunate oiioul!;1i to lind in the abandoned I'orls 
all the implements needed for throwin;.;- u[> t!ie earth, tho 
works advan(!ed with such celerity, that, on the eveuinj; of 
the 28tli, tho besieged asked to ]iarlev. 

They were told that Iho i'i-,ii,.:i wished tho i'oi-t, with e;i-c.. mh- 
;dl its aminnnition and t^upjilivs. They asked six days' lo iJ,I"iCiTi'im 
dolilKrato, hoping to be relieved in tlio interval; but .mly "",''',".!.!,"' ' 
that ninht w;is grant. 'd thoni, anil tlio irenohi'-i wore 
pushed on. The noxi day they throw ont a nuuh^-'r 
of grenades, whicli did no execution ; the French ap- 
proaclied tho palisade, i)iv]iarcd, as soon as they got ii!i, 
to set jire to a tar bai'i''.'!, and other intlamund)l(i mr.ftor.'' 

The besieged, s<.'oi;ig this raacliino constantly advance, 
and having no ni^ans of prev^Mitlng its o[)oration — 





>i ■ 



N'. Y. t'ni. Doc, ix., ]ip. irv)-! ; t':uui- 
ila iiuc, i., iv., [1. :■(,,■), .>.c'. : l>i' In 
l'ct;ic':-i , lli.-tniri' d.i' r.\ini'ri.|iu,' 
r^JIi'.., ill , I'l'. ;'J-Sl); l)>'clai;i;li.ii of 
Sjlvauust UavN, .\ii.. ,, Hist, ('till ,ili , 

i.. pp. 101-113; .Miitlicr's .Mni,niu!iii, 
liook .vii, p. 7'i; ^Viliis, liist. of 
I'.inUoi'l ; .Miiiiiij H. ('., i., jip. '.'o:; .1. 
• I'rnilstiVL't ti) LrisliT, iiu'nliDii.i 
tlii''ol'liiicli l.ark to llni tlii'].lni'.,' 
()('iilia,i;liiiii'H 1).h;. Jli.^t.. ii., p. II';. 







ill'livr Inn 

lllc In ri'- 

Ikvu 11. 

lliiiM' who |Misliiil il (111, liciiii^' I'dvcvi'd l)_v tlir ticiu'li • 
iiiisi il Iht^ wliiti) tla^'. Do Poi'tncuf then told tlu' (iovcriKir 
lliiit lid must (Xiicct no coiiditions, hut HUiToudcr as a 
jirisoii '!• of war, uith all liis f^'ai'risoii. Scciii;.,' no altcriia- 
tivo, tliat oHiiU'r at oiico maivliod out wilii nil his knvo, 
aiiu»uiitiii^ to seventy men, besides women and cliildnn.' 

Hearcely was the fort evacuated, when I'oiir Diitish sails 
hove in sif^dit, bearing', as was subsequently ascertained, 
troops (o relievo Casjo; imt tliose in command seeing' no 
Jla,n' living' ill any of tlu' forts, fidt that they liad come too 
late ; that if they had force enough to iielp a p;arriHon hold 
a fort, they had not enou<^di to besieyo it ; so, after wait- 
ing' ji time to see whether any sir'nals were made, they 
determined to sail olV. On Ills side, de rortneuf began 
by seizing all that suited liim in tlio forts, then sot lliem 
on In-e, carried olV" the cannon, and laid in ashes every 
house for two leagues around." 

!\rost of the prisoners remained in tho liands of the 
Indians; the Governor, Captain Denys," the two duugh- 
lers of his liculeiiiiiit wiio was kiileil during tin,' siege, and 
some of tlio principal olUccrs, were taken to (Quebec,' wluch 


' l)f Moiisi'iKiiat, Hclfilinii, &c., 
1(!8!) !(0 : N. Y. Cnj. Doc, ix., i>. 4T;i ; 
• 'aliiulil Dni'., II . v., p. Il',> : l.i- 
rk'ifii, ii., \>. o'.li). 

•' ('liiili'Vi)ix evidently iiiisiniiitH 
" c'lilivci' " I'nr " clmirr." Thry coiiNt 
imi curry nll'iU" cimu )ii. wIi'm'Ii wpi'i.' 
hpiUi'l (N. Y. fill. Due, is., 1'. IT;!), 
iiiiil llirown iiilotlii' Hca. l,c('l('rn|, 
ii.. p. :!'j:!; Itrlalinii, UMI tlO; .\. V. 
(.'nl. Dnc, ix., 'ir;!. 

' Lo Clercii eavb two liuiiiln'il 
houses. Brailstri'i't m>.'ntiou3 tlu'ii' 
fallinu' oil NVclls and Kittcry. N. \'. 
Doc. Ili.^^t.. ii., i>. II.;. 

•* 'rii(> cimniaiuliT ni' tin' fort was 
C'liplaiii Sylvi'iius l)avis, who had 
HUccicdi'd Cajit. Wiilard. His Dic 
lanaion (.Mass. llisi. Coll.. III., i.. 
PH llU-lO'i), giM'^ 111" dull' nl' 111" 

Rttnck, Jfay Ki; and th' Hiirn'iulc'r, 
Jhiy 20, iliUO, O. S. Sue. al.^o, 
.Mathi'r'rt Mat^nalin.ii., p. 'ii\. Davis 
bclonjfcil to one ol' till' oldest I'.imilics 
in Maini'. He was at Slieepscit in 
1(1.")0. and was wounded in llie Iniliun 
wai- of KiTii, at Arrowsicli (Cliurcli's 
Indian Wni', ii., p. \ll). He seltled 
at l'"alinoiith in l(is(), and liuilt a 
t-awniill till •■e. He was a prisoner 
at Quebec IVoin May loOct. 1.5, Ui'.Mi. 
On his return, ho bocnmo Councillor 
lor Sagadahoc, in ICOl ; and, nfler 
irpen<rmg his latter (hiys at Hull, 
Mas.s., died in 1701. N. V. Col. Doc. 
ix., p. -IS!) ; Maine Hist. Coll., i., p. 
'Md ; Church'.'S In iiaii WanDexter'ii 
ed.). ii., p. I I. 

' l,e Cien-(|. lO-ilalill.sneluont de la 
I'ol, ii., p. o'.lo. 





vln PortiR'uf ruachcil ou i hf 'J:J(1 of Juiu\ after twi'iity-tlireu 
vlays' nmivli. Ont> of his Froudimon had uii ari/i iii-okoa 
ill tlio tiviK liL'.-;, iiiul I'll liiiliuii f.;ot u uniskct-IiiiH tin )ii;,'li 
Ills ana.' Tliis w-.v-i all lliut liis Inilliaiu cumjUw'.slcDhl : L-jt 
tlu'ii lie IkuI uolhiu^i,', huvo the glory (. I' lia.-iug 'lisplayed 
great vtihir aiul skill. Mos-sieurs Horti 1, do Courtoi laucln.', 
and all the voluntooi's, also disstinguishcd thciusclvos, and 
thv. Imli.ui:-. roudfri'd oNccllont survicc' 

Itcstoi'iu;^' tho iTputatiou of tho rr>'iich anus was not, 
in itself, sutliciout to roassuro oiu- allies. It was uccossarv, 
moreover, to put them ill a position onablliiLfthoia to diHiieiisi! 
with Kii,L;lisli trad'', and to be free iVoia fi'ar of any rIVorts 
of tile Inxjuois. FnmttMiae tlioiii^iil of i'vwy thing at ouco; 
and, wlu'ii dc Pdi'tnctif rcaelied (^)iiebof', it was a, nnnith 
after tjji' dt partnrr from Montreal for Aliidiilliniakiimo, 
of a f;reat convoy, undi r tho direction of the Sienr d.- la 
Porte Jjouvi^e:ny,heeoi', led captain, acooiu[)aiiii'd by Nicholas 
Perrot : the latter ii"aring i>ivsonts from the (rovernor- 
(Jencu'al for the Indians ; tho former to remain at Michilli- 
makiiiac as Commandants.^ 

There was nothing to bo said against this select imi. 
Mr. do Louviguy' Avas one of the most accomplished 
otficcrs then in New Franco ; Ijut men were somewhat sur- 
prised to see the General, without any i)rctext, recall Mr. 
<le la Durantaye. whose Avisdoni and lirmncss liad retained 
for the King all the aib/ancod posts in most critical times, 
and who luul lived then: in most perfect disinterestedness. 


I (iC)0. 

(iliUL cull 
Vl>\ :.l'lll 


KniiU of 
Mr. ,|c. Ill 



' Tlirouprh tbc li'g. Di laPotln'iii-, 
lii., 1). 81 ; Hfliuion, Uiyj-Dl) ; :>. Y. 
Col. Doc , ix., \i. IT:;. 

- La IlDiitiin, Voyages, ii., :2U!, in a 
Joosc', iunccuruu' account of this ex- 
[ifdition, iimkcs I'lL' I'ortiiput', with 
thi-cr liuiiilr.'ii iiit'ii. tiiKc KciiilitUi. 

^ Mciiisoi'^'uui, lu'liiiioii do ro (lui 
a'est pasKi', lObJ-UO; X. Y Col. Doc, 
ix., p. 47U: I'limtfiuic's Di.-iiiatcli, 
Nov. 20, 101)0 (Tuilliuii's Perrot, p. 
■'fUIi). Tlie latter dncvaiient caHs 
Vol, lV_]fi. 

hiiu Loiiviirijy di! la I'ortc. Do m 
i'dthiric, ili^toirc dc rAmeiiqilo 

Si'pt., iii„ ji. ■; !. 

* Lii.<t in lliL> wivck of th<' Clm. 
inrau, in ITiu, when (jovcnior olrot 
oi' Throo Hivcrs. t'hdrkvuir. liuho 
W i.-^''ii)siii ('(ill., w. p. lus, 
tlii'n- is a ^lii'tcli of Li. 111., lir la 
l\)rtL', Siuur ilo Louvigny, by L. (.'. 
Diaper, Esq. IIo coiiniiiuided iit 
Mackinaw, li;fi0-4 : mi I'i)rt Frmi 
teiui'', l<i9',t. 



I*) i 





1 ^' 

I ,4 n 

1690. Some attributed his disgrace to the fact that lie niain- 
^— "> tainod too good an nnderstauding with the iiiis.iionarics ;; 
and it is certain tliat tliis concert, deemed !>}■ tlie Marquis 
de Denouville so vital to the good of th i service, and un- 
doubtedly of inestimable importance to the progressof reli- 
gion, was not to the taslo of Mr. deFroutcnae. Tiloreover, 
merit too generally applauded, and the ])urest virtue, give 
umbrage to many, and always raise up the envious, who 
rarely let slip au opportunity of ruining those v.lio over- 
shadow tliem, and are at no loss for an occasion, when 
they have to deal with superiors liable to prejudice. 
This Mr. de ^a Durantaye experienced, to his sorrow. AVlth 
merit of evei-y kind that can raise a gentleman to military 
honors, and al'ter rendering essential service to Xeu 
Franco, he never attained a higher rank than he bore 
Av.lien ho came.' Forced, in his latter days, to leave the 
army, ho entered the magistracy," where he was distin- 
guished for his integrity; but, relentlessly pursued by 
misfortune, he died in poverty, leaving to his children 
only a noble example and gentle birth, with nothing to 
maintain it.^ 
Tho con- De Louviguy's convoy was escorted by one hundred and 
cd by the forty-tlirec Freuchmeu,many of whom eagerly embraced the 
"'' opportunity to go for furs Mhich tliey had in tlie store- 
houses of Michillimakinac, but had been unable to bring 
down, for fear of Irocjuois war parties. Six Indians also 
embarked M'ith them ; and a detachment of thirty men, 
commanded by Captain d'Hosta and Lieutenant de la 
Gemcraye, was ordered to escort tin ix for thirty leagues." 

' IIo was .1 ciiiit.iin in the C'arigiiun 
Salirro:i i'i.':;iuK'ii',. Churb'roLr. 

' Ho (lied a (.'ouncillor in the Su- 
perior Council of Queljci . lb. 

' Olivier ^lorel ile In Durnntayp, 
wns born at Notre Diuiie du d'iiure, 
Nantes. In lOTO lie iiinrrieil Franre.s 
Dunuet. llis ilesccmltinls, who are 
many, are spoUrn of in terms of 
culopy by Ferland. ii , p. 20^. 

* Monscigunt, Relation de ee qui 
B'est piisse, 1089-nO; N. V. Tol. 
Doc, ix., p. 1T() ; De la I'otherie, 
Ilistoire <Ie I'Amerique Sept., iii., 
pi>. Tl-3. They were to escort them 
as fur as the Calumets, on thu Ot- 
tawa, sixty leagues from Montreal, 
(lb.) Frontenai:'s dispatch, Nov. 20, 
KiOO. savB in nil one hundred an''- 
seventy men. 




They set out' May 22, and, tlit> u;>xt day,' discovered "i;o. 
two Indian canoes at a place, called Los Chats. D'llosta ""■ 
and de Louvigny, concluding that tluy were not alono, sent 
thirty men in ihrci; canoes, and sixiy by land, to surround 
the enemy on all sides. 'J'jie iirst I'J'.rty fell into an aiul)us_ 
cade ; and, al tlie outset, received a. ueavy lire, almost at the 
luuzzie : the Iroquois, whom they eould not see, picking 
their men, and aiming surely. lu ue la Gemeraye's canoe, 
the first that attempted to lai'd, tLtn-e were, after tlie iirst 
volley, only two men left unwounded.' 

Louvigny v/as in despair to see his men thus slaughtered, Def at of 
■without his being able to help them ; for Perrot, whom ho iroji'iois. 
had express orders to obey on the way, would not permit 
hiiu to advance, for fear of risking the presents in his 
charge. At last, however, he yieLljd to the imtreaties of 
the Commandant and Mr. d'Hosia. They at once put 
themselves at the head of fifty or sixty men, and rushed 
upon the enemy; the attack was so sudden and so well- 
timed, that thirty Iroquois were lulled, several woun(h-Hl, 
aud some taken ; the rc^st with diiticulty reached their 
canoes, and escaped. 'I'his party consisted of thirteen 
canoes, and its defeat j.'oduced a good effect." 

Messrs. d'Hosta aud do la Gemeraye' havinu soon after 

' FrDiii the u[i])(Ton(l of Montroal 
Island. N. Y. Col. Uoc. ix., p. 4rO. 

- Juno 2. (lb.) De la I'otlicrii' says 
tlicy halted bolciw Le.s Chats, twelve 
days alter :^'arting- (iii., p. T.j). 

= Four wrr.' killed. N. Y. Col. 
Doc, ix., I>. -ITl; De la I'otherie, 
iii., 7.). Belmont, Histoire dii Ca- 
nada, p. 32, iri a brief uotice, says 
they lost live nun, and nieiuious 
only ten lroi|uois as killed. Le 
Clerei). F.tablisseraent de la Foi, ii., 
p. o8(i, gives the wholu loss in the 
action as seven. 

•• Four prisoners were taken : two 
men and two women. Only foiu- of 
the tli)rte(!n ranoes escaped. N. Y. 

C-oI. Doc, ix., p. 471 ; De laPotherie, 
iii., p. 70, 

' Cliristo;)her Dufrost de Lajeni- 
morais was a Breton pentleman (nnn 
Medri'ae, in the diocese of St. Mi o, 
where the family still subsists. 'I'ho 
fie!', which gave them name, seems 
to bo, properly. I.a (iesmcrais. Tie 
was, at first, midshipman at Kocho- 
fort, and cam.- over, in lOsT, as en- 
sign. He ros,', by his valor, to a 
lieutenancy, and was made coni- 
nuuulant of Fort Front( nac in 1097. 
lie died in 170S. By lii.s wite, Mary 
Renee de Varenue-;, gran<i-daughter 
of Peter Bouclier, of 'J'hrec Rivers, 
ho had six children, tiie most distin- 

i hi 


> ' ,1 

,1 ■ 





I )| 

il i !•■*•' 






f ( 

i s 

I -'v 

cf tlic 

returned to Moutreal,' from that point ilispatclied one of 
tlicir prisoners to tho Coiuit do Frontenac, avLo resigned 
liini to Ouroouliarc, wlio was (juitc touched by tiiis mark 
of coulidencc. Another was taken to Michilliiaaldnae, and 
given u}) to the Ottawas, ■who, to show the new Comman- 
dant that tliey had no farther thouglit of m;d<in;.,' any 
terms with tlie Iro(iuois, burned him. This change wan. 
tiie result of our victories, of which the convoy bore tho 
tidings to tiie Indians at a time when tlieir ambassadors 
Avero preparing to set out to put tlic finishing stroke to an 
irrevocable treaty with the Iroquois nation. 

But when they beheld tlieFrencli coming, victorious over 
all their enemies, loaded with merchandise, and in suffi- 
cient numbers to inspire them witii conlulence against any 
attempi of the [rociuois;— then, charmed with the presents 
delivered to them by Pcrrot, who knew admirably how to 
make the most of them, — they became more attached tlnin 
ever to our interests, and were not slow in giving us. 
unmistakable proofs. One hundred and ten canoes, loaded 
with a hundred thousand crowns' worth of furs, and manned 
h\ over three hundred Indians, of all the Northern nations, 
soon after sot out for Montreal," where they found tlio 
Count de Frontenac, who had come up to l)e nearer at 
hand in defending tJuit settlement from a threatened inva- 

All hope of peace with tho Iroquois had vanislied. Wi^ 
have .^(H>n that these savages had arrested the Cluivalior 
d'Eau," and the French wiio accompanied Iiim, although 
the Governor-General, in deputing that olticer to Onon- 

guisheil of wii)i)i was Mary Mai'OT- in Ifi!/!. Charlevoix, il., \h 104; 

ret, wlio, alti r tho death of her N. Y. Col. Doc, 14, p. o2'2. 

hushaiui, Francis You d'Youville, '-' Do Monso'jrnat, liolation, &c. ; 

son of <nio of La Sallo'H coiuijaiiions. N. Y'. Col. Doc, is., pp. 4T1-8; Le 

i'onndotl tho Sistors nf Charity at Clorc'). ]';tabli-^s(nn( nt lio la I'oi. ii.. 

Montri'nl, called Siours Cirisoe, and liSli, AUii h'n ; i'"ro.itoDac'.s d;si>'itch, 

a General Hospital. Sec Faillon, Canada Doc, II.. v., ]). 110; Po la 

Vie do ]\[adamo d'Youville, 8"., Potliorio, iii., id. 'Jl, says fivo hund- 

pp. 1-0. red Indians. 

' D'lTosta was killed pt Ln Prairie, ' See note next pa<^e. 









daga, intended to giY(? tlisit canton .1 mark of confidence 
Mliicli should have iluttered it.' Tlicy did more: they sent 
him to New York,' to couviuco tlie Eiigllsli th;it they were 
very far from any reconeiliajion willi tlie French. In Ihic, 
llicy carried perluly so iar as to viohite the hxw of nations : 
tliey bnrned two of the i''renclimou who accompanied tliat 
olhcer.' i do not k)io\v wluit prcveuteil the autliorities in 
Canada fi'om lea^ni!l^' this treacliery at once ;' but tliey 
soon susjiected that tlie cantons were bent on prosecuting 
the war; and the Governor-General, without delay, took 
precautious to prevent a surprise. He gave wise orders 
for the security of the districts most exposed to the ravages 
of these Indians ; and, for this purpose, he formed two 
detachments of jiis best troops : the lirst, intended to 
watch the southern bank from Montreal to the >Sorel liiver, 
was commanded by the Chevalier de Clermont, seconded 
ca])taiu ; the second, which was to put in a safe position 


' Aiuf, p. r,i. 

" Le Clerei|. KlablissLiiieiit di^ la 
Foi, ii., p. 10!'. La Ilontau iinvir- 
rectly says l!> Boston. \'oya,i:v^, i., 
p. 200. 

- t'hampigiiy's dispatdi, May 10, 
IC.Ol ; N. Y. (.'ol. Doc, ix., pp. 411!!, 
50.i ; uiul La Ilontaii, Voyagt's, i., 
p. 20(!, Ray they burned nil f I'.c. ( 'Iicv- 
alii.'i-'s companion:. — th:it is Colin 
and two others. Lo ('lere(|, Etab- 
lihseiiient de la Foi, ii., p. -tOl, re)i- 
resentu them all as taken uninjured 
to Is'ew York. Smith, liicitory of 
Is'ew Y'oik, p. 08, says the Chevalier 
nud the rcfct of the Vn nch lne:^^:en■ 
gers were treated with the utmost 
in(li;.'-nity, and afterward given up 
to the Enl;■!i^^l. Frontenae, in his 
dispateli to Pontchartrain, ilay 10, 
lUUl (N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 40,")). 
ppeaks of two of the French as 
killed, lielraont ,say.s Colin was 
burned and Bouviat killed (.Ilistoiro, 
p. 32). The Relation de or qui, &-c, 

10!)0-1 (X. Y. Col. Doc, ix.. p. .jIG), 
on apparently delinite intt'Uigence, 
gay.s (.ne was liurned at Seneca, one 
at Unondnira, and that one died of 
h-iekness at .'doliawk. Nevertheles?, 
Duplanty, a soldier, was given up 
as one of his party. (lb., p. ."iS'i.i Tlio 
Chevalier d'Aux was given up to 
Leish-r'.s envoys, apjiarently in 
May. (Leisler, iu N. V. Doc Hist., 
ii., p. i;;8.) lie V.-P.S at Xew York in 
.June, (,1b., p. I.jO.) lie is said to have 
been sent subsequently to lioston. 
lie escaped in August, 10!!',', and 
reached ( 'anada. (X. Y. Col. Doc, is., 
pp. .j;io-.54:l.) His name is given as 
d'i^au, d'O, d'Au. Ferland, Cours 
d'Hi^'.oire, ii., p. I'.iS, give.-i it, from 
his aiitograi)h, d'Aux. He wrote an 
accoinit of his embassy and cajrtivity. 
■■ They made efl'irts to capture 
Iroquois with this view. (N. Y". Col. 
Doc, ix., p. 4S2.) They did not learn 
till April, 1091, by the arrival ol 
two Mohawks. lb., p. -WO. 













* It . ' '^ 

i 'i 

. V. 


/ . 



16 ;o. fill tlic it'sc nf t'lc couiilrv, lis far us the capitul, was UDilcr 
■— > — ' tho orders of the Chevalier do la Motte, also a seconded 
captain. Tho Chevalier de Clermont, on rcachiiig tho 
nioutli of tlie river, learned that some boys, while fjuardinp; 
cattle, had been carried oil" by the Iro([uois: ho pursued 
them, rescued tho boys, except one, whom the .savages had 
k !'.cd at once, because he could not keep up with them.' 
Nc\y hostil- At the samo time, auotlicr party of Iro([Uois, having 
their part, desceudcd on tlie Island of Montreal by Dcs Prairies llivei, 
was discovered by a settler, who gave uotico to the Sieur 
Colombet, a secoiuled lieutenant. That oilicer at once 
collected twenty-live men, and hastened in pursuit of the 
euemj-, who advanced half-way to meet him. Tlie Iroquois, 
beiug mucli sujierior in numbers, charged (ho Freucli 
with great resolution. Colombet was left on the ilelu, witii 
some of his men; but the Iroquois lost tweuty-livo.''' Some 
days before, another troop of these Indians hud carried 
oil" fifteen or sixteen women and children, near T.u'ki'.ncourt 
River. Tliey were pursued ; but the onlj- efl'ect was that 
tlie savages, to facilitate their escape, Imtchere.l ;'.!] tin ir 

In line, there u'as no security anywhere ; and a con- 
siderable part of the huul coulil nt;t be soMcd, jnoduc- 
ing a very great fiMiiino the next y(>ai- througho;;t l!ie 
Arriviii of ;i lu tho vcrv height 01 tlieso alarms, on the 18th of August, 

LTcat ion- .1 ,,• 11 ,.1 • 11 1 i 1' , r 

vov from the bicur ilc la Lluissaiuue, who eommaiulec. at .L'orL Jja 

Mioailliinn- ■ ■ 


' Dp Monscigiiiit, Hrliiticni, &o. ; 
N. Y. Col, Do.'., ix., p. 474. Tlii., 
iiidiiin piu'ty comiirisod one Kng- 
lislnimu I'roni Albniiy, who was Ilistoi 
killed, and liis commission taken. I'. S'3. 

■ De Mon.^-,'i.ij;iia!, HeUitiou, &c. ; 

It eiuptiep i.pposito Tiirei' Kiver^. 

Di' .MonseigniLl, Relation. &e. : N. \. 

Col. Doc, is., ji. 474 ; De la Potherie, 

du rAuierimii.' Sept., iii., 

■* Joh Bouillet, Sieur de hi ('lias- 

N. Y. Col. Doc, is., ]). 4T4; Uc la saiijne, captain of a company in tie 

Potherie, Hist, do l'Ain('ri(|iic Sept., marine serviee, was irom Parny, in 

iii., p. So ; I.e Clere(|, Ktablisseinent the County o!' Cliarolais. (Ferland, 

de la I'o', ii., p. liO!). The French ii., p. 'JiO; N. Y. C il. Doc, ix., p. 

lost twelve men. The action took 41^.) In ITd'J he wus sent to the 

place ot Pointe an Tremble. relief of Chambly, (lb., 8:>4.) In 

'ThnriverwnHll, en c:\lbd Pnp.nto. 1727 ho was Oovernor of Throe 

. 1: 


inSTuiiY OF NKW r-'HANfE. 


Chine, was iiiforiued ;hat u flotilla of caiioos had appear.jil 1690. 

on J.ake St. Louis. Tiiere was scarcely a doubt but that ' < — 

they Avcro Iroquois ; and Mr. do Fronteuae, who had been 
for three weeks at Montreal, was already niviuM orders to 
notify the settlers in the country parts to retire to the 
forts, when Tilly, Sionr do I'lsle, came in, assurin- them 
that it was tho groat convoy from Michillimakinac, already 

The joy everywhere was intense, and proportioned to 
tlK) alarm at first occasioned. The little fleet arrived at 
Montreal, and a, as welcomed with the acclamations of the 
whole city. On tJie 22d, the General i^^ave public audience 
to all the chiefs ; they .spoke quite well, and seemed to be 
111 the most favorable disposition in ret,'ard to the actual 
position of aliairs.^ On the following day trading began • 
but it was soon interrupted by La Plaque, an IroVoiJi of 
Sauit St. Louis, and nephew of the great :Xroluuvk. 

He had been sent on a scout toward Albany; and, while 
returning to report what he had seen, lie halted an eighth 
of a league from the spot where the Ottawas and o"ther 
Indians were encamped, and carrying on 'neir trade. He 
took it into his head to give several death-veils. The 
Indians, supposing the enemy was at hand, ran to arms ; 
but when, after some time, they saw nothing, regained 
confidence, and rcsum-xl their trade. 

Meanwhile, La Plaque entered the town, and told de Fro„to,mc 
I' rontenac that he had discovered, on the banks of Lake of"'?!';""!,, 

St. Sacremeut,' a whole army, engaged in building canoes ; all^Ku'ibi, 

and Ii-o- 
quois army. 

tiiat he had repeatedly approached them to endeavor to "'"' ''"- 

make some prisoners, but always in vain ; and that, before 

Kivers (!b 990); and wa,. Rent to ■ De Mon.seignat, Relation, &e.. 

Crovmior Uurn..t, of Xew Yo.-k, to 1089-00; N. Y. Col. Do. iv ,, 478 ■ 

rom.nstrato a.ain.t Imiklin^ a fi.rt IV la Pothon:., Histoin: '.^oVAu,^'- 

o^2::r';]^'t^ '''-' 'T1' " '•'''"'' '"•^'- "' • ''''• ''-'■ ^— « 

t/-10 n f '"''• ^'■■•'•■^"''■»' ""'='1«'- ^^■■- LcCl.rc<,,ii.,,,.401. 

I). 4W. t harlovoix b noto here says : ' August 2',> 

•• Ifc (lied fJov.irnor of Montreal." « Lake Gporge. 

■ K m 


v; 4 



Ik I 

a: . 1 1 

1 { 



i . 'V 


1 690. Milliilrawiug, he had taken three " cassott'tos" to a cabin, to 
tell the enemy that tliey were discovered, as Avell as to d(>fy 
tliom.' La Phique was a bravo lunii— a very indii'l'cicnt 
Cliristiai), tliough warmly attached to tlie Frencli. 1 have 
spolcen of liim elsewhere, and have mentioned that he 
was a lieutenant in our army." It was, accordingly, 
deemed ini[)ossiblG to doubt the sincerity of his repf)rt ; 
and the Cfcneral judged it his duty to neglect nothing to 
put the Governnu-nt of Montreal in a state of defense. 

His first thought was as to means of retaining his allies 
near him : lie gave them nuirks of great friendshij) ; regaled 
them with profusion; then told them all, in a geiu'ral 
assciubly, that he was charmed with the disposition in 
which he behehl them, to make neither peace nor truce 
witli the Iroquois ; that they could no longer doubt his 
own resolution to pursue them without relaxation, till he 
had brought them humbly to ask peace at his haiuls ; 
that, moreover, he wished them to rest assured that ho 
woidd not grant tin Iroquois peace, exce]it on conditions 
cqualh' advantageous to th(! French and their allies, since 
both were equally his children. 

He then added that ho believed them too brave, and too 
sincerely attached to himself, to leave him on the eve ol' 
his being attacked by an army of their common meniies ; 
and that the only point to be considered was whethei' it 
would be most expedient to advance, and meet this ami}', 
or sternly await their coming. Then, without giving them 
time to answer, he performed the ceremony of puttuig the 
hatchet in tiieir hands, saying that he was well assured 

' Dc Monscignat, ReUition. &c. ; 
N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., 1). !TS ; D.' l.a 
Potherie, Ilistoirc dc rAiin'ri<iue 
Sept., iii., ]). 90. They (>xi)].iin " ciis- 
Botutes " us clubf! (if till' siiapo of a 
cutl;^!^s, on which they iiialii' ligures, 
showing who oominand.s the jiarty. 

• La Phiiiiio in-obably followed his 
uncle to Canada. His father, who 
remained on the Mohawk, La Plaqiu' 

once, in buttle, was about to kill, 
when he recognized him. (Charle- 
voix, Journal, p. IIOO.) lie, at first, 
lived iiniong the French ; was a line, 
well-formed man, and received a 
lieutenant's commission; but went 
back to the Indian life. He was so 
dissolute, that, at the Sault, it was 
at one time proiwsed to put him to 
death (lb., ;B2-3.) 

t 1 



lllsrolJV OF XKW l-ltANCK. 

thcv WDiiid use it well. 'v did iiol even dociu it hcncilii 
lii-; di,i;iiiiv lo lif^du to sing his Aviu-soug, tomaliinvk in 
IuuhI : wishing, in tliis w.iy, to sliow tiicni tliat it was his 
intention to combat at thcif head. Anv thing Ijccomes u 
man wlio knows liow to do cvci v thing with dignity, and in 
soiison. Tiio Indians were enciiantrd witli (he conduct of 
th(! Count d(! Fi'oidoi ac, and re|ilicd onJy liy acohui.ations, 
wliich assniud liim of tiicir consent.' 

On the -I'.hh of, tJio Chevalier de Ck'rmonl, who 
had n cei\ed order.s to ascend tiie .Sorel JtiviT, in oider to 
Nvatcli the enemy, arrived at Moidreal, and repoited that Jio 
hail perceived a very large force on J.ake Cliahii)kihi, and 
thai; he Jiad even l)een ])iirsued to Clnuid_)ly. Tiieriaqion, 
tlie signals were given (o a^;.■,enlble the regulars and militia.' 






' Dr MuMM'ijrnnt, lli'lation, kc, niul the fiv Nations, one tlu.iisnnd 

N. Y. l'..l. D.ic, ix., p. 4TS; IV In cifrhi hmulivd mid t«ciity iiu'ii. 

I'othri-i;', ili.^toirc <1,' l'Am,'il,iiie (^lcr to Slircw.-biiry, S.Y. Col. 

Soiit., iii., l.;^ !lG-7. !)..,■., iii., p. :rA.) Vovinn, •„ uttucli 

■III. SinuuL-i'ly ciioiidi, the wii-ly on Cas-o (•oihih>'I(i1 .M.H^aclmsriis 

Niw Vorl; liistoi'ians arc entirely ni ami J'ly.nontli to ivtain tlieir men 

t'anlt in n'::aril to tills ex|ie(lilion. at lioine (il.,, p, 7,>r) ; Inn i In' others 

Sniitli, In Ills Ilisiory or.Xew Voi'U, pivjiaivd l.i talie the liekl. Th.j 

alhiiieri to it merely in a unte (]i. Wesiei-n li-o(|uoi> were to nie ■> at 

'lit), where he cites the Life (.ri'liipps I'ort I. a .Motte, an abandoned I'lvneh 

iiiid ('l;arlev(ax. as though lu' knew worli, on Lake Ciiainplaiii (X. V. 

ofiioNew i'cn'k docninenls. ('olden. Col. Doe., iv., ]i. |'.i."e, and ;-o ,]i,\v,i 

lli.slory or th(. Fly,. Nutioii.s. S'-', the Sorel, (.Milet, l.'.'hition, p. lii.i 

London, p. i'.';, I'oiil'oiind.-, ii with The Whiles, with the .\l(ihauks. 

.■^Iiij<.r Peter Selaiyler'M exiiedition, Oneida.s, and .M.,liej;aiis. uviv appai 

.01 Ki'.ll. 'I'l.e Freneh aeeoiint.seanie, ently to meet at Lake li,'.,ri;e. and 

ol eoiirse. iVom scouts and Indian tnarcli i,_v hind. (.Milei.) ())' the 

-talenienis. yet are. in the main, invuuy. the I'leiich aecimis ::.\ 

"''"'■"'"■ lh:U nine litiiulrdl took t!ie iield 

The expedition was (Mie toe.,. (I )e la I'utheiie, iii., [.p. l-2ij_7 • X Y 

op-rnle^uiti, I'hipps- epenitinns Col. Ho, , ix., pp. oLjLji ■ and .a' tie' 

again-t (,>uc!,e,., by atla-kin- .M„ie .^b,!la^vks, Oneida.s, iind :\!oh.-ans 

'''''■•''■ "•' t'"' 1^! "f -V'.iy, PJjil, a:, .l;i,i, ,]!,., 'n,,. s:,,,;,!) p..,. |',:.,,| ,. 

i:i •emeu, u;iseni.-re,l int., beluver, out i .; lie- We..i:Mn IndiMe 

'■■■'^"- •'"■! ainh. grilles, ,:■ (■ i' Ocm, rmc s M-M, !■,.!,■;..„ 

necticnl. lV-i.i,,„iid I'iyne.iH'i, l,> ] j),,,,,,.. li,., n,,.,,„, Sep. -'", 

M-hieh \,-,v Inik u,!.|,, i■|nn;^^ hi'.o. Hi.., y,,.. ; |, "Olii-and 

V'" '"""''■"' 'i"''i:<''iiie.-lie„i,,,„e Vii'le. hif in ih. ..„i;;ni, r !„ ht 

J"""li'''l and tinny live; H„so,n,.,ne in word thai thev ,-„nl.l nM 

'"""'"■'^^^"l-'^=>-''bm.a.h ..;.,>. i,„ ...,,v ,;.,.^ (■,;; i,,„. „ ,,,- , 
\<.i l\- ,0. 





■'•ft j 

I' ■. 


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■ 'I k 





" ^il 


' ;;':r 

I ':^ 

; h ' 


i- 1; ' 



Us c)|i('ni- 


Early oji tli(! iiiorniiij,' of tlio '!1st, tlic ('t)niit do Frojitonac 
passed over to La Prairio do la Ma.ndi'lciiu', ■\vhirh lio had 
made tlu! ^•oiioral nMidczvous ; and the Indiana, wlioin I'o 
had invited, canio into tJKi camp in flu^ eveninij,-, not leav- 
ing a sin.^le man in their quarters to watch their f^'oods. 

The next (hiy ho revioM'od his army, ■which amounted to 
twelve hundred men; and, in the afternoon, some fudians 
from Sault St. Louis invited the chiefs of t!ie oUht nations 
to me<'t at tlie tent of their Father, Onoiilhiu, who had an 
important communication to make to them. They came, 
and -when all were assembled, Louis Atherihata, one of the 
most intluential ciiiefs of Sault St, Louis, delivered a very 
line address in the; name ot all tlic^ L'o(|Uois Christians. 
He he^'an hy exh(irtiii^' all tlu^ Indians to open tlieir hearts 

It ilni's lint, indccil, seem tlint any 
Indinns aswniblcd at I'"iirt I/.a Motto 
— Scliiiylcr not allmlinir to iiny, 
(;itlifi' g-oinjifor iTtuniiiiL,'' from Wood 
Crock to Liil'riiini'.(N.Y. Doc. Hist., 
ii., lip. 1(10-'.'.) 'I'lic Moliuwlis iind 
•Mbany Volunteers, under Miijor 
Pi'tcr Sclinylor, sconii'd to liavi- 
pushed oil curly to Wood Creek. 
Leisler sent up son'o troops from 
Now York to Allia.iy, romplained 
of as boys; and Connectieut, two 
eoiupaiiies, under I'iudi and .(oliii 
son. (N. ^. Col. Doc., iii., ]). 7"i'.' ; iv., 
p. 1!1;l.) 'I'o maintain his men, Leis- 
ler seized u lot of poor pork, and 
disease liroke uit, tlie men ilyiiif; 
" like rotten slieep.'' (I/iving-slon to 
(foveriior Nieliolsoii, il>., iii., p. 'i"'T.) 
Thi' smal]-liox, at the time, juvvailed 
at All)any. l''or the conimand of an 
exjiedition thus -wretchedly liceuii, 
the New England colonies urired th(^ 
appointment of Fit/, .lohn \.'''>throii. 
already conimis^ioiii'd liy the <iov 
ernnr (f ('•iiiiiciMi''nl, to enmniand 
llie (iMoj'S 1)1' t!ia! cnlniiy. lJei^!e|■ 
yielded; and, after Wint 1 1 rop reaehe I 
Alliany. .Inly '^1, with lifiy men and 
t hilly Indian.-. tiMiiiiipl. |i' tin i|U"lii 

of L't colony (\. V. Col. Did'., iii., 
p. 7rr3; iv., |i. lOM), I.eisler, .;n the 
olst, issued a commission niakinj;' 
him Major of the forces. (Doc. Hist,, 
ii., p. l.'jS.) At the camp, near .\1- 
liany, he found every tiling in confu- 
sion, and the small-pox spreadiiei. 
lie evidently sided with tli.' .\nti 
I,eislerlan8 ; and, in his .lournal, 
]irepared in KilKi, never alludes in 
any way to Leisler. (N. Y. Col. Doc. 
iv., pp. 1'.);>-II,1 On the :i()lh of .July 
he nian-lied iorward hy v,-ay of 
Stillwater and Saratos;;!, ilelayed by 
M-arcity of canoes. (Hist. .Ma,i;-,i., 
p. '.''Jil.) On the (Itli of Au^rust he 
iiieamped at the Fork of Wood 
Creek ; and, tlie next day, witli part 
<>•' his men, went down to llie l-ake. 
where he met Schuyler, the lniri;ii 
ers, and the Iroquois chiefs, (lb.) 
This was, doubtless, the camp seen 
by La Phu|U(> and Clermont, with 
its small parties prowlinf; abnui. 
Ilele. Wiiilhrop called ;i coiiiu-il .11 
war, iiiid asked the Indian ehielW 
for llieir advice as to the best W:iy 
to jirosecnte t\w war. They left it 
wholly to him, but finally advised 
1 Init I lie wliiile .iniiy should 1 \' 

J! . -?. 




to tlioir ('oiniiioii h'.-il Ihm , mikI U> conrc'il iiDtliin.;-, Iiowrvcr 
sccrot, iliiit liiul ofcurrcd of Into years. I'lu'ii ;iililLTssiiig 
the ( )tt;i\V!is (liioctly, ho told tlioui tliiit liu was luvtue uf 
all their iieL'oliiitions with the Cantons, ami was ikjI i,Liiio- 
raiil tiial tliev iiail j^iven il all up; Imt there still remained 
a shade of distrust: and lifiiei' he iie.n'ged tin in to dochire 
distinctiv what Jiad iiulueed tlieni to treat wiili the enemv 
without the kiio\vled;.;t! of their bather, and wlnit was their 
actual disposition toward the I'^reneh.' 

"It is ti'ue," re])lied tin! Ottawa orator' "that we 
restored to the lro((in)is soun^ slaves, and pioniised to 
return others; hut consider tin; way in which we were 
treated, ajnl say wjiether we were wrong. After involving 
us in \v.[\-, ihe rrench forced us to stop ail hostilities; then 

(ll>.. ]■. 1!)."».) riicir coiuliict WHS 
liri'iiii''! iiM!-nti>tiictory liy Wiiitliruii; 
til" roiiiiiii>si()ii(i-s, iit Atbany, si'ui 
woi'il lliiit llii'V ciiiild ol)t:iiii iiu jiro- 
virions; siuiill pox briilic (lut lit tlir 
l'"()i U ; mid tlic Indians t'ouiKl it iiii- 
possililr Id iimlic (■aunos. (W'in- 
tlirii]!'.-; Joiiriial, il)., pj). 195-0, con- 
(irniinfr tlic l-'ivncli apcounts ; N. Y. 
'•ol. Doc. ix., pp. r,V.',-i; !)(.! la 
I'dtlii-ric, iii., ]ip. ]'2(i-7; I.i'ttiT of 
Mgr. di" !,aval, Nov. 20, 1(190.) Allyn 
to IamwIci', Doc. Hist., ii., ]). 1(10, says 
the Indians rct'usud to accompany 
thorn, or l'urni.sli canoes, tl.ougli 
Iicislor denies it. (Col. Doc, iii., 
p. i.-).].) Wintlirop, then, on the 
KJti'i, calh'd a council of war, wliidi 
concluded to I'alt back. (.lournal, 
N. Y. Col. Doc, iv., p. 190; Doc 
Uist., ii., pp. 102, 109 ; Hist. Mag., 
i., p. 239.) Tlie next day hu sent 
out Caiitain John Scluiyler with 
forty Cliristiana and one liundred 
Indians (Doc. Hist., ii., p]). l()()-2) ; 
and, returning to the Fork, broke 
up his camp, and marcho<l back to 
the llall'-Moon, near All)auy, wliere 
ho turneil ovur thu command to 
Captain Fitch, and went to All>any. 

(Journal, N. Y. Col. Doc.,iv., ji. lilli.) 
Ho does not mention tliat licisler 
tliere ariesleil liini, and pul hini in 
prison. (Allyn to l.eisler, September, 
109(1, N. Y. Doc Hist., ii., p. I(i2), 
accusing liim of cowardice (IlLst. 
.Mag., 1., p. 229) and treachery (hot- 
ter to lirad.struet, Seiit. l."i, 10!)0; 
llutcliin.son, i., p. 134), as well as of 
adultery and <itlier crimes. Tlio 
Indians interfered ; and, at their re- 
ipiesi, iioisler released him, and 
allowed liini to go to Now York to 
make his defense. (Leisler to Shrews- 
bury, N. Y. Col. Doc, iii,, p. ',V)3. 

VVinthrop was a son of (fovernor 
John \Vintlirop, of Connecticut. He 
was born, March 14, IGiJO ; was sent 
to England, in 1094, as agent of tlio 
colony ; and was Hovornor from 
1098 to his death, Nov. 37, 1707. 

For the Frencli statements of tlie 
lossi's of thn English and thi'ir In- 
dian allies, .see post and notes. 

' De Monseignat. Uelatiuu, &c., 
lilS9-90, N. Y. Col. Doc, ix.,p. 480; 
De la Potherie, llistoiro do I'Ame- 
rique Sept., iii., p. 99. 

■ De la Potherie calls him Mani- 


I (lyo. 


( I'l I 


\ ' Vjil 

''' J i 

'A 'f ■ 


1 '1 ■■. 



V ij' ii 


■ I..' ■ 


Il ' t 


t i 

'' "I 


I t 



/. ,. 


148 i;iKi'«)iiv •,ii- m;\v I'ifA.vci". 

1690. we wove coniiu'llod to talui up tlic linlclict U',';iin. witlioiit 
"— '>""~'' ,'iiiy I'casdii liuiii;^' ^'ivcii. Wc cdiiM iiiiikc iiotliiiiL;' of all 
tliis ticklc'iic'ss, mill \wvv still mom ,sm'i)i'i.s('(l iit tlu> Wiiiit 
ol' vi^or sliowii ill canTiiiL,' on (lu> war. At last, fearing 
that till' I'Vcncli, hard luishril to ilclVii;! thi'iii.sclvcs, -wiuild 
luavt' us to bo ci'iishi il, in tlu'ir iiialiilitv to ,','iv(> 11s aid, wo 
t'cit bound to look to our own si>cnrit_v. We aet'ordiii,yl_v 
scut and ivcoivrd pvojiositions ; but this iiop^utiatiou caiiio 
to no hoad. Tln' I'.rst of oiiv aniba-sadors di{Ml airioULj flic 
Scuecus ;' tlic others returned ^ricliilliinukiuao, witliort 
eoniin^ to anv detinite conelusion. At this jnnctiire, wo 
learned of the return of (UU' old Father ; and as soon as lio 
niado known his will, we Itanislicd all thouf,'lit.s of uudiin,^ 
terms with the Irocjuois, and liavi; eonii! down to learn 
uioro explicitly our Father' intentions." ' 

As soon as he ceased s])eakinp;, the Huron orator'' rose, 
and said that, for his part, "he had neve)' forsaken tiu! 
['"reiicji alliance, oi' the obedieueo he owed to his Father, 
to whom he was resolved to be ever faithful, come what 
mieht." Aleu knew what was to be thouj^lit o'' lis pro- 
testation ; but it was no time to make rei)roaches, and no 
answer was made. All the oth(>r Indians declared that 
they shared the o|)inions e.\[)ressed by these, and deFron- 
touae was much iudobtod to Louis Athcri!-ata for f^ivini;- 
occasion to this little exitlauatiou. He broke up the con- 
ference, lest it should de.^ener'ite into a wrangle, and said 
that, as soon as ho liad repulsed tiie enemy from his terri- 
tory, eveiy < w could ■eturn home. 

The next day the scouts came in, reporting that thoy 
had seen nothing, .'.nd observed no trails. On this, th<^ 
army was dislmndrd till further orders, and the settlei's 
went to hurry in 'ueir crojis, as to which there was consid- 



i ' ! 

' III' ih: ciillrd ill I'lTiii 11, r,". ;\'titp l'Aiiu'i'ii|U ■ Sr|it., iii., ji. i)!l : X. \. 

liiirini'. Di' hi J'ulliiTii-. iii., iH) : Cul. Dor., ix., p. -IsO. 

N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., 1). 4b0. - = Tins I'liicf, ciilli'il - 'i'lir Huron," 

• Di' 111 I'otlierio, IlistoiiT ilr was iitrailoi', nnil joinod tin' Kn^'lisli. 

' ./■ 


llisr()i;v i»i.' NKw i'i!.\\('|.; 


craMc ;ni\i(ty.' Tud dnys nl'tcr, !iii lni(|U()is luivty fell on 1690. 
11 111 if,'lil''!()(l, calli'il L:\ Soiu'lic,' only tliioi'Miuiii'tois of ji ^— v^— 
iiiilo from tlu^ spot wIutc tli(> army liiid ciK'iiiiiiX'd. They f.i.uw 
foiuul ilic scltli rs 1111(1 sonic soMicrs scaltcrcil in the lldils i,'m"ii,'(i,! 
r< .ipliig, ahlion-li (iid.T.s had lie. u !.;ivrii lo lin (Mii^tanlly "'JiVpi iv.,l!' 
on the alert and iii'ar laiotij^di lu liclp cacii otlna'. Alo-;t of 
them AVi'iv iinKctl imarnii'd, and tlio conimandaiit of thai 
([uartov liad I'vcii nc.i^ltadcd to jiost sentinels, as liad heeii 
expressly din cled. 

Still, some made a resolute defense, and the lro(|uois Idsl 
six men. On tin' French side there were ten soMiors, 
eleven settlers, and four women, taken or killed ; many cat- 
tle slan,inhtered, and houses and hay-slacks lairiied.' The 
enemy tiallered themselves that they would not slop liere 
in this -vork ; lii:(, perceiviiii;- a coiisideralile force advancing' 
from ^lontreal, they r<';j:ained tho woods. This ])arty was 
only adelachmeut from the army discovered hy La I'laipic, 
the fate of which we shall see in iliie season. The Co. at 
de Froiilciiac was (juite nettled at haviii,^,' so easilv creii- 
ited his .seouls, and experienced such a reversi> hefore ilic 
eyes of his allii's. He felt all the dan,i;vr that he 'vould 
have ineuri'ed, liad tlio whole force of the enemy then 
fallen on him. 

On tlie 4th of Septeinlier, the very day of this adventure, 
the General assembled the Indians for the last time, as thev 

' Di' Mdiis.iiinnt, lidiilinn, \t.. O.v Vrinr]\ l.^vc dicii' cuiup, uinl 

N. V. Col. Viir , ix.. |i, Isl ; Dr 1,1 iiitMi'kicI tlir mm in tlii' ficlils. 

I'titlu'ric, llisliiiiv (Ir I'Aim'r'Kiiir (An,'. 0;!, (). S., Scjit. I. \. S.) 'I'lii'v 

S.'|it., iii., p. 101. 'I'll!' scouts nc- look iiini'ii'i.ii iiri-ioncr.-: luiil >ix 

tuully pns.'^cd nn Inic,-. Ill, sculps, " imioiii;- wliirli wvv.' Univ 

- l.ii iMiiii'chc, D.' Ill Pntlicric, w.inivu lulU," Tli.y killiMJ (in(. 

iii., p. 101; N. Y. Col. Ihtc. ix., liumln..! and fifly licnd of c»tlli.. 

!'• '"^1- 111' iiicntioiis only one liidiiiii l<illc.d 

■' Dc iMtmsciu-iuit, l!(.lation, Ike, 011 liis side. Tlicy killrd two Fniicli 

N. V, Col. Doc, ix., p. Isi ; Di. hi prisni'Ts 1,11 tli.'. lioni.-w.ird niiir.'li. 

I'olhiri,", ilistoin- dc. I'Aiii.'i'inu,. iSr,.. al,-o. LcI^Kt's Ken.".-, Sr| 1. :;o. 

Sciit.. iii., pp. 101--,>. I'liplain .lohn ISOO, Doc Hist., ii., |i. 111:1.) Mi'.t. 

Scliuylcr's .loiinial luakcs his lorce Ki.lallcn. p. IT, inak.s ihis a d.lai-li- 

Inrty-two whilc.s, and one Iiundrcd mcnt IVoin tlii' force whicli was to 

and twenty-live Indians. They .saw niardi from Lake »ii.'oi-''e. 

ii i ! 

.'4; ,( I 

0' i^ 


i .'J 








"i y 




>i 4 

I ^f;i. 

M. lie KliMi 

ti'imc ill" 

lni-»l"l till' 


New clii'ck 
Iniiii III'' 

i'!iinf>stly linked to 1)1' iliMiiiis>(iMl ; In' tnM tln'in that tliov 
t liiiiilil lie siifislicd witli tliii priccH ivt wliirli tlicv Irul Ixu'ij 
Mipplit'd witli ^'odils; (liiit lio woiilil liuve doiio nioni in 
llicii' favor had ho boon uotiliod sooir'I' oI' tlnir coniiii^' ; 
lliiit, on tho Avholi), if hert'toforo thry iiad iiiiiipliumid of 
ilir iiit,'h ]>i'ic'() of oiir },'()( Ills, t ho Fri'iich could juslly n»- 
inducli tht'iii ill turn; that ho approved I'Vrn thiiij^'Haid 
in liiH uanio by his I'livoy Povroi ; that tiioy shouhl bo 
«'onvini'cd that their inierest re(|niieil tliciii to make war 
upon the Iro(|nois; that, for his pari, lie would not lay 
down till! hatchi^t till that nation was hniidiliMl ; that ho 
exliorted theiii to harass il, ii!i('easint,'iy, till lliey wore in 
a ])oMiti(m to j^'o and attack Ihrin in their own country; 
thai they knmv what he had already done a.^ainst tlie 
I'.iiulisii ; that ho was resolved not to ^ive them a monu'iit's 
r spite ; that ho had tliouL^ht it ri;^dd Lo be^'in with tlioni, 
lieeanso thoy wore the iirime movers of the tronblos; that, 
by his orders, they had spared tho Mohawks at Seh((nec- 
tady in the hope that they would yield Jo tho exhortations 
ol' Oureonhaiv ; but that, inasmuch as they continued to 
aliusi- his Unity, ho was ,i,'oiiiL; to ]nish them to tlu^ wall, 
lie sup|)orted his words by very tine presents and tliaton- 
j^'a^in;;' nianncr which he could assunu! so well when he 
\\ished to iiain any one, and tho Indians set out wvy well- 
satistiod witii him and witli all tho French. 

A fow days after their departure, tho Irofiuois appeared 
in several places, and a^ain surprised Frenchmen who 
imagined them far enough away. Tho Siour des Marais, 
a seconded captain, who commanded FurtChateau,!:;ue,above 
Sanlt St. Louis, hi'.viuf^ },'ono out into tho fields with 
his valet and a soldier, fell into an ambuscade laid for him 
by three of those Indians, who each picked his uuxn, and 
killed all three.' On the iJ-2d of Si'ptomber tho Choval- 
lier tie la Motto and the Sieur Murat, lieutenant, were at- 

' Pi' Mi)ns('ijriiiit, l!"liili(iii dc ('c I'otlii' 'ir, Ilistdiri^ iIi' rAiiii'rii|U.' 
i|ui s't'ft piissr, \i'., HWMJO, N. V. S"pt,, iii., pii. loi-lil). 'I'licy ri'])- 

('•'!. l>i)l'., i\,, pJP. ISI-'.' ; \)v III l•^.'^^^'llt only Dcf lll'Ullis ilS Uilll'll. 


lilsruUi Vi MAN I'iiAMl,, 



tacked l»_v n more nnnicrouH piirtv thuii tliiil iiinlrr their 16.^0. 

eiiiiiiiiaiitl ; tliey I'l'piilseil it, iiesi'rtlu'li.'S;* ; luit tli ■ liniiaiiM — i-^' 

liitvili^' returmd l.i tiic cliiir^^'e ilt 11 time wiicii the l';eiu'li 

nUk'er.s siiii|M»seii tlicm in full retn-at, the Chi'S.iliiT il.' hi 

Motte w.i^ killed (in the spot, iiiid it Wiis novel' alter Kimium 

what Ik eaiiie of Sieiir Murat.' 

In his iiiortilieation at this uiiwehonie news, Frontenar'H 

ealli'il Oiiii'duhari' ; and, after luietlv explainiii;,' tn him the Iii'i'i'ii'inimi'i' 

cdiirse whieli he had |airsiied tiiwaid his nation Imtli diu'- 

iii;.;' his loimer administration and siner his reliirn iVom 

I'lance- Traill he tliou,i;ht lie eould have llattrnd himself, 

that at least gratitude for the iii'nelits which l^' had pei- 

soii.dly liestowed on him, would have indaeed him to opiii 

th>est.-of his t'onutiyineu; and tha' ln' must he eithiT 

quill' insensible to his kindness, if he had lieini wan'inx 

in this duty; or was liut lij^ditly esteemed hy his nation, if 

he had Iteeu uiialile to make tluMu adopt ideas more lea- 

soaalih' and more oonl'ormaltle to their real intei<'sts. 

TheIr(j(|UoisHt'uiued uuirtitiediit these words.oiw ideh he Tim ln- 
„,,,,,„ 1,1 , ■ 1 1 ■ 11. 11 , ilhiii'Hi'i plv 

tilt all ill'' loree, Init he eontauied hine-ell nevertlulrss ; and, 

without evinein^' tlio least annoyance, he.^'^cdlhedeneralto 
roniomber that onhisrutuni IVoin Franee he found the Can- 
tons bound by an alliance with the En.'^li-di, which it was not 
easy to iireak, and so envouonied against the French, whose 
treaclii'ry had, so to say, driven tliem to i'ontra<'t that alli- 
ance, that it hr.d been necessary to trust to time and ci- 
enmslances for a more favoiable disposition ; that, for hi^ 
own pari, he eoidd reproaidi hiuiseli' with nothing;; his it- 
I'nsa.l to I'eturn to his canton, where lui was passionatijy 
desired, should have liaidsiied eve'y s\is[)icion of Ins lldil 
ity ; if, notwithstaiidin;,' so unniistakablo a tokttn of his ai- 
tachnieiit to the French, they were so unjust as to eiitcr- 

l:li;i airv Slisiiicjons, ||> would ""iji dispel IllrUI. 

Ill I'Viliiiiil. < 'imr 
|. ;|::. !•• i< six I'll 

irill-ilciiri'. ii , Mill wiiM !j-riiiili'ii |.i liliii, .Inly ','li, 

l,:i MiiMr ill' HI'-:;. H.iiiclii'llr. 'rii|iiii,'nii.liiijl P. 

liiiKsirTi', Si'lu'iii'MP ill' III liussiiii- hii'i|itiiiii, p. m'.'I, xxix. 
ili.'iT. 'I'lic Sr iLTiiriny still lii'iiriiii; -' l)i' lii I'nllii'iic, lli-itninili' rAiiu' 

lii.-^ Ilillllr i> ill l!ia'Uill::ll,ll rniilil,, l'ii{Ui' Si { 'I rill I inii.i'i . ij i p. IH.I. iVi'. 






' (j 



ISiSi f:l 

^I '. 


msroliV OF XKW I'UAXt'F, 


1 i ' ''■ 

III . :l 

1690. Tliis iv]tly almost iiirido Fniiitoniic ropont his ill-liuiaof, 
'^"^ iu:il tlio tUstrust it liiul i!is])iveil ; lio f^avo some marks oF 
An I'.imii-ii i'lii'iulsliii) to Oiueouliaiv, ami rc^solvocl to devoto liimscil' 

\y,n\.^ in In- Uliiro 

tliaii rvi^r to sccun' s(.) rrasoiialiU^ a man, IVoui whom 

HK'iri' ('iic- 

hi' \v;i.-; .satihhcil i 

U! C'UUlil o 

Main imndi'laiit sciviccs ; Vmt 

h(' soon liaJ other lUiitters to attend to. On tlio li)th ol' 
Oi-loluT, as lio was pro()arin!.;- to return to C^nobee, an 
olUcei', who had left that eapitid the day before,' ha;ided 
liim two letters from Mr. Provol, Majcn' of the fo. t, and 
C\imniaiidant in his absence, tlieru being then uo King's 
Lieutenant in Canada. The tirst, date(l the oth. .'^tated 
that an Abena([ui had just brought in word thaL tliiriy 
vessels had s,u1(h1 from JJoston; and it was posinve y 
fstated that their ohjeet was to lay siege to (^)in.'l>ee.' 

This Jndian, to whose zeal and diligence A'(,'\v Fraini' 
was, in i)art, indebted i'or its salvation, had com>; in twe v.' 
days from reseadoue;' he further informed ]\l.r. PruV'Vu 
that the English ileet had been six. weeks at sea. The 
?.fajor"s second letti'r, dated the 7th, stated that the Sicur 
de Canonville had imtiiied him that he had pcrceivoil, v.ear 

lie iviitrs "Auriinia''." ('MUlrirr; i i;'iii luc iiSl.'nUi.m, uulr^is n'liiiin-:!. I.iin- 

i- '• Tawcraiifl — 'I'lii raw.ii ;." (I'.isi. ^■■vin, Nulis siir li's Afi'liivc;' ilc 

1.1 til.' i''ivr Xatidiis, l-oii i pii, 1717. .\oii-i' .I):iiiH' (ie llciiii], (.^lu hn', 

\>\>. '.)',. 111. l-.'l.) Annilicr lOniili..!! ISdH. Pari !.. p. o'.l, M'ivrs lii:^ iianir 

r.irni 1- •■'I'aw" (N. W Cni, 1), !■,. as l''i:iuc'i> I'rovnsI, I luliniivili" 

iii.. p. .'iiiO.) I'nr- ill!- -illur l''i;'iic',i r.|-iiki- i.r luMi as tin- most ii|irijit 

infill.--, M-i- OTallatrhaii's Iii(1i-n. N. V. man ln' ruiiuil in Caiiaila. His aaiii.- 

('ill. Dm-., r,rliii " Ori'liaoii'." a|i|pi-iu-.- as 'I'liwii Majcji- oT (.liirlni- 

. ' |);- Moll? -i.nliu!, UrIati.Jii, \-c., lis i-ai-ly as lii,;! iN. V. Cul. Dn,., 

N. V., l>-'i-. ix., 11. IS.', sa.v.s thr i\,, p. ',l7) ; ..lul !,- I 'l.-r(-i| niv.-. i l'/,:i: 

iiu-i-si-n^fl- li-U l.Jiu-lii-1' the 7lli. .\i'- lissi-iui-m, ii., p. -tO(l) that la- lu-l.l 

count s-i'iit ii La Fk-m' ili' Mai. (Hi. tin- dlUi-i- 1 wrntv vi-ar.-i : lie lamis liis 

]i,-t."i."i.) Fi-iinl;iia.-li)SciL;'iii-lay, Nov,, wisilcuii ami vali.i-. In jiilis lie is 

'JO. (11'., ".(Jl.l in liis c-i'rata, ('liai'ic (-allnl Kin.r's l.iciii.-uaiii. 
\i;v iill.'i'.- I'l' iiaiih' "]■ 1!,,- M:!\ci- - |)r .NlMn-.-l.- iial. iJ'I.lini, >\r 

..: ("Il-Il.-C 111 I'r.iV -•!. Mlul ■! IVi il, N. ^ , ( ;.i, I'.ir., i'. . |., ',y , ; I >i la 

i-nisi i|iiini 1> . ill 111'- li-N! I'l- i:i I'.illi li--. Ili-'u'l' il.- IW iii-'i ii|ii, 

l>,-ll|.-| II- lln--:; nnl f'i'.-|' iii^ lialll- t'll.i^i. ]•. HI: Frnh|i-ll:|.' ImI'm' 

liii, |i. I'll. Mmi^ i'-nat siy.; I'r-- >iiiri i- r. \m\iiiiIi-i I',', lll'io- ,N. ^^ 

viisl. (X. ^. !'iil. Mill'., i., ]-. -1^-'.) I'liI, l>-ii'., ix, p. ■'.:>'• : Caiiaila Di.i.-. 

.Mmi |).-iu.iivill.-. I Hi., pp. :!l)7- :;.'-'-.) II . v.. p. r.',. 
(■i,„ii,Aii, Willi! i li;.\. hi.i.i' \l"i' I,li|-. ■■ !'• i,i.i„.iia I " 




Ttuloussiic, twouty-four Euglisli vessels, ei^lit of wliich 1690. 
seeuieil to iiiiu very Itirt^e. The AEiijor added tliat, on this "-"r-"^ 
iiifoi'iuatioii, he had detaclied his brother-iu-huv, the Sieiir 
de. truandville, with a biseayeinie ' and a well-armed cauoo 
to obtain more ecrtain intellii,'eace. 

The (roveriiov-Geueral had some hesitation in crediting \viiy M. a* 
that such a formidable fleet was so near, without his hav- 

ing had the slightest hint of its equipping at Boston. Ho 
nevertheless embarked at once with Mr. do Champigny 
in a small vessel, in which they wer(! well nigh lost ;" and 
the next day, aliont three c'cloek in tho afternoon, a sec- 
ond courier from Mr. Provot informed him that tlie De- 
moiselles de la Lande and Joliet had been taken near 
Tadoussa(; liy a ileet of thirty-four sails, which might well 
be, at the time he was writing, at Isle-aux-Coudres : that 
is to s;xy, witliiu lifteeii leagues of (^uel)ee.'' 

\\'hat JKul contributeil most to deceive Frontenae, autl 
trauquilize him in regard to Quebec, was that he believed 
the English fully occupied on the t:oast of Acadia, w Inch 
lie had more than one reason to sui)pose their ol)ject. 
The fact was true ; biit ho erred in sui)])osiug that Acadia 
would delay the Eughsh longer than it actually did. 
Moreover, he could not persuade himself that sutHcient 
force could be sei?t out of Boston to attack, at the same 
time, all New Franco ; still less that Acadia had been 
reduced, and that the conquerors could Ijriug him tho Urst 

w;is siir- 

I KhixCiuiciuic \vu8 a bout, sliui'i) Montn'al, uiiil n^portcd tliirty-thri'f 
ill liow iuitl (Stern ; soiiR'tiiiics with vcs<: in. Dciiiiiisfllc was ii title then 
masts even, Iml always udapli'd Hir dl' niarrieil lailies. Tlie DeiUdiselle 

■•■ ['"I'diiteriac to the .Minister, Nov. 
\l. l(i!)(), .N. V Col. Doc.ix., ]i.|.-il); 
Jneherean, llistoiie di' ['Hotel Dieii, 
iv :!I8. 

Joliet, here luelilioMeil, ,vns the wife 
of I.ouis ,)olieI. the eollipailion of 
Mar.iuelie. (La llontaii, Voyaj;es, i., 
1>. '.2I().) Front eniic's letter makes 
the courier arrive eiirlier. N. Y. 

' Oe .Mon.seif^nat, Helatioji, &e., <'ol. Doe., ix., p. I")!) : Aceount sent 
.S. Y. Col. Doe., ix., p. 4s;i, s»y.s tho .by La Fleur de IMai (Ih., p. -ISo) ; 
necoiid courier met him at 'i P. M., he Cl,ic.|, Etablissemeiit de' la Foi, 
nt St. Ours, iil'leeii leagues from ii., p. 117. 
Vol.. IV. ji) 





'>!ili I 


f: 'I- 

■ 1 

■I ^ 



in-;i'oi:v ok nkw FiiAXcio, 


5. J' 

1 690. 

%■ '■ ' "'*'•' 


Tliis evil came from his not bciii'v siifficipiitly informed 
-~-^r^~-^ of the Avretchctl state of that province. Wo liav(! seen 
I'ositioM ill tliiit four ships, clearing from the poi't of Boston, had 
Aciuiiadiin ii])p( iu'cd iu sight of Casco Bay, at the moment wlusn that 
fori had just surrendered to Mr. de Portnouf.' It Avas 
afterward known at Quebec that these ships, arriving too 
late to relieve Casco Bay, had made sail for Port Pioyal. 
Frontenac had i-ercsived, in the mojith of July, a confirma- 
tion of this iiue]lij;enco ;'■' but he was not in a position to 
rfilieve that place in case of attack ; nor, ai^parontly, did 
he believe it destitute of troops, ]n'ovisio!is, and ammuni- 
tion to the jioint it actually was. 

Nevertheless, de Manneval, Gov(>rnor of Acadi;i, who 
ordinarily resided at Port Royal, had a garrison of only 
eighty-six men and eighteen p.ieces of artillery, which 
were not ev^n mounted, "^riie last fortifications erected at 
the ]ilace weri, ■-•" insignificant, that they could not protect 
it against an assault,'' and they were in absolute neoil of 
(ivery thing. Tlu- otliei' ]iosts were still less fortified, and 
as ill provided. Moreover, mot't of the French settle- 
ments, even more scattered than iliose on the 8t. Law- 
rence, were abs.jbitely without defense. 

Such was the situation of Acadia, when, on the '22d of 
"lay, 1(!90,' a soldier and two settlers, who were on guard 
at the mouth of the basin of Port Royal, perceived two 
English ships, crowding sail to enter. They, at once, fired 
a horfc," th(^ signal prescribed to notify the Governor, and 
embarked in all haste in a canoe. They reached tins fort 
aboitt eleven o'clock at night ; and, on their repin't, de 

It isiil- 
l:ickf(l hv 



I J 

' Ante, |). l;!(l. ■'"(• MatliiM-Vi to tlif Iiimin <li' Bckancourt iiiid lo 

Mnirnnl'm, Honk ii., j). ;? di' ViUrlidn. 

• Li' ClcHMi, Etal)li;.-('iiu>nt do Iji ' IK McniU'val to ilr Si'if^iii'liiy, 

t\ii, ii., p. Mil. Miiy2!), IC'lO (in N. Y. Col. Dod, 

■' Di' Moiisi'igiiat, iii'lation, itr . is., p. P'?l 1, snys tluit tlicy arrivrd, 

N. Y, Col. Doc, is., p. 174, nn.l IV. May Ii). 

la I'oHicrio, Hifitoirc i'.i' rAiurriquc '' Appai'ontly, a bi'iile ili- njo'ii.t- 

Sept., iii., p. 81, say Iii'twrcn nixty fimicc, a siui 11 cannon, suf up vcr- 

and I'ilzlity. Tlii' coniinandcr, Mob- tically and ] lir'TSi'd when fired — 

imau i\v Mfiiiicva', wiis a lirotiirr n<iiM' lirin r tlic ohin't 

I . 

i ' 

lllSTOIiV OK NKW KliANt.fc;. 

Mimiu^vfil !it oiii'o fired a canuou to notify tlio sottleis ti 
tisHomljlc! at Lis (^uiirtcirs. 

On tlu! 'iUtli, the English sciuadroD^ coiisistiii.L,' of a 
forty-gnu frigato, a vessel of sixteen, a tiiirJ of eight guns, 
and four ketches, auchored half a leagui; from Port Koyal ; 
and tiie Aduiival, William PJiil)s, au ndvcniturer, whosi' 
UH')'it was i)n)])()iti()iiate to his early couditiou of carpenter, 
sent his boat to the fort, with a trumpet' r, to summon the 
Governor to surreuder his post, with all it contaiucd, with- 
(mt any capitulation,' 

l)e Manneval letaiued the trumpeter ; and, for lack of 
ot'ilcers, sent Mr. Petit," priest of the Senuuary of (Quebec, 
who actinl as his chaplain, to obtain at least toleralde con- 
ciitions from tlie English ('.eiu'ral ; for, f:(uu tlie outset, he 
saw how useless it would bo to attempt a defense with so 
few soldiers, poorly armed, discouraged, without a single 
Oiiicer, and unable to rely on the settlors, only tiiue of 
whom came up in answer to his signal for as.iembliiig. 
He had absoluti'ly no one to mount and work Jiis cannon; 
and, besid(>s, he 'liad been, for two raontlis, racked with 
gout, anil was assured that the enemy had eiglil hundred 
laud troops on board.'' 

' l)i' iMousL'igiMit, KcUitiun, iV'c, 
N. Y. I'lii. i)iic., ]>.., \'. ui, jj;\wa 
ihis lii'ii'lly, !Sir W ilii;ii!i l'h'n)V,.s 
siiu (jf .Jiinu's I'liii-; s, a ^ainsiuitli 
tVom Bristol, wiis Iidi-ii in wliiit Ls 
now l'lii|ii\sl)urg, >;;:iar; ljcc;ili',c u 
slii|M'ar[>cntoriin(l luililcriit Shcc-|..-i- 
cot and Boston. Wont to sea in 
11)77 ; ut'trr one I'ailiirc suiicci'dud in 
raising' a Siianish trcasurr ship, liy 

■' liov. Lo!i:;i I'ciit. loin at Kont'n. 
iu l(i2i), canu' uut as a caiitain in tlic 
Hcgimcnt C.i.igiuin SaliT-rcs ; hut. 
renouncing' t-i.' currcr oi'arnis, slnd- 
ii'd at till' S.iaiiiur,- 111' tjuclicc, and 
was ordaini'ii, l)rr. :^1, 11(70. He was 
chaplain at !■ a-cl, I'roni lii7'-', to '7(1, 
an.l se:it to ,'i adia in l(i?7. I'lupps 
canicd hint t'l Boston; bnt jio re- 
turned to i'oji iioval the same year, 

whic^i lie obtained £1(),()IH) and and c(jntinue'.l his h.hors till 1700, 

knighthood from .lames [1,, in .lune, at Quebec and .Ancieune l.nrette, 

Ki'Sr. ."lUdro.-i made haa Sheriil' of lie died at the Seininai'v of (Juebec, 

Ni \v r.ngland. lie w;\s made CJov- ,Inne o, 170,). aged eighty years. 

( ri!oi- of Massaclia.-e!!.- in lil'.IJ, re- Taschereau, Memoir on the CJiU'bee 

ealh-!! for violence ill ID'.i.'i.iiiul died in Seminary Mis^ions in .\cadia, .Ms,; 

I-Dii loll, Fi'liruaiy i '■. lii-),"). lie >aiU'd 'Mi)" Anuiv. du Seiri, de (.Iiu'Ikc, 

i';-(.m Xantasket, .'.piil i!", i'iiio, (), [), 14 ; !St, Va.iier, Ktai i'l-.M^u, 
^., and reached i'url Koyal, May 11, •' Ilistoire (ie(jgraph;(|Ue (i ia 

.Mat'uT'si Magualia, Book ii., ]). -17. N'ouvelle Kco^j.-jc, p. 111. 





'i ¥ 



! 'I\ 


J ^ '"I 



'•3 1,'r 





liy (lajiit- 


William Pliibs at first dcclai'cd to Mr. Petit, tliat ho 
iimst liiivo tlic Governor, his garrison, an<t ./.' tiio settlers 
at discretion. The ecclesiastic resolutely answered that 
Mv, do Mauneval would die sooner than bo guilty of such 
cowardice. Pliibs then asked whether ho came prepared 
to otter any ]")ropositions, and the reply was that ho had 
orders to say that Port Koyal would be surrendered to him 
on the following conditions : First, that the Governor and 
soldiers should march out with arms and baggage, and Ik; 
taken to (^)uebec, in a vessel to be furnished them ; second, 
that the settlors should be preserved and maintained in 
the peaceful possession of all their ])r()]>ei'ty, and tliat the 
honor of the women, married or unmarried, should ho, ]wo- 
tected ; third, that all should liave the free exercise of 
the lioman Catholic nOigiou, and that the Clnirch should 
not bo touched.' 

'iV» all appearance, Phibs had already come to a resolu- 
tion U: gi'ant every thing, and hold to nothing. The case 
I'ith V hich he consented to Mr. Petit's requirements, and 
his sid)St (j'.ient conduct leave scarcely any room for doubt. 
It is certain tnat he raised no ditticultics ; but when the 
ecclesiastic proposed to him to put the capitulation in 
writing, ho refused, saying that his word as (ienoral was 
Avorth more than all the writings in the world. It was in 
vain for ]\Ir. Petit to insist ; he e 'nld get no more." 

Mr. do Mainieval was not even as dilticult as his envoy. 
Innnediatelj' after tho Litter's return, he wrote to the Eng- 
lish General that ho al)ided by the terms agreed iipon, and 
that if he would send his boat the next day, he would go 
on board to meet him, and give a convin(;ing proof of the 
frankness with which ho acted. Phihs sent his boat, tho 
Governor embarked, the capituliition was orally confirmed 
in the presence of tho Sieur des Gouttins, King's Hcrivencr. 
acting as Comniissaire Ordounateur at Port lloval, and tho 

I I)r >rc'iin''Viil to Soigncliiy, N.Y. cllnrts, a iiii-mdir (CmihuIh Puc, III.. 
Col. ])iif., ix., p. ilOl. i., |i. 'JlSi ii>('i'ilirs tlif ciiiituri' dI' 

' Id si)itr lit' Ki'V. Mr. Petit's Port Hoynl to him 



English Ccnerul adiled that ho loft it to jNIr. do Miuuu>vars 
choico, to l>o tukeii with all liis garrisuu to Frauco, or to ' 

Tho Governor stated that he would prefer to go to 
France, and Philjs promised to send him thither. All 
being thus concluded, do Manneval and the English Ad- 
miral landed. The former handed the la^ys of tho fort to 
tho latter, and made him master of tho place. When lie 
saAV tho actual condition of Port lloyal, Phibs seemed 
much astonished, and repented having granted such hon- 
orable conditions to men so little al ile to make any def(ms(> ; 
ho nevertheless dissembled till he !.)und a pretext for vio- 
lating a capitulation Avhich he pretended had boon extorted 
from him by surprise. 

Ho did not seek one long: for learning that, while the 
Crovornor was on board, some drunken s(jldiors and set- 
tlors had taken sometliing from a store belonging to Mr. 
Porrot, do Manneval's i)r(;(h^ccssor as Governor of Acadia, 
ho declared that, as \vh,;t l\ad been taken belonged to the 
King, his master, he felt li inuself no longer bound to adhere 
to what he had promised. He then began by disarming 
tho soldiers, and contlmsl tlicni all i:i tho church ; he even 
demanded of Messrs. do ?,lanneval and di;s (u)uttins their 
swords, which he, nevertlieiess, at once restorml, ini'orming 
them, hov.ever, that tlii-y w(>ro his prisoners. He assigned 
tho Governor his mvu lumse as a prison, and set a 
sentinel theie ; robbed him of all his money, and even of 
his clothes ; gave uj) all the houses to pillage, because, Ik; 
said, he knew that the farmers had concealed all their best 
things ; and did not even spare the priest's house, nor the 
church, whore his men c^immittcd great iinpietiof 

' Do Monscigimt, Hulatum, &i'., O. S., innitidus tlic tuTiviil of Sir 

X. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 47.5; Dk- :-\'u- Wiliiam Pliipiis iit \\..^.o:i on tluit 

n(?Vfil to Si'ijrncliiy (H)., p. H'-M). Tlic dii.v, witli do .Mi'iiUcViil, two ]n-\v^\>-. 

(lati-of tlicciiptuiTis Lnvfii i\s Mhv ami nbout sixty ^ol.!il rs, witli 

•01. Dc MniiR'Viil, witliltrv. Mi.-is. plmulcv. He alliidi s to tlic •' cn^^M'S 

Petit ami 'I'nii.vt', wito cm-ricl to and inumts lii-okcu d.iwii.' N."\. 

15oHlon. (IV la I'ollirrif, iii., p. ^■•"- > Doc. ilist., ii., p. IK!. Ivnowniii 

ISradstroct to l.cisl.T. May :;o. Ifi'.io. Q.^duc i.idy iii.\nt;'. .Ti'.rlicrMii.p TiT. 



riic rapit 
ulalio.i i^ 
not Uipl. 


•i ',i'i< 






44 ,,■•, I 

'V ■ -I 
4.1: 'I 




■i I; 

'■1 i-l 

1 -ill 






ii \j'\ 






i.s ]iiii'siii 

liy ir.o 


! ^'J' 

Some (layH beforo Mr. rcnol -wlio, iiitor losiii;.; lie 
oilice of (iovLTiuir oi' AL-iulia, liiul luiuaiiUMl in tliat- ]ii()v- 
Mr. I'.iiot iucu for liis i)nviai! a Hairs— had eiubarkfil in u J-..(cli 
witii tliu bienr Duclos, his clerk, wiili tlio view of tradiiij.,' 
along tlu! coast. On th(! 27tli of jMay, as he was rctiiniing 
to Port lioyal, unconscious that (he English wvvo in ])os- 
scssion, he was— foi'tunatcly for hini— (hitainnl by a liead- 
wind at the mouth of the bay. Then, not siehig the usual 
sentinel, ho suspected sonielJiing, and got into a canoe, 
witli Mr. Danioixr, a Canadian gejitleinan, anil an Indian, 
to ascertain what had hai)pened. After advancing three 
leagues, lie perceived an English .ship at anchor in tlie 
rive]', on whicli the town was built, and heard the re])ort 
of several cannon and volleys of musketry. 

Believing that an action was going on, he hid his canoe 

in the woods, and went on foot to the tirst house, which 

he found abandoned. Ketiring in hasli', 1,(^ jmuped inlo 

Ills canoe, and pushed olt to his ketch, wIul-Ii he found in 

I lie basin. It had already atli'actetl (he a:teiitiou of two 

l-lugli.shmeii, who, learning of lii.s return, awaited him, and 

had embarked in a sloop to board iiim ; but, as the tide 

was falling, the sloo}), which was not far from the sliore, 

grounded. Perrot proMted by this accident ; and, afttM' 

avoiding a canoe, which idso pur.sued him for some time', 

111! reached his ketch, hoisted sail, and left the basin. 

The English .shij), which he had i)erceived, having al-i, 

observed him, gave him chiise ; but, seeing it fruitle.s;;, 

sailed back into i)ort, and 'Mv. Perrot entered Poi! des 


Mr. Vilic- ^>ii the llth of June, the Clievalier de Villebou. capt.ain, 

"';!i 'roli'^'^ *-""-' '^l' lii<J !i''"^ "'' iln' Parol! of Pekancourt, arrived from 

'li'mi-'iiur Fi'tnii^'*^' lit Port iio^aJ, his company being in xicadia. 

no'ioliiirr '^^^^'^'^ i"' '''^iUKi T'lessrs. Perrot and des Gouttius, and from 

"'^■'•^' Ihem l(;arned that .Xdmiral Phii)S had remained there only 

twelve days; i':i;il ! e IkhI carried oft' Mr. de Manncval, a 

sergeant, and iii:riy-eight .-.oidieis, wiiii .\lr. I'rtii and 

1 J 

^l i 

insroiiv or >Ku i'it.\>;<' 


iinotlicr occlcsi.istic, nainod I\Ir. Trnnvi'' ; ' that iK-tnrc liis i6c;o. 
(lc])iiituro ho iisscinMcd tlu! ccjldiiiHts, .-tiul adiaiiiisUrcd to — ,^~^ au oath of fidelity Ui tlic sovciui.^DS of lMiL;laml, 
W'illiain and Mary ; tliat he iiad Kct up his first ser^;i'aiif, 
OIK! Chevalier, as Couiniaiidaiit of Port lloyal, and six of 
the lu'ominoiit settlors to adiuinister justice as (•(niiu-illors. 

This iuforniatioii greatly eud)arrassed the Chevalier dc 
ViUobou. Ho had l)ron},'ht with him from France tlie 
Sieur Saccardie, au enginoei', and consulted with tiiat 
olHccr, Porrot, and des CTOuttins, what w as to be doiu' at 
this junctim! to save the rest of a colony, of wjiich iu^ was 
alone in charge, and to put bi-yond dan_!.;('i' the I'oyal stores 
that he had Ijnnight from Franco. What disturbed liim 
most was that tho En<,'lisli wort- still in Port do la Hevc, 
where, in less than throe duys, they might be informed ol' 
his arrival; and he was by no means hi a ])osi,ion In 
resist them, in case they returned to attack liini in Port 

All things maturely considered, it was unanimously 
resolved to retire to St. John's Piiver, whore the Chevaliei 
do Grandfoutaine had built a fort at a place called Ji'niset, 
or J'embac ; " to transport to it what belonged to the King 
and the Company ; to rally there all th(> soldiers they 
could — several of whom had escaped from the hands of 
the English, or nuinaged not to fall into thorn ; to order 
the Sieur do Montorgueil, lieutenant in Yillobon's com- 
pany, who was at Chedabouctou with a detachment of 
fourf eon soldiers, to join his captain at Jemset ; and, when 
nil this was done, to erect a stono fort at tho same place, 
and theuco send all possible aid to the Indians, and 
encdurago them to coutinue the wur, which they ke])t ti]> 
with constant activity iiga nst the Englisji. In fact, these 

' Sc'i' in\te vol. iii.. \\ 1 Id. i', .l".;:i}, it is " (Irmisick," and said to 

■•' III his i'rriita.('li!>rl''\i)ix cdi'I-i'i-,.- Iv twrntv-live loai,aios uj) tlu' river. 

tliis to " Jvnisa--." Anti' vul. iii., p. It was tlii'ii a men? Idocli limise. 

ISS, I-.e writes " i leiiesie." In die torty paces by thirty. It was rn tho 

Troces Verba!, of t;ikini,' ]iossession east banlv of tlie river, o])])ositL' the 

in l(i70 (.Mem, ile Coinmissiiires, ii., i.reseui (iap'towu. N. H. 




%y ■ 

fj ' ti .(I 







'. )| 

I '1 



■|..v> ''I 



k*, -;''' 

1690. Tnilimis incessantly overran Now En<j;laii(l,nowlioroHcarcely 
— ^r-~^ mootni}^ any resistance. It was even just annonnceil that 
I'oity AV)(''na(iuis luul but recently ilcfcatcil six liunili'eil 
Englishmen in open battle, losinjj; only six of their njen, 
and ouo Canadian, Bellefont, who, after distuif^uishinj;- 
himself greatly nt tiio sief^'e of Casco Bay, had joined this 
troop bra-<" 
Kxpidii oi [n r S'fuii';, ic of this deliberation, orders were scut to 
(If Mi)iii()i- de Monio/'.^.'J' '..: evacuate Chcdabouetou, which he could 
not dreuru - aefen''' ,{? against the English fleet, and to 
bury all the cannon laa he could not bring oil'; but that 
oflicer was no longer on this post, having sallicul forth by 
ti more glorious gateway than that 2)rescril)ed for him. 
Admiral Phibs, after nuUdng .some stay at La lleve, had 
proeeiMled to Chcdal)ouctou ; and, landing eiglity men, 
had summoned the Comnumdant to surrender at discre- 

To this summons Moutorgueil replied, that ho would 
he buried beneath tlie ruins of his fort rather than sur- 
render it to the enemies of his royal master ; and his 
little garrison promised to sustain him with all their 
might. Phibs twice sent back his trumpeter to show him 
the folly of any cH'ort against so powerful a force ; the 
answer was constantly the same. Ho then ordered an 
attack, which was briskly made, but failed. This uncx- 
])ected resistance cither heightened his esteem for so brave 
a man, or made him drt-ad the disgrace of a repulse before 
a "shell," defended l)y a handtul of soldiers. He made a 
fourth summons, adding threats, which he deemed most 
likely to intimidate Montorgueil ; but it was as useless as 
the rest. 

Then he threw matches, which set fire to a thatched 
building. In spite of all the eflbrts of the garrison, the 
fire spread, Phibs seized the moment to summon him 

I Lifut. do Montoru-ucil to Sriu'iic- -1, P.M. Si-c Do la Pothcrio, iii., 
liiy, Sept. 1(1. l(;i)l). SUNS -luiii' l;J. p. SI). 




twice more, and Muutorf^uoil, seo" ,^ that he could not 
prevent the phioo from boinj^ reiluced to ashoH, thought 
that ho mif^lit capitulate ; but ho did it with so much 
haughtiness, and showed so stern a resolve to msdie the 
enemy pay dearly for their trilling victory, if they did not 
gi'ant him honorable terms, that ho obtained all he wished. 
He, accordingly, marched out at the head of his garrison, 
with arms and baggage, and was conveyed to Placentia.' 

There being settlers at Chodabouctou, Moutorgueil had 
not overlooked their interests, and the English acted fairly 
by them ; but Isle Percee, which they next visited, did 
not fare so well. Meeting no resistance, Phibs pillaged 
all the houses, antl unworthily profaned the church.' O. 
the other hand, the Chevalier do Villebon had embarkt i1 
for St. John's lliver, on the ship Union, wiiich had brou u. 
him from France; but, being long detained at the n 
of that river by headwinds, two English pirates, who weri 
in pursuit of him, had time to over*^alie liim. On tli' 'Wth 
of June, while the Chevalier was making his wa_) \ 
canoe to Jemset, two Enghsh ships appeared in sight of 
the Unioi), which lay anchored at the mouth of the river. 

Perrot was on board. As soon as he i)ercei>^ed the 
enemy he sprung his cables to ground the vessel ; ho then 
ranged his eight cannon on the side opposite to the Eng- 
lish, and for some time kept up a brisk tire ; but as the 
English tire was superior, and he had but few men with 
him, he thought it a duty to see to his own safety, because 
the enemy had a grudge against him personally. He 
accordingly embarked in his boat with most of his men ; 
and, in spite of the enemy's cannonade, which only 
wounded a single sailor, ho reached land. The Union, on 
which Mr. Saccardi had remained almost alone, was then 
forced to strike, and that engineer was made a prisoner 
of war. 

1 690 . 

' He surrendered June II, Ki'JO. lect to Le Clercq, Oct. It. KJOO. The 

Mimtorgueil to Sei.u'nelay, Se()t. Iti, cliurch wns destroyed 1 > Aufrust, 

lO'JO. N. Y. Col. Doe., ix., p. !)M. with inliuiious excesses. Hehilinu 

Hehitiou, &c., l(W9-i)l). lb., p. 4r7. (!.■ In (.'a'^p.'i-K', p. 7. De l:i I'o'hei-ie, 

De la Polherie, iii., p. 89. iii., p. <)0. 

^ Father Emanuel Junicau, Recol- 



I .'' 






^i . 





: f; 


His Recap. 



Mr. Porrot's lot was still moro uiil'ui'lniuitc. 'Mui Sienr 
(los (ionttiiis uiiil lliu (faptaiii of tlio Uiiinn liai) cscapoil 
witii him ; hut allinui^li they all took the saiim iduk' to 
roach Joiusot, dfs (loiittiiis, after a tiuu', t'oiiiid himself 
ahrno, without kiiowiui^ what had bi'como of tho vest. 
During this timu tlio Clu.'valiLi. ilu Villt;l)ou, aftur visitinj^ 
Jomsot, was roturiiiug to tho sea in his eauoe. On tlio 
way he learned not only tho loss of tho Union, l>ut also 
that of his two ketches, in which ho had discliar^ed all 
the cargo of that vessel. TIo I'xpected a reinforcement of 
Indians, whom he had summoned, and indulged the \u)\)e 
that, with their aid, ho might recover the two ketches; 
but they arrived too late. 

At the same time he learned that the two ships which 
had taken tho Union, were not of Admiral Phibs' S(|uad- 
rons, but two pirates, carrying ninety men ; tiiat they had 
on Ijoard nine settlers from the Island of Mariegahinte, 
which they had pillaged ; that they had enteri'd Port 
Koyal, landed these planters there, burnt all tho houses 
leading to tho fort, killed a number of cattle, hung two 
farmers, and burned a Avomau and lu.'r children in her 
house; that, after capturing the Union, they had landed 
men to pursue those wlio escaped ; that Mr. Pcrrot, tlio 
captain of the ship, and tho pih)t, had fallen into their 
hands ; that they liad treated t\iv, former iu the most 
shameful manner, a[)i)arently to force him to tell whi-ro 
h(^ had conccealed his money and pro|)erty ; linally, that a 
part of tlie Union's sailors, the surgeon, and tw(j soldiers 
had joined them to cruise, ami that they were to sail with- 
in two days.' 

Neither this sad intelligence, nor tho fear of a fati' like 
Mr. Perrot's, restrained the Chevalier from descending to 
the sea with tlie few Indians who had joined him at 
Jeujset. On iiiriving he [nnx-cived tlie two pirates, 
iiiichored near the sliorc ; ho lauded, and, favored l)y tins 
Vvoods, a])proached close enough to tire on them, which he 
continued to do without respite till evening. During tho 


■ De la Potlieric.IIist. lU' I'Am. Sept., iii., p. 85. N. Y. Col. Doc, ix.. p. 4T7. 




next iiij^'lit forty nioro TmlinuH joined him, uml tlioso lio i6y ) 
li'il at (liiybrcuk to till' spot wiiciu'c lie liail tli'cil tli'i pii;- "— ^f^ 
vioiis uii^lit ou tliu pinit( s. His olijci-t wuh to ])i'(.'vout 
tlioir wt'if^hiuf,' iiuchor, and tlio IiuliaiiH liiul promlHocl to 
go and cut tliuirc!il)lurt, ho us to mako lliciii luii ii^'i'ouiul ; 
Imt lu) found that thisy had K<'i"S 'i"^l wiu'c sailiii.L; wont- 
ward.' it was afterward a.scurtaint'd that tiu) |)iratij vcs.sol, 
ou wliii.'h Mr. Porrot was, was taki'U by a FriMu-li fruo- 
bootor ; aial it is ccrtaiu that this fi,(!ntlemau found, auiid 
tho wreck of his lortuuo, moans to sotthj his family ad- 

Meanwhile the Chevalier de Villebou, seciuf,' notluuf^ 
more to be done on the sea coast, again went up to Jem- 
set, where, havinj^ assembled tho ludiaus, ho exhorted 

them to coutinuo to revenjje on the English their own 

, . Dlsinlcr- 

v.i'ouf;s and those ol the I'reneli. 1!l exiilained to them I'^i'il zini 
,1 , , , , , , 1 , J 1 1. 1 • 1 , 1 "I"' iidciity 

that what lie most regrettetl was the loss oi his ketches, oi ii,y Aim- 
on which ho had tho iJl'eseuts scut them by the kiuj,' ; and '' 
he bej^ged them, if they took any iini)ortaut prisoners, to 
use them in order t(j withdraw from tho hands of the 
Eni^lish tho Freiu'h who had just been captured. Ho 
added that ho Avas ^'oinjf to Qiusbec, with the view of ro- 
embarkiii;;- thence for France, where ho would r(>]K)rt to tho 
kiii;^ all that they had dcme for his service, and whence ho 
wcnild brinf^ wherewith to com})easato them for their 
recent loss; that they should not i'lil to be at the mouth 
of the river the next spriu<^', and there await tidings of 
him. They replied that their Father Ononthio had sent 
them powder and balls, that this was enough for the pres- 
ent, and that they were al)out io start, to tho number of 
a hundred and fifty, to renew their raids ; that they would 
give him a good account of tho English, and begged him 
to be convinced that the losses of the French affected 
thorn more tlnm their own. They left hiiu with theso 
assurances, and ho immediately started for Quebec, to 

' De .M()n;~L'igiiiit, lielntion, &c., now the t'i)UnteP8 dc 111 Roche Al- 
IJ. y. Ci'l. Doc, ix.. l'. •IT.'). liircl, iiud tlio wile ol I'loidriit dt; 

' Ho K-I'l two diuiyliliTsi. wlio iiif Luber Vlntrkcitii. 




I I 

' V 



1. ' 'I 



.1 t, 


! 1 

1690, wlii(!h ho boro tlio first tidings of tlut EiiKiisli irni})ti(»ii 

^"—Y-"^ into Ac'inliii, anil th'i capturo of tlio governor. 

i)'i"n,w-" Tiioro tJKiy hiul iiln'iuly lt>,ini(itl V\,i rovta-so sustiiinrd 

i';\';;;)';.',',';,',. by tlm Fi-mwh t-olony in Nowfoini.ll.ind Tiio court of 

'"of'ii'iia "^ Franco, as I bavo ulsowhcro rcnmrkod, aftor long n(»glcct- 

yciir. i„g tliis island, through iguorauco of its vahio, had, at 

last, boeu eonvimuul of tlio advantago to bo dorivod from 

its codtishorios, Tlio king, iuforniod of tlio nocussity of 

fortifying tlio port of l*lai'"i,tia, and creeling on that side 

a barrior to tho continual usuri)ations of tho English on 

tlio posts occupied by his subjocts, had sont tho Siour do 

la Poy])o thoro as governor, and ho had givtui orders to 

put hiiu iu u position to maintain hiuisolf iu n post of that 


Those orders were not too well oxocutod ; Mr. de la 
Poypo sorvod thirteen years with all possible ztsal, but with 
aU tho annoyauco that want of ju'oper succor can causo 
a bravo man, who fools the iioed of support, and who, for 
want of it, can undertako absolutely nothing, either for 
lis own glory, or the good of tho state. Ho was suc- 
ceeded iu 1G85 by tho Siour Parat, who was not better 
treated at first ; but two years after tho Chovalior d'Her- 
vaux and Mr. d'Amblimont brought him twenty-five sol- 
diers, commanded by the Siour Pastour do Costobello, with 
pro^^sions, cannon, jiowder, and all that was needed to 
revictual and fortify Placentia. A fort was built, and at 
the entrance of tho harbor, a jjlatform covering tho anchor- 
age : these two works had uinotoen pieces mounted. Care 
was taken to arm tho settlors, on whom much more de- 
pendence was placed than on tho soldiers. In fine, this 
colony needed only a commander vigilant enough to be- 
ware of surprise, or enough a man of honor not to sur- 
render the place to tho enemies of France ; but they wore 
deceived in their choice, and, as often happens, discovered 
their error only when it was too late to remedy it. 

On the 2(jth of Febiuary iu this year, llJ'JO, the Gover- 
nor and his lieutenant were surprised outside their fort in 

t^: - . 


tlKMi-lirdHliyforty-tivt* Eii^^'lish ficchootcrH. Tlin soliliors, 
wlio wunt iiIho (lisperHcd Iiitlur mid tliitlicr, woro tiikoii 
ami ilisiinucd. Tlio Hutthns, wlio liad had all oiiportunity 
to asHiuuo tlio dufoiiHivn, Hurri^iidiirod on tho throat mado 
hy tlu) onomy, that thoy would inaHsacro tho ])riHonorH at 
tho loast roHiHtaiifc ; and tho English loadod tnoir vchhoI 
with all th(^ f^'of.ds. I'uinitnro, arms, lunniunition, provisiuus 
and liHiiiiig ini))lotii(ntrt, with which tho inhabitants woro 
protty woll HuppliiMl. Homo of tho cannon woro also car- 
riod oil', others thrown into tho soa, tho rest spiked ; and 
when, alter tho raid, tho , isonors woro sot at lihorty tho 
^,'urrisoii and iulialiitants of Placontia found thomselves in 
about tho sanjo position as if thoy had boon shipwreekod 
on a desert coast.' 

After tho departure of tho onomy, tho Sionr Parat 
wished to proceed to Franco on some ono of tho liasipio 
vessels llshiufj! oil' tho coast ; but all refused to rocoivo 
him. Hi' transported himself, with thrco sailors and as 
muny soldiers, to tho island of St. Piorro, whoro ho found 
son)e St. Malo ships that f^'avo him passa^'e. Tho Siour 
do Costebell(\ left commandant at Placontia, thought it 
his duty to labor incessantly to fortify his position, and ho 
notitied tho sottlers to join him ; ono of them, however, 
Andrew Doyen, refused to obey, and oven killed a corporal 
and two soldiers, who attempted to compel him.' 

To judge the Governor of Placontia only by what oc- 
curred at the capture of his place, ho could bo accused of 
no more than a very culpable ncgligonco ; but there were 
far other charges against him, .uid his i)recipitate departiiro 
without royal permission, gave room to believe that ho 
was not innocent of all imputed to him. On his side ho 
cited his return to Franco as an irrefragable proof of his 
iunni-ence. Ho threw all tho fault on the Basques, who, 
aftei revolting against him, had begged affidavits to ruin 


' Friar ''wcpli Oiiiis to till! Miii ' Pnstour to tUr Mhiistrr, Auu'. 

iBttT, Aug. ,'«, l(!iii>, t'nnuda Doc. W, Sipt. lo, lli'JO. CiiuudiiUoc, pp. 
iii., p. 1)1 9b, 101. 

1 690. 




II i' 

h . 







HISTORY OF m:w fkance 

; ih.' 

Mi" ' 


j: I. 

!«■ ,: 


1690. liiin, or, at Icist, to put liim 011 iiis ilefciu'c, (lo]iiiv(' liini 
—- v-^— - {>f all credit, ami tlu I'cby escape the cliastisi'iiieiit wliieli 

they deserved. I have been iiuablo to learn the decision 

iu the ease.' 

Be that as it may, there is every reason to believe that 

the pillage of Placeutia, and even the loss of Acadia, had 


Quebec, they been informed of it in Canada before receiving Intel 

ligence of tlie arrival of the l^nglish at Tadoussac, would 
not have seemed to the (iovt'rnor-General sulUcieiit 
reason to believe that ho would l)e himself attacked, wilh- 
(mt being warned in sullieient season to make preparation. 
It is, at least, certain that had information of the enemy's 
approach been delayed three days later, he might have 
found Admiral Phibs in the capital, wlu'n he arrived there 
himself, and that, liad not the English ileet been so vio- 
lently batUed by the winds, or had better pih)ts, (Ju(;l>ec 
would have been taken before they knew at Montreal that 
it was besieged. 

But it must bo agreed that no surprise ever did more 
honor to a general, or redounded mere to the shame oi 
the one who sh(mld hav(> profited by it. The tirst step ol 
de Fnmtenac, on receiving the second courier from ]\lr. 
Provnt, was to dispatch de Piamezay, Governor of Three 
Ilivers, to the Chevalier de Callieres, to order him to 
descend to Quebec as (piickly as possible with all his 
troops, except a few companies, whom he was to leave to 
guard Montreal, and to direct all the inhal)itanls, whom 
he could collect on the road, to folhjw him.-' 

He then marched to (Quebec without halting, and reached 
it on the 11th of, at ten o'clock in the evening. 
There he leariuHl that tlie English fleet was just lu-low Uk; 
traverse of Isle Orleans.' He was perfectly satis:ied with 

I Panit to thr Mini<t. 1. Si>i>t. II. lb., ]). IVi. I'l- la I'oihnii', Ili-loii-,. 
1(1110. II.., 1.. '.IT. <1''' r.Ain.-ri.iiu. Sr|,t,. iii., l'. 11'^ 

De Molisi'i-iml, li.^'iiti 111. 

l,n lldiilall, \'ny;ii;vs i.. |>. '.MH-Ml. 
.\. Y. Col. Doe., ix., 1) -is:). Fi'on- ■' Thli's thni t..olv this .■luuiuel ; 
I,.„a,-lolh...\linlsli'r.N.>v. l-J.Ki'.M). tliat i.ovv .i^e.l, was Hrst tried by 
III., |i. iV.t. Dm'., iv.. p. I'^s. (i'lliriv;,lf. 
Aeomiit s.'Ul bv l-a Fleiir de .Mai. toiiv, ii. |i. -^-VJ. 

■'(■rlaiid. Cuiirs 




llio state in M-hicli tlio iiiajov had iiut the place. That 

, I n()0 

ollieer had ordered in a ]-avj,c iniiul'er of settlers, who v^.,,^,^,.^^ 
showed great coiilideuee and resolution ; and, although 
ho had had only iivc days to work on the fortilieations, 
. there was not. a weak spot in the town where ho had not 
provided in a manner to relieve him from all fear of 
sudden attaek. 

The ueneral also added some iutrenehments, wliieli he i)is|ini,iticm 
deemed necessary, and conhrmed the juiucious orders fciulin^-tiie 
given by tho maj(U' to the captains of the militia com- '^ ' 
panics of Beaupre, Ueauport, Tsle Orleans, and the Coto 
de Lauson, which covc^'i'd (.^)uebec on the harbor side, not 
to leave their posts till they saw the enemy land and 
attack the main v;o' ks of ()uel)ic, in which case they 
were to hold tliL^uiselves ' 'idy to march when; summoned.' 

Mr. de Longueil, oldest son of thi; Sicur le Moyne, had 
gone with a body of Huron and AlM>na((ni Indians to 
watch the movements of tlu' iK'et ; all the advanced (-mi- 
uences down the river were well manned ; the settlers 
evcrywlu're evinced an earnest desire to do their dutj* ; 
the English could not send a boat ashore without 
finding the bank lined with musketeers, Avho woidd at 
once force them to slu>er oil'. Jiesides, there were cou- 
stantly jiouring into the city militia from Montreal and 
Three Uivers as full of good will as those from the vicin- 
ity of the Capital." 

On the loth the Chevalier de Yaudreuil, commandant 
of the forces, set out early in the morning with a hundred 
men on a reconnoissance, prepared to engage the (uunuy, 
if he attempted a landing; but. the Count do Froutenac 
ex[)r.'ssly reccnnmend'd to him not to lose sight of tho 
oiemy, and to report all their movements, a commission 
Avhich ho discharged perfectly." To this precaution the 

. ' !" !_ 

' l'"ivmtriuii' to tlii^ MiiiistiT. Ml): I.i' t'lcrc(|, Etiiblisi-cinont do 

Nov. !•>, 1(;;hI. N. V. (.'ol. Do,', ix., la Koi, ii., p. lli;, sa.vs tluit !)<■ ViHo- 

1>. '■■>'■*■ boil wlio luiil coiuf tlirou^Hi tlio 

•I).' Moii.-^.'in-iiiit. H.lati;in, .'.■(.■. wooils lo (Jiidn'c miil aiikil to I'orti- 

N. V. ('.-i. Po", ix., p. U;. l.i- ly ;;. :icciiiiiiiaiiii(l thit, inLity of 1','0 

C'llTOl, ii., [I. 117. lucu. 





$- 1- Ml 


■I i 







!ii I' ' 

IT ' 


General added another not loss necessary. Vessels were ex- 
pected from France, and it was to be feared that they would, 
Fi.rcciwt of mistrusting nothing, rush blindly into the hands of tho 
Fronteuae. English. Frontenac, alive to everything, and maintain- 
ing, amid the confusion of a surprise, a wonderful pres- 
ence of mind, on the same day dispatched two canoes, 
well equipped, by tho little channel of Isle Orleans, with 
orders to those whom he sent, to go as far as they could 
to meet these vessels and notify them of Avhat was going 
on. Ho at the same time also commenced, and tho next 
day completed, an eight-gun battery on the height beside 
the fort.' 
„ .„ Thus the fortifications began at the palace, on the bank 

tions of of the Httle river St. Charles, ran along to the Upi)cr 

the place. . ' ^ 

Town, which they surrounded, and terminated on the moun- 
tain towards Capo Diamond. A palisade had been con- 
tinued from the palace all along the beach to the Semin- 
ary wall ; there it was closed by inaccessible rocks called 
the Sailor's Leap,' where there was a three gun battery. 
A second palisade, erected above tho first, ended at the 
same place, and was to cover the fusileors. 

The lower town had two batteries, each of three eigh- 
teen pounders, and occupying tho intervals between those 
in the upper town. Tho outlets of the city, where there were 
no gates, were barricaded with good beams and barrels 
full of earth to serve as gabions, and pederoroes mounted 
on top. The road leading from the lower to the upper 
town, was intersected by three difforeut intrencl.ments of 
barrels and bags full of earth, with a sort of ch;!vaux-de- 

In the of tho si(>ge a second battery was thrown 

' Df Mouseignat, Helaticni, &c., 
N. Y. Col. Doc, ix , p. 4S-1. 

" Dt' Monsciiinat, Rrlntion, fic, 
MrrcureOalunt. huiv,. !(i!)l ; Tit- 

' Till- Siuilt nil Miiti'iOt, was so luiux, Ardiivos dcs \'(iyiiLCi's. ii.. \>. 

callfd from till' tiK't thai n dojr, .l;il. Dh in I'othiTii', iii..p 1 13. Im 

ciilk'il Matrlot. or thcSnilor, jiiiii])r(l Clcrcii, Ktaliii; srmi'iit ilc la Foi, ii., 

down tlii'i-c, Cri'uxiiis, Ilisloria p. H 7-4'.'0 N'mic of tlirar mrtilion 

Canadensis, p. SO'l tl"-' clievauv de liise. 




Thr Kn- 


up at tlio S liloi-'s Leap, ami ;i third at the gate loading 
to tho rivor St. Cliarlcs.' Finally, somo small pieces of 
ordnauco wove planted around (he ujjper town, and es]>e- 
eially on tho mound of a mill which served as a cavalier." 
On the IGth, at three o'clock in tho morning, do Vau- 
dreuil riiturned to, reporting that he had left tho "'' 'f,'!: '"-'' 
English Ih'et three leagues Ixdow the city, anchored at a '^"'■''"■' 
place called I'Arbre-Sec — the Withei-c'd Tree, and in fact, 
as soon as day broke, it v,as perceived from the heights ; 
it was composed of thirty-four sail of various sizes, and 
the rumor ran that it carried three thousand land ti'oojis. 
As it advanced tho smaller craft ran along the Cote do 
B.'aupurt, between Isle Orleans and tho Little lliver, tho 
rest keeping off; all camo to anchor about ton o'clock, 
and at that moment a boat was seen leaving the tlagshi[) 
and stet!ring for tho city.' 

That it bore a truniiieter no one doubted, as it car- 
ried a white Hag at iIks ijow. Fronteiiac sent an ollicci- 
to meet it ; he reached it halfway," bound the truujpeter's 
eyes and led him to tho fort." Great was this man's sur- 
prise, when, on tho removal of tho bandage, ho perceived 
the Goveruor-Geiieral, the Bishop, and Intendant in tho 

riir Kn- 
;li-li A.I 

lllilMl -.hfl,- 


lllr <,,.\r 

iiur (,, ijc 

Xou- callr.l 

Pila(v(iate. O'Ciil- Clercq, Etablisscment, 

la,<?haii, N. Y. t ol. Doc, is., p. 4S.1. 

• Do .Monsfi^amt, Hruuion, &<•., 
N. Y, Dol. I),,,;., is.. I,. 41^5. Lo 
Cli'n'(|, EtuJjlissiMnout, ii., p. 4'JO. 
This wiiidniill liiU «-tis Im-LIikI St. 
I-(iuis Stivi't mil rnWrd .\lt. 
Curiuel. 0'<'alli|M;]ii„i, N. Y. Col. 
I>()c., ix., ],. ■l>ir,. Fci-huul, Cuiirs 
d'Uistaiiv, ii., p. 2-10. 

.Motlior Jiiclii.'ri'au rt'iircspiitwsomi> 
of tlu'Sf (li^lriiscs a.s vi'^si-ls (illnl 
wifli h,tours. whicli, if striirk b.v a 
caiiiKin.ball, Wdiild liavo kill,..! iiimv 
than thry ,l,.a„,lea. Ilistoir,. ,1,. 
rilotil Ui.'u, p. ;)!!). 

■"' l*liii>i)s atteiiiptcil to land at 
Uivcr Oil, •lie, Imt wa-* roimlHrd l,y 
Hi'V. Mr. Fraiiclicvillc at tlic hciul 
"'■ Iiis 1 arishidiKTS Juch. ivaii, 
Histoiro de I'llotol Uiou, ji. ail. Le 

p. 42!), 

r.angeviu, Arohivi-s d(,' N. 1), 
Bcauport, ]i, 118. 

^" to tli. .u.iiibtcr, Nov. 
T-', Ki'.IO. X.Y. Col. Doc, is., p. 4.-,!). 

('aiiada Dor., II. v., ]-2U. Ai nut 

sriitby tli.'FIiurdi'.Mai. lb., p. I."),-,. 
Di; .Mnii^cij^iiat, Kc4ation, &c,, lb., p. 
48.''. .Major Walloy's .Jmniial iu 
the Kxpuditioii against ('ana, la. 
IIutcLiii.^on's Hist, (jf Massachu- 
.si'tls, i., p. 471, days sumiuous soit 
Oct. (i, O. S. 

5 'I' 

ranoc's aU' 
till" water. 

Freni'li party went out in 
nii4 Pliiiiiis' envoy on 

" .Motbor .rnclKivaii. Ili.-toin' do 
I'HoIcI Di.'ii, p. :;•>■:_:! ,.iv,.s a liu 
morons account of bis puteisuge 
tlirouirb Qncboc. 




M'" 'I 


> m 







'''yo ceutro of a f^Teat liall, •nhicli was quite full of officers,' ' ut 
to uuilerstaiul the (.'ause of his astoiiislimeiit it nni:U be 
remoml)ered that Mr. Provot, on tlic tirst iiitclhgeuco of 
the approach of the Euglish, liud sent the Sieur tie Graud- 
ville, his brother-in-law, to obtain more accurate and de- 
tailed information. 

That officer, ad\anciug perhaps with too little precau- 
tion, or more probably deceived by the French colors ou 
the English vessels, of which he saw only a few, was cap- 
tured by the admiral, to whom he confessed what was 
really true, that (Quebec ^\as destitute of fortitications, 
troops, and general." Phibs, Avho could not doubt the 
sincerity of tiiis rejiort, and wjio never dreamed that 
matters had clianged so much in so sliort a time, had ex- 
pected to sleeji i:i Quebtc the very night that he an- 
chored in the roadstead, and that this })hice would not cost 
him dearer tluui Port Eoyal had done, expressing his 
opinion on the matter with a contidcuco which spread 
through his whole force. 

Before reacliing the fort, the trumpeter was enabled to 
lose some of 'ds, for he was purposely led all around thc> 
place, to be stunned hj the great activity he heard on ail 
sides, eacli one taking delight in increasing his ccj 'U;ion, 
and giving him reason to believe that the whole town was 
set Avith caltrops audchevaux-d.-'^ise, and that the enemy 
could not take tuenty step.s, uUh- nt being obliged to 
storm an iutreuchi:ieut ; but ih<: si-nit of the (iovciiuir- 
General so well attended, and the demean-, r <>i the olii- 
cors, comi)letely disconcerted him. lie tremblingly pre- 
sented his summons, which was in a\ riting, and in English, 
and which was at once interpreted. Tlie followiii':;' is the 
translation as transmitted by the C'uunt I'lontenac to the 

' La Ilontnii, Voyages,!., \>. ','12, Oriindvillo had bi'oii im cnsipn in the 

alone mciitiiiuy the lin'smce of the l{rt;-iiiicnt Cariynan SalU'ri'.-; and was 

Bishop and Inlcudant. now a licnt>iianl. ■Iiiciirn aii. lli>t. 

'•^ De Moiiseifjnat, lidatiou, ie,, de I'llutcl D'n'u, p. ;j,0. Dai iri, Nos 

N. Y. Col. Doc, is., p. 483, De Uloires Nutiouales,ii.,iip.3T.i, 2«3. 


' It is insi'i-tL'd luTo an Cliiirlevoix 
gives it, iuasmui.'lias it ilitii-TS some- 
wliiit iVoiii ilmt trivi'ii in ihc ai'coiiiit 
wiiit to t'liiuco in tlio Flfiii' lie Miii. 
N. Y'. Col. Doc, is., p., 150, ami that 
given by <k- Monsei{,'nat, (\h., yi., 485.) 
'I'll.' following is a translation of 
tliat given in tile text, tlie pai't in 
i)rai'l -ts being in all other copies. 

•■ Wiiliani I'hibs, (i ,eral of tho 
English Army, to M. de Frontenac: 

" The war deitlaroil between tho 
crowns of Fughuul and France is not 
tho solo motive of the exiiedition 
which 1 have had orders to under- 
take against your colony. The rav 
ages and cruelties exerciseil by the 
Fn^nch and Indians without any reu; 
son. against the nations suliject to 
vlirir Hritannic niajc^sties, havi' forced 
their said majesties to take up 
arms to reduce Canada in order to 
provide for the safety of the colonies 
subject to them. But as I should be 
most haii|)y tospnri.' Cliristian blood 
■,ind s.ive you from the horrors of 
war. I, William I'hibs, Kniglit, le.' 
these presents, and in the name of 
tieir most ixcellent majestii s, 
William and Mary, king and ipieen 


M;iv(iuis de Soigneltiy autl trausciibca by me from the 1690 
origiuiil : 

Gnillaume Phibs, General tlo rArmeo Angloise, 
ii M. tlo Frontcuac : 

La giieri'o dt'clareo eiitro les Couronues d'Auglotorro 
et tlo Franco u'ost pas lo seul motif do rEutcrpviso, tiuo 
j'iii (!u ordro do foriuor contro votro colouio. Les ravages 
et lea criiautcs cxercr.s par lew Fntii<jois et lo Stiuvages 'ians 
aueuu Hiijet coutre los PeU[)les soumis it leur niajestes 
Britaiiiiiques ont oblige lours dites Majostes d'armer pour 
so reiuli'o Maitres du Canada, atiu do pourvoir a la siirete 
do.s Proviucos de lour obi'i.s.saueo. Mtiis commo jo serois 
bieu iuse d't'pargucr le stvng Chretien et do vous fair oviter 
toirs les mtdhours do la guerre, moiGirillaume Phibs, Che- 

of England, France, Scotlaud and 
Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, 
[and l)y order of their majesties' gov- 
ernment of Massachusetts colony in 
Xew England], demand that you 
surrender into my hands, your forts 
and casth'S in their actual condition, 
with all tlit> ammunition and other 
supplies whatever. I also demand 
that y(ju restore all prisoners ia 
your hands, and surrender your pro. 
perty and your persons at my dis 
posal. By so doing you may hope 
that like a good Christian 1 will par 
don the past, so far as shall be 
dieiu'd expedient fortheir majesties' 
service, and the safety of their sub- 
jects. But if you iimh^rtake to do- 
fend yourselves, know that 1 am U> 
a position to compel you, resolve^' 
with the help of (itid in whom I lait 
my trust, to avenge by arms ilio 
wi'oags you have done us, ami ^ao 
ject you to the crown of England. 
Your positivi' answer in on' ."ur 
by your tiu'ii;'.' r v.iih the uin 
of mill ••" 

For the original ICiiLdish, see Ma- 
tliei's Magiialia, Book II., pauo 



> M 



i' V 

1 ■ 
'I n'-'' 

; .1 





i i . h 

% f 



I'if ■> , ' 


!■"* - 


1 ' 

1 ■ 





valior luir r(^s Pivsoiit(>s, ct ;ui iioni il(« lonv Tiv.s FAci'llciitcs 
M.ijcsfc's (luilliiuiiic ot .^Liric, lloj tit .Keill(M^All,^!t'l(■^l■(■, 
FriiDc'o, Eoosso (!t Irolaiulo, Dr'lVii.souvs do la Foy, vdus 
(lemaiulo (juo vous aycz ;l nMucttro cutro inrs mains vos 
Forts ot Chateaux, dans I'l'tat on ils sont, avco toutcs Ic niu- 
uitiousctautrcs provisions qudcoiuiucs. Jo vons doniandi* 
aussi, ([uo vous nio rcndie/ tous los Prisonniors, (pio vons 
avcz, ot (luo vous livricx vos Mens ct vos Pcrsonncs a uia 
disposition ; 00 quo faisaut, vous jjouvc/, os|)or('r, (pu) 
eomnio bon Clirotion, jo vous pardonnorai lo passo, au- 
tant (ju'il sera ju}j,o il propos pour lo scu-vioo do lours ]\[a- 
jostos ot la si'iri'to d(> lours sujots. Mais si vous ontro- 
preuoz do vous dofoudro, soaolioz (|Uo jo suis on otat do 
vous foreor, biou rosolu, avoc I'aido do Ditui, ou qni jo 
uiots touto ma oontiauco, a vongor p;u' los arnu'S les torts 
quo vous nous avoz I'aits, ot do >()i'S assujottir a la Cou- 
roDuo d'An,u;k'torro. Votro nqtonso positiv(\ dans uuo houro 
par votro Tromi)otto avoc lo rotour du Miou.'" 

This doeumoid was read aloud, aud rousod tho indi^na- 
tiou of all present. Tho trnnqietor, as soon as ho lin- 
iyhed, took from his pocket a watcli, aud handing it to tho 
Govoraor General, infornuxl him that it was ton o'clock 
aud that he could not wait for his answer boyoiid olovcu. 
Tlieu a general outcry arose, and tho >Sic-ur do Valrenos 
raising his voice, said that thi^ insohmt i'ellow should bo 
treated as the messenger of a pirato, tho more especially 
as Phibs \.as in arms against his lawful sovereign, and 
had acted at Port Pioyal iiko a pcu-fect pirato, violating 
the capitulation and retaining the Sieur do Manueval as a 
prisont^v against his word and against tl;e law of Na- 

Front(niac, althougli stung to the quick, evinced greater 

' Tliis iv'i'ly i^ wiiid Ibr word from La llontir; arc all sili'iit as to tliis 

the Letter to Mr. SeiLini'lay alrcad/ I'lasode. l.a lloiilaii stales tliat 

citcU. I'lnirhm'.x. Fronlrnai' ordered the en])taiii of 

■-■ l)e M()iiseii.rnat ; Fronlena'' ill liis liis i|uarler>< to put tip a gallows 

disiutch aud the account s. 'lit by the to lianir the Major who bore 

Fleur de .Mai ; Mother Jueherrau, the me!-t-ages. Voyages, i., jiage 

the Irbiiliue .\uiud!i; 1-e Clere.i aud 'iVi. 




inodcrivtiou. Witliout .ippciiriiiij; to liciir tlio vomarks of 
Dc Viilroues, lid iultUrssL'tl the truuiputt'i' : 

Jo ne vouH icvui yinH attomlre si lontoms ma ropouse, la 
voici. Jo no coiiuois jioiut lo Hoy Cinill.'uinio ; iiiais jo 
syjii (|uu lo Priuoo il'(Jr,ui^o (!st nil Usurpntouf <[ui a viole 
Ics (Iri)its Irs pins sacrrs du s;ni<,' ct i]o. la ilolif^ioii, on i\v- 
ti'iiiiuit li^ llov, sou l>;,iii-l^>ri'. Jo no coiinois ))(jiiit 
(I'aiitro Soiivoraiu l,',!j;itimo (1<> TAu^hslon'o, (pio lo Hoy 
.JMcipios H. L(!Cliovalior Piiihs n'a pas di'i otfo sm'[)i'isdoa 
liostiliti's faitos los par Fi'an(;ois ot lours Allii's, pnis(ia'ila 
(In s'alt(Mi(lro (jU(! lo Eoy, nioii niaiti'o, vo^u lo Roy 
d'An^k'toiTo sons sa. protootion, m'onloniioroit do povtor la 
,un('rri'(;iioz los Pi'Ui)los cpii sont I'ovoltos coiiti'(! lourPrin'io 
l('i;itiiii(!. A-t-il pn croiro quo quand il m'otrviroit dos con- 
ditions ])!us f.olora1)](!S, ife quo jo sorois d'huuiourillos accep- 
tor, taut do I)ravos Gcus y voulussout consoutir tfe me con- 
soillass( nt do luo fior ii la parolo d'un Honimo, qui a viol6 
la ('a]>itulation, (pi'il avoit t'aito avoe lo (lo'^.voniour do 
FAcadio ; qui a niaiupio a la fidolito ipi'il dovoit a son 
l^rinco; (pii a ouMio tons 1<'S bionfaits, dout il a oto com- 
hW', pour suivro lo parti d'un Etran.^or, lo([uol vonlaut 
porsuador qu'il u'a en vuo, (jno d'otrii lo Liboratour do I'Au- 
glotorro, iV: lo dot'onsour do la Foy, a dotruit les Loix et les 
Privilo^os du Iloyaumo it ronvorso rEji;liso An^licano; c'ost 
CO quo la Justioo Diviu(^ (pio Pliibs loclaino, piuiira uu 
jour sevorcmont.'" 


Mr. do 



i &' 

* \j.p 

' I Will not keep you Wiiitillj; that 
Imii: fur my iinswcr. llcrr it is. 1 
know no Kiiiu- William : Im; 1 
know lliat th(^ Priin-o of Or-aniji' is a 
usni|iiT who lias violaK'il llii' ni.i>t 
sai'rrd riuliis of blood ancl ol' rclij^- 
ioii liy (IctlirmiiMf; the kiiiff. his tii- 
thor iii-huv. I know no other law- 
ful sovcreifrii of Kiiylanil, tlian 
Kinir .lames II. Sir W, I'hil.s 
slioulil not !)<■ stiri)iise(l at the hos- 
tilities conimi'i.'d by the Fivnrli ami 
thi'ir ailies, for he must have I'X- 
peeted that the Kinjr, uiy master. 

liaviny- received the Kini; of En- 
i^'land under his |ir(Jiei-iion, would 
order lui' to i-arrv on the war u|iou 
nations in revolt ai^ainsl their 
lawful ]jrine;v Can he have sio,i. 
poseil, that were his conditions mori) 
tolerable, and I in a mood to accept 
them, so many bravo men would 
consent and ailvise nic to trust to 
the word of a man who has violatoil 
the caiiindation whi(di lie had mado 
witlithe (iovernorof Aeadia; who 
has brnkeii the alle.triance he owes 
to his i:iiii('; wiio hart foiHotteu all 



I I 




t i- 

Exploit (if 



Tlio tmiiijH'tcv asked this reply in wiitiii^', Imt tlio CJcn- 
eviil rel'used to j^'ive it, iiildiiit,' : " I will iuiswer your iiuvs- 
tor by tlio mouth of my eamion. Let liim loarii that this 
is not tho way to suiuiuon a man lik(> nu,'." ' He then 
gave the sign to l)aiida,!4o the truiiiiieter's eyes, and that 
messenger was taken back to tho spot where lie hud l)een 
received. As soon as he reached his vessel, one of the 
batteries of the ]o\v<m' town opened, to the great astonish- 
ment of the English ; Phibs, especially, conld not reeovcu' 
from his amazenielil lo see himself obliged to besiege in 
form a city, where he had deluded himself that tlu; French 
would have tho luil'dihood to await him only to submit." 

But it was still worse, when tho first cannon-ball car- 
ried awaj- his tlag and the tide sweeping it down, some 
Canadians swam out to get it, and in spite of the lire kept 
up ou them, carried it oil" before tho eyes of the whole 
fleet. It \\as at once cai'riiju to the Cathedral, wliere it 
still is." Ou the same day, the 10th, about four o'clock in 

tlio I'liviu's Invishi.'d on liini, to I'ol- not n iisonnlily objfcl to it, i\iiil for 

low tlu) party of a foi'iii^iicr, wlio, Pliiiw to oIIit to inu'iloii the Count 

pretending tn liavi; in view only to d(! Frontenac for bcinir loyal to liia 

1)1! tlie DfiivcrtTof Kngliind and tho own country, was insoluiil enough. 

Defender of the Faith, has destroyed See Chalmers, Polit. Ann [i. 57. 

tin' laws and priviliTJies of the '' Mother .Inchercau says that 

Kingdom ami overthrown the An- when tln^ action began, he showed 

til' m Church V all this tlie Divine caiinonlialls to tin' ladies in his 

Juriiice which I'liibs invokes, will hands, ami asked whether that cor- 

one day lamish severely. " De Mou 
Bcignat, Relation, N. Y. Col. Doc., 
ix., p. 4H(i. Le Clercq, Etublisse- 
inent, ii., p. C.^:! o. 

respondeil with their description of 
the undefended state of the city. 

■' See Frontenac to the Minister, 
Nov. 13, l(i!)0. Canada Doc, II., v., 

' De ?h'nseignat, delation, &c. ]). IMT. Mother .luchereau, llistoire 

N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 4bi>. Ac- 
count by the Fleur dc Mai, pj). t")!)- 
417. J uchereau' Ilistoire di' I'llotel 
Diou, p. '.i!)!. Le Clercq, ii., p, -I'.'S. 
La llontaii. Voyages, i., p. 'JllJ. 
Hutchinson. Hist, Mass., i. p. ;i,"),"i, 
says, " If it (the summons) was too 
poin|)OUS, the answer was lOo iiiMi- 
lent.' Tht! insoli'uce seems to be 'ii 
the Buniinnns. As the Emclish at 

de rUotel Dieu, p. ;12'.I, says Mari 
coiirl lired thi! !|iin, altlaaigh she 
does not say that it was the first one 
discliarged, or mention whence it 
was tired. Tlie flag remained in 
the Cathedral till it was destroyed 
by lire during the siege of 17.''.l. 
Frrhmd. Cours d'llistoire, ii., p. \i'2i; 
Hawkins' I'icture of l^uebec, p. 130 
De la I'otlierie, iii., p. IIS, inen- 

Lachine began the use of Indians to tions the incident later in tbo ac- 
ra\;)ige the settlements, they could ti«u. 

( I 



the nfternoou, Do Lonf,m(.'il, aeoouip.inicil l)y INruricourt, ifigo. 
his brother, rocuiitly arrivotl from lltidsoii's liny, ])!Is.s(hI "-'-r— ' 
■ in a cauoo aloiif,' tlio J''ii^lisli lied, whii-li ho wishnl to ro- 
coimoitro. Soim; lioals g;ivo liiiu chaso, but ho roachotl 
hiad, and by a sliiup liro oi niuskotry, couipcilod hia 
pursuors to make for tlieir sliii)s.' 

Tlio ni'xt day, an Eiif^disli bark full of soldiurs ap- 
proatditul tho St. Cliailos Itivor to rocounoitro a placo for 
debarkation Ijetwecu Jj(!au[)()rt and that river ; but it 
grounded (piito far from tho bliore. It nevertholoss kept 
up (piitt) a l)risk tire, but it was well answered. Some of 
our brave fellows rushed to attaek tlm I)ark, Imt they eould 
not reaeli it witliout ^'oiuj; waist deep in water, aud tho 
plan hud to be abiindoned.' 

-he Count do Frontenae's main object was to induce tho Fminninc's 

•' plan 1(11- (lu- 

cuemy to cross the St. Chai'les, and they could in fact at- icndiri!,' 
tack the city eOeetually oidy on that side. His reason 
was that this river being fordaMe only at low tide, ho 
could, when they had once crosstul it, without mucli risk, 
advance to engage tliem, and they, once routed, could never 
rally, while obliged to march knee-dee]) in mud to reach 
their boats. On the other hand, if the French crossed 
the river to meet them, they could do so only under ecpial 
disadvantage. Tliis reasoning could be retorted, by re- 
marking that if the enemy after crossing the river drove 
our men successfully, they could, being opi)osito the weak- 
est part of the city, enter it with the fugitives ; but tho 
general reckoned too much on the valor of his troops 
to fear this disaster, moreover he was resolved not to strip 
the fortifications of soldiers, and to bo always at hand to 
support his men. It was ^oou clear that ho reasoned well. 
On the eighteenth, at uoou, almost all tho boats were 

' Di' Monscignat, Kt'lation. N. Y. ii., p. 4;!0. Miijor Wallc.v, .Jdnnml in 

''ol. Poc, ix., p. 480. Lo Clcmi, tlic Expcilitidii iiLrniMst Ciuiada, 

Ktal)liss('iiii'iit di' la Fni, ii., ji. I'.'S. (IlutcUinsoii, i.. p. Ul i ili>sii;nali ."i it 

' Tuesdiiy, Ktli. ])r .Miiiisrii;nat. a.--" iln' vi-.^r~i>l ('.■ipt K,|iliriiiiii SavaLX^ 

Hclatinii. is'. Y. Col. Dor., ix,,]!. (s'l. was in," and CoHnij .MiuhiT (Majx., 

Le CkTcij, Etaljlissemunt ile !a Foi, B k II., p. 49), adds, • witli 00 men." 

i > 










161; 1, f^t't'ii lulviuifiiif,' on that Hiimo Hido, filkul witli soldiers ; 
but iia tlio iu't'iicli could not guess iu what [iicciso spot 
thoy would attempt a landing, the enu..iy found no one to 
oppose them.' As hoon as the ti't)ops were landed, do 
Frontenae sent a dtitachuient of tht^ militia of .Alontital 
and Three Kivfis to harass them. Tliese Mert^ joined liy 
some farmers of iJeauport, hut the wholu numbered only 
about throe huudrod nieu," and the English wtae at least 
lifteou hundn d, drawn up in battalions iu very lair 

Moreover, as tho ground nt that place was marshy, set 
with tliickots and eut u^) with rocks, tho tide low, and no 
way to reacli the enemy except to mareli thtonili tlie 
nmd, they coiUd only bo attacked by skirmishi rs and 
H([uads. For tho same reason the English could derive no 
advantage from their supeiior numbers, lleuce that day 
there was no fighting except in Indian style. 

This fashion not only disconcerted tho English, who 
wore unaccustomed to it, but even prevented their know- 
ing how small a number they had on their hands. The 
action lasted about an hour, the Canadians bounding from 
rock to rock, all around the English, who durst not scatter ; 
tho constant tire they kept up did no great injury to men 
who did nothing but appear and vanish, and wIkjso shots 
all told, because tlie battalions kept drawn up close. 

' De Monscignnt, RfliUion, &e., 
N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., i>. IST. Account 
sent by I.a Fknir dc Miii, (Il>., )). 
4.'j;). !>(■ hi I'otlii'iii', llistoiiv (Ic 
rAincriiiiif, iii., ji. 117. Ilr brinj^'s 
it in iibniptly, onuttinjr pnrt of da 
^binsi'ii;niit Walli'V, Journal on the 
Espcdition, ^Ihlt(■hinslln, Ilititoryof 
Miifsnchu.>iftts, i., (1 IT'^i, says, " Ik 
landi'd Oct. 8, (), S., with betwfcn 
l'.200und loUOnicii. La IIontan,Voy- 
aj,^i'B, i., ]). 'XVi, says, tho boats made 
tliroi) trips, and sujiposi-d they 
hindod 1000 or 1200 each time. Ho 
says the r-pot was (jppositc Islu 
Orloaus, a hayuo and a iiall' bi'low 

Qiifboc. Smith, ITiHtory ofCiinnda, 
i. ]). 104, savB they limdrd at I.a 
t'anardii'ro. Matlicr(.\hi{,nuiliii, IVk 
II., p. 50), after nuntioninf,' that the 
force was reduced by small-i>nx, 
gives 1 -100 as the force that landed. 

- La lloutan says JOO miMi and 
50 olU<'ers ; and adds that they 
he Were jiosted iu a 'mshy trad, three 
(luarters of a mile wide and half 11 
leafjiie from where tlii^ Knglish 
landed. Voya'tjes, i., \i. '.il4. 

■' The French estiniati.' of the En 
filish numbers is pretty close 
Walley supposes 'hi' I'reni'h lorce 7 
(ir yOO. JciUinal. &c,, p. Imv. 



Tlioy w<«ro ao.v)nlin-ly Hooii in .lisonl.n-. Tlioy took tho 1690. 
Ca.iiidiauH for lu.liaiH, uud as tlmy foil back, vvoro liour.l ' 
Hayius' that thoro was an Imliau hchiinl ovory troo.' 

Frontouao, so as not to ^ivo tlimii loisuro to porroivo ^^,.,, „,„,.^^, 
that, tli.^y had iu front only a haiiafiil of mou, ordorod up bcuui-oru 
a battalion of roHulars (o covur thoir rutroat, which ho 
soundod as soon as day bo^'au to wano. In this alfair wo 
hwt tho Chevalior do Clorniout, and tho son of tho Si(niv do 
la Toiiolu', Suij^'Hcur of Champlain, who had followed tho 
militia .'IS vr' Nmu's. Wo had als) tm or twelve woundod,' 

tho 1 .nj,'uishod of whom was the Sieiir Judiereaii 

do Saiut Donys, Sei^,'neur of U.^uiport, wli.» couuuauded 
his tenantry. Thoti.^di over sixty ho fou-ht with ^roat val- 
or, till ho had an arm broken by a ninsket ball. Tho 
Kin^ soon after rewarded his zeal and coiifi,L?o by |,'vaut- 
in^ him letters of noliiUty ;' and at tho sauio tinio con- 
ferred tho same favor on Sieur Ucrtel, whoon all oeeasioua 
distin,L,'nished himself at tho head of the Thnio llivers 
militia. This day cost the enemy one liuudred and tifty 
men, and thoy, iu rovougo, sot tiro to some neighboring 

' Ph Monscigimt. ligation, &c., 
N. Y. Col Doc, is., p. 4sr. Dc Iu 
Pothorii!, Uistoiro do riViin'ii'iU" 
Si'ptciitriiuialo, iii., \>. 117. I.ii 
ClltTai. Ktiiblissi'ini'iit du la Voi, 
ii,, p. 4:il-'J. Im llontau, Voyages, 
i., p. :)ll. 

■•' lb. Wallcy, .loumal&c, (llutcli- 
insoii. i., p. 4?;!), supposes he killed 'JO 
or iilli)l' tho French. La Hontiiii iuake» 
the Ki'onch loss 10 coureursdo bois, 
4 otiicers and 'i Indiaus. Lieut, t'ler- 
inout. Josei)h de la Toucho and ono 
othiii' killod on the 18th, were bu- 
ried Oct. 33 at Ueauport. Lau,i^■(^ 
vin. Archives do N. Lt. do Beau- 
port, 1., ]). 4G. 

•'' Nicholas .luchereaudi! St. Denis, 
son of John Juchereau, Sieur do 
More, a native of Ferte V'idaiue, 
came to Quebec iu 1040. In 1049 

he married Mary (firturl, dauLjIitiT 
of one of the olde.-t settlers. Uo 
served long and well. 'I'he nobility 
grunted was not a title, but merely 
the right to bo styled Ks(iuirt.'. llu 
died at Ueauport iu 11)1)2, aged 00, aud 
was buried the .'jth Oct. Langevin, 
Archivi s de N. D. de Ui^auport, I, p. 
fiO. Daniel, Nosdloires.i., p. IDT-JO,-). 
< De Mouseignat, Uelution, &c., 
N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 4sT. Do la 
Potherie, Ilistoiro do I'Amerique 
Sept., iii., p. 117. Le Clorcq, Eta- 
bllssement de la Foi, ii,, p. 4;J3. La 
llontau. Voyages, i., p. 314, makes 
tilt! I'^ugliah loss tiOO ; by actual 
count. Wa .ey, in Ida Journal 
(llutcldnsou's History of Massachu- 
setts, i., p. 47J) says killed four (Uit- 
right, and not liss than 00 oUicers 
and soldiors woimded. 

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1690. Tlio siviTio cvcnin;,' tlio four lavf^cst sliipH aneliorod bo- 

^'^~y'~— foio tlio city,' tin? llciir Ailiiiiijirs ll;i<j;ship boiiriii}; tlio l»Iuo 

lliig a littlo to tho loft towiinl tlio Sault an Miittlot, or 
Tlio enriiiy ^ -i > i » 1 • 1 1 • • 1 1 »•• . 1 ■ 1 

ciiiinoiiiidc oailor s Loup, tho Ailiiiiral on his nj^lit ; tho vico Adiiiiral re- a littlo bolow," both oppositi! tho lower lowu. Tho fourth, 
which boro a Commoiloro's poiiuaiit, atlvaucctl towards 
Cape Diamoud. Tho city salutod them first ; tluy then 
began a heavy canuouado which v/aa well answered. 
Haiuio Heleiie aimed ahiiost all the guns of tho jirineijial 
battery, and not one of his shots failed to tell. Tiiut 
day tho enemy fired only at tho Upper Town, where thev 
killed one man, and wounded two, without doing auyotlu^r 

Their animosity was directed chiefly against tho Jesu- 
its, to whom thoy attributed all tho ravages committed by 
the Abena(iuis in Now England, and thoy had d»!clared 
that when they took tho town, t'lo Jesuits should bo niado 
to sull'er ; but uot one of their balls struck the college, and 
their threats coming to the oars of Sainto Ueleno, his 
brothers, and some of the other more prominent Cana- 
dians, those gallant men jirotestod that they would all soon- 
er die fighting before tho doors of those religious, than suf- 
fer them to receive tho least insult. 

About eight o'clock tho firing ceased on both sides. 

' ('apt. Ori'gory Siiftnre whh Ail- 
uinil on tin- Six Krii'iulH ; ('u])!. 
CiirtiT, Vicc-.Vdiiiiriil (Hi tin .Iiihii 
anil 'riiimiuH ; t'apt. (iillii-rt, Hiuir 
Admiral on tlif Si'vcru. Sniilli, 
History of t'aniula, i. p. UO. Old- 
ini\iin. i., 140. 

' IV .Moiiwi^'nat, N. Y. ('<>1. Dik'., 
is., p. 4S7, lit! I'li-Tcii, ii., p. 4;);i, 
and Do la rotheriis iii., p. 117, nay 

' Do Monsfifrnat, Uclation, N. Y. 
Col. D.IC., ix., J). 4sy. Dc la I'oihu- 
rie, llintoirii do rAni('rii|iii' Sep- 
tcntrionalf, iii., p. 118. I.o 
ClcTcq, liiulilisBi-iiieut, ii., p. 4;W. 
Mother Jucliereau, llistoirj dw 

rilotcl Diou. p. ii'Ht, Htati'H that tlm 
I'Jifflixli aiincd t'Hpi'ciiiily iit tlio 
spiro of tlio Ciitliodriil on wliioli Ijud 
liooii huH)^ up a picluro of tlio llnlv 
Kiiniily takon from tlio I'lMiliiio 
I'MUVont, (l.oH rrNuliMos do ^no- 
Iioc, i., p. 47».)Hnil tliiit liis Imlls ac 
ronlin^'ly wont ovit tho town. 
'I'wonty Mix cannoulpall..* loll in iho 
HoMiiital Ciinvont gromulH and uoru 
Hont down to tho battorion tn ho 
UHod a^'iiin. (,Iuclioroau.) Tho I'rsu- 
lino Convont rooiivid wvonil halls 
also, oni' iii'iirly killing u mm. I<og 
I'rwiilinos do liiiolioc-, i.,p. 471. La 
Ilontan. \'nyHf:o?<, i., p. '.illi. siioaku 
vory lightly of the damage done. 

V-.* ._»«... 



The next (lay, (!)(• city wus ij^'aiii the first to opcii, nuil tin) ,^ 
Iji^'lisli tii'i) wiis not as brisk as it had lii't-u the day laifoic. 
Alter sdiiic tiiuo tho llfar-Adiiiinvl found liiiusclf ho cut up 
hy tli(> Saiilt au Matt'h)t hattorifs, and hy tliat lowor down CMmprilrri 
on tlio left, tliat lio was couipfncd to draw oil". TIks Ad- iVirnui" 
iiiiral soon followed him with precipitation. IIu was '"""■' "^''■• 
pit rcrd in scvoral places' at tlm water lino, had moro than 
twenty halls in his hull, almost all his rij^'j^iiif; cut, his 
mainmast nearly severed, and a f^reat numl)er of his 
sailois and soldiers killeil and wounded. The two other 
vessels held out a little while h)Uf^er, but at uoon they 
ceased tirin;^, and at live in the afternoon rau into tho 
Anso dis .Mercs, l)ehin<l Cape Diamond, to be out of reach 
of our cannon. Nor did tlu^y remain long there, for they 
were exjjoscd to a sharp tire of musketry, which killotl 
many, and forced them to draw ofl" still further.' 

All that day, tiie troo|)s who had landed near I3eauport, Swond rc- 
remained cpiietly in their cainj), iiud tlie ircnch contented i,iii,i,(i 
themselves with watchiii!^ them. Early ou the twentieth, "'""l"'- 
they boat to .arms, and dreiv up in line. In this posture 
they reniainetl till two o'l-lock in the afternoon, constantly 
shouting: " Hurrah for King William!" Then they ad- 
vanced, and from their movements seemed to intend 
luarchiiig on tho city, having platoons ou tho wiugs aud 
Indians in tho van.' 

For some time they marched .along tho littlo rivor iu 
very gO(jd order; but ^Messrs. de Longueil and do Saiuto 
Heleue, at the head of '2fM» volunteers, iutorceptod them, 

' »)<i. !» (t. .'^ , U< N. S. til.' loss .)!• til.- AdmirarH ting, \h 

't',)ii,iii .Matli.r, Life of PliipH, 4:il. Sc' \iitc, p. 171. Wnll.-y, 

(MiiLMialiii, II., p. ,-)(>.( nnd'Frw .liuirmil, p. 47:M, ndiuits tlmt Sir 

HiiimrUs, p. .jl, savs his ship wan WilliniuH ship ntiirrifd iiiiicli 

shot ihiiiiiMli in ail hiiiidri'il plac.s; disabl.Ml. Mjrr. <lc l.avnl, l.i'ttcr, 

tliDiifrh Hc.JNTt Cal.-r. Mon-Wdiidrrs, Ni>v. 2(1. KilHI, cHtimat.-H that they 

p. 1 Hi, savs i.iilv in s.'v.'n. lircd JdOO liallH ut the town. 

■ DcMonsi'ipiat. Hclatii.n. \. Y, * Aircmnt sent liy tlio Fl.'iir do 

•••>1 Doc, iv., p. .jss. I),, la I'.ilh.'. .Mai. N. Y. C.l. Doc, I x. p. l.-.T. 

li.'. Ilistoiiv d,. I'Am.'iiqut' Septcn- Wall.'v, Journal in Iliiichiiisonrt 

lrii>hal-. iii. p. ll'.l. .Massiichiisi'tt!., i., p. 47). Kays, 11, 

IjoCki'a) lueutious ul this point 1). 8. 

i 'H 







t I 




Mr. d« 

Suillt III' 



I ,,1 


.690. ftinl Hkiriuisliiii}^ in tLe siinio jiirtiuicr as on tlio IHth, kfjit 
up Kuch foustiiut iiii'l \vi'll-tiiii«'(l volleys, ii.s to clrivo 
thorn to tho Hlioltor of a littlo wood, trim which thoy 
poured out a very heavy tiro. There our men left th-^ in, 
aud retreated iu f^ood ordt>r.' 

Tu tluH second action wo had two men killed and four 
wounded, inclndinj,', anion^ the latter, the two coinnian- 
ly woiimlcd. dants, who were ulways ti^'htiii}; with their usual valor ;it 
the head of tlicir men; ^Ir. tie lionL^'ueil ^'ot nlV with a iintty 
Bevens coiitusinn ; liut Saint ilelme, his Inother, wisliin^' 
to take a prisoner, reet'ived a ninsket-liall iu the knee. 
The wound was not ajiparently dangerous, hut he died 
nevertheless, a few days after, to the great regret of all 
his colony, who h)st iu him one of tho most amiahlo 
cavaliers and hravest m(!U it ever j)ossessed.' 

During this action, Frontenac had advanced in person 
at the head of three battalions of his regular troops and 
had drawn them up in line of hattlo on tho bank of tho 
little river, intending to cross, if his volunti'ers were too 
hard pressed ; but tho enemy gave him no occasion to bo 
more than a spectator of the cond)at. Their loss this day 
■was at least as great as on the tirst occasion ; but w hen 
they saw the French retire, they fell on tho cattle, which 

' Dc MonHpiguBt, liclntinn, &c., left on tlm fifli;. Iluti'hiuHDn'a 

N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., !>. 41^8. IV la MiissiicliuwttH, i., j). 475. Hu In- 

Potlierio, IIiHUiire do rAnirrii|iii) ti'iulcd to fro ott' that nifjlit. Imt 

Sept., iii., p. 110. Lt- ('l«r'(|, Ktu tlicri' liciiijj mnw Cdiit'iisiou In- ili'- 

blisHi'iui'iit ill" In Foi. ii. p. l;!."), fcrrcil it. The next day, ((Jet. U 

liiintimis biwdi'H Lonjrinil iiiul St. — »1). tliry slixxl to tlnir iiriiia 

Il(■l(•n(^ (Ic .Moncarvilli'. d'olciirKjnn itll diiy. dniiiiH bcntiiig, colore fly- 

and dc R('|«'iitij,'ny. I,u Iloiitnii, iii^'. 

Voynjrcs, i., p. •.Jl.'i, nmkrs the Kn ' !)<■ MoiiHciirimt. Holntion, 1(180- 
glish losH:iO()<)r40n. Wnlli-y ntatc« 00, N. Y. Col. Doc., ix., p. 4«8. Ku- 
that a council WHS hchl Oct. 0,0. S., lation, lOOO-Ol. lb., p.SlU. I)«! hi 
and it \\a:' rcsolvcil to rccnilmrk. I'othiTic, llistoiro dc I'Anicritiuu 
He went ni'Xt day, Oct. 10— 'JO. to Se|itentrioualc, iii., p. IIU. Lo 
Phipps to coniiiiunicnte this dec I- Cicic(|, Ii, p. ilu, conCoiinds St. He- 
won. During hisabsciice the' Krcnch Icne and his brother. I.a Ilnntan, 
charged his outguards, .Major Sav- Voyages, I., p. -Jl.T, niaki'S the 
age B< ut relief and then retreated. French losB in whites and Indians 
He gives his loss at four wounded, I'.bout 10. The others say two 
one of whom died, and one drum killed and four wouiidwl. 




tlioy hail iiogloctcd to snmiro, iind slau^^litoicd tliom ftll, 
Komliiij,' ii part on Ixxird tlio iluot wLoio thuy wero iu j^roat 
want of frtisli moat.' 

Tho followiur,' niglit, tbo Admiral soiit thciii fivo six- 
Iiomid(!i-s, wliicli tlio bosiegod did not know till tlioy 
opened tlit;ir lire.' Tho English bogan their march with 
this artillery, with tho view of broaching tho city walls ;' 
but tlioy were not allowed to go far. Tho Siour do Vil- 
lion, rediu'tid lieutenant, who had obtained from tho gen- 
eral a small detachment of soldiers, all mou of good will, 
had set out before thoy had loft their camp, as though ho 
had designed to carry a part of it, and ho had boon 
closely followed by some other small parties, headed by 
Messrs. d(! Cabanas, Duclos and do Boaumauoir.' 

Villieu, who was tho lirst to comc! up with tho oncmy, 
laid an ambuscade, and by skirmishing, drew them into 
it ; there ho long withstood all their etl'orts, and whoa 
they saw that they could not make him recoil, they at- 
tempted to surround him ; but ouo of tho detachments 
formed to eft'ect this, fell into a second ambuscade, where 
tho nuiU of Beauport, Beaupro and Isle Orleans, com- 
manded by the Sieur Carie, awaittsd them : another was 
nii^t by tho three ollicers just mentioned, and both detach- 
ments were thrown into great disorder." 

Tliinl nnd 

inline ilc- 

lisivi! ac- 




; y. 

' Dc Mimsi'ignut, Ki'liition, N. Y. 
Col. Doc, ix., p. ISS, 

■•' Till' uccciunt wiiit by llic Klinir 
(ii- Mai, N, Y. ('i)l. DiKv, ix., p I"i7. 
iiiiikcs tliis to Imvr horn Saluiilav. 
•,Msl, but Walloy says lliat tho six 
liiUl piocefi wen- laiuU'd ilth, () S. 
(li>, N. S.,) lliitdiiusou's .Massiicliu 
sottH, i., p. 47;i. 

' WiiKoy makes this a dotach 
iiioiit of thri'i! parth's to drive ofl' 
tlio I'roucli wliik! ho embarked. 
Iliilc liiuson, i., p. 17.-). Mather iiieii 
timis wlii'olbarrows, eacli with two 
I'etarruros. Alaghalia, Book II., p. 

* Diielos do BeauiimDoir. De 
.Aloiiseijriiat, N. Y. Col. D(H\, ix., p. 

'- Ho Moiifoij;nat, Uolation, N. Y. 
Col l>oe.. ix., p. ISy. I),, hi I'othu- 
rio. ll'^toiro do rAiiirrii|uo, lii., p. 
lli(. lio Clcri'ii, EtabliHsoiuint de 
hi I'oi, ii.. pp. 4;!7-H. Tills atliiir t<H)k 
place Oet. IK). S.,il N, S , (Walh-y's 
Journal, IIuti'hiiisouH History of 
Mass., p. 47ii,) an 1 i.- represented by 
him as merelyii diver.-iion to cover liis 
retreat, by three small parties sent 
to beat up the swamps: but supportr 
ed afterwards by several ccmipanies 
who kept up the tiro till uight. 


" ■f: 







i i 

ifn)o. 'p|,„ contoHt wiiH, liowcviT, too nii('(|u.'il on tlic side of tlic 
Fiviich, to 1k> loii},'('r iimiiitiiiiicd, ami ii^'icciihlv to the <'oii- 
ceiti'd plan, tlioy Ix-guu to full Itiu-k slowly, ki'»'i)in^,' up a 
constant liru till tlu ycononlratrtl near a stoc-kadid liouso 
on an i'inin< iicc Ilcri', i>rotcct»nl liy tlio italisailcs, they 
made a staml, poiuiii},' in so deadly a iiit^ as to clit'ck tlio 
whole Ent,disli army. Then tlio Enf,'lish lK'<^an to use 
their ticld-pieeos, but au answer was given liy the liattory 
at tlu Ijittle lliver Ciate; moreover, the l')n;.;lish tiieil so 
badly that they did not wound a single jurson. Nor was 
tho nmskL'try tiro more olVeetive; it killi'd only a young 
scholar' and wounded only ouo Indian. 

This tiro lasted till iiigiit, when tiie English retired, 
swearing against tlio Froiieh, who fought, they said, l)o- 
hiud hedges and hushes, like I.idiaus.' What liually in- 
duced them to retreat was their largo number of dead and 
wounded. They retired at first iu toleral)le order ; but the 
retreat soon beoamo a iiert'eet llight, w hen tlii-j' heard tho 
tocsiu sounded by tho Cathedral. They imagined they 
were going to have the Governor-Geuoral and all tho reg- 
ulars upon them, and their only thought was to reach 
their eamj) with all possible speed. Yet the tocsiu was 
merely a stratagem of the Sicnr Dupuys, Lieutcnant-par- 
ticulier of (Quebec, who had been an ollicer before becom- 
ing a magistrate, and w ho had voluntarily assumed, during 
the siege, tho duties of Adjutant, which ho discharged 
very ably.' 

While this was taking place uear tho Little River, tho 
two hostile vessels that were above Quebec, fell down with 
tho tide to resume their position iu tho line : as they 

' TliiH yoiiiif; iiiaii whh I'rtcr ■ De Mmiwiitiint, lirliition, &o., 

Jlniifili*, stmlciit in iihilimnpliy, iit N. Y. Col. Dkc, ix.. p. .(Ss-O, Fron- 

Quclitr, u'lmiKli'd in tlic arm. Nnv. tcnncV nis|)nlcli. II)., ];. 4<iO. Ac- 

l.*). (lied K). .\lii-illi', i., No. 11. 'I'lic rotiiit hriil liy tin' Fliurdc Mni. lb., 

(•tiidciits lit till' Iriiliisliiiil KrliiKil III |i. ^-'iS. 1.k' ('l<Tri|, FtalilixwiiU'lit de 

St. .loncliiiii, totlir iiuiiibrr ol IK. nil la Foi, ii,. p. .i;i'.t. Di' la I'olliirir, 

voliintiiri'd, Jiiclirriuu, Hint, dc Him. di' l'.\iin'ri(|ui' Si']it . iii,,p. I'JO. 

rilotrl ]>ifu, 1). iiUl. L'Abi'illi', i., '■' l)f la I'othcric, llintoiru do 

No. 41. AnuTiijui' Srpt. iii., p. I'JO. 




jmssod boforo tlio city, llii>y rocoived soiuo caniiouadinj^ 169a 
imd iisturuod it, bnt witlioiit doiiij; any diiumj,'o.' Tlio ^'-v— ' 
ni;,'!it of till) '21st and '22A was v< ry darli and rainy ; tin- -pi,,, ,,ii,.iuy 
Enf,disli who liad lamltd near l!( luiuoit availed llninsclvcs ,'■'"';■"■'>. 
of it to dccaniu; Honu> dctaclinu'nts, wiio iiad by Fronti;- ""i''"rt'i- 
nac's oidiTH j^didcd to tlioir roar, havinj^ excitiul Uf^aiu 
tlioir ft'ar of boin<,' attacked by all the forces of the oolony. 
Tht'V at'(!ordinf,'Iy rej^aint'd their boats witlioutoveu taking 
time to cany ofl' their eannou.' 

At dayl)reak, H(mio Indians who were roconnoitrinR, an- 
nounced the retreat of the En^jjlisli, and in their camp 
were found, Itesidcs tlie tield-pieeen, nionnted on tlieir car- 
ria;,'e.s, a liundred pounds of powder, and forty to fifty cau- 
non-i)alls. .Sometime after, tiiree arnu'd boats returned to 
carry oil' what tlicy had ne>;I(H-ted to take with thorn; 
but tliose who were ah'eady in jjossession, opened ho 
.siiarp a tire on tiio boats tliat tiiey (hirst not land. The 
Admiral, perceiving,' it, sent thirty niort! ; bnt those in 
command, after holding a council out of musket range, 
deemed it inexpedient to attempt a landing, and they re- 
turned to the ships.' 

' Sonic (iDcuiiiciitM Hiiy lliiit it wuB 
on tlii' aliuriioou of thf '.2'Ja tliat thu-it; 
vcHinMn ri'tiriHl. i'lutrlifnix. {),• 
Moiisci^nat niiys :M.hI. N. Y. Col. 
Doc.ix.. p. 1^1), us Jc) 111!' Al'Couiu by 
the Kluurdf .Miii. lb., p. 1,')8, and (it- 
la rothcrie, iii., p. \H). \a- CK rc(|. 
ii., p. HI, wcms to huvii luislcil 
Cliurli'voix. a» hu lueutious tht; 'J'Jd 
ou p. ll;j. 

" D<? Monsciguat, Uelation, (bc., 
N. Y. fol. D(K'., ix., p. 181) lb., p. 
ioS. l)i- la Pothcrif, iii., ]>. 120. 
Li^ttiT of Mfir. di' Laval, Nov. -JO. 
1«U0, in L'AlxMlJf, i.. No. vi. 

" lb. Wulli-yV Jouiiiftl, Ilutcliiii- 
Bon's History of MassacliiiK-tt.s, p. 
477. waVH tliat live cannon f;ot cc v- 
LTrd by uiitrrand wcir ovciloo iiil; 
'■ thi'y sK,'nt in tliiiiiorninf;, Imt tlirii 
it was too liiti;." l-'rontfuac to the 

Minister, N. V. C.,!. 1),„.„ ix., ,,. 
Ml). Can. Dim-., II., v., p. UiT, uayu 
till' Kirncli iimnd tin' live caiuion at 
low WHiiT. ChaliiuTs' I'olit. .\nn. 
(N. Y. HiMi, SikV Coll.. Ks( p. 57. 
.lojin Wiillcy, i-oniinaiiilfr o( the 
land forrcN in I'liipps' Kxiicdition, 
wan a Hon of IJcv. Thomas Walley of 
Harnisvillc ; born in l(i|:i, fri'finan 
ill !()(!:!. captain in Ui7!), intcrcatud 
in the HettlcMi-nt of Hrislol, in KiSG 
in AndroM' couiicil. Ho publisliud a 
.Journal of liin opcnitionH, citeil in notes. In 1710-11 lie was 
.Iudj,'oofthoSup<'riorCourtand died 
in IJoBton, Jan'y 11, V,Vi. Savago's 
cienealoirical Dict'y. iv., 100. lllst. 
Aiic. and lion. Artillery, Is.'). Dex. 
lerV Chiircli, ii,,p. 1."), nut.'. Allen'.s 
lliog. Dict'y, llisexjH'dition ivacheU 
Boston again, Nov. 11). 

■ i!'r 

I i 







i6go. Fioutonnc! boKtowcil f,'ront jmiist^ on all who took j)art 

"■'"'' *" ' ill the last Uftiou. Ilo iicnnittcil Cam' iiuil liis tiooii to 
i-any iioiiin two pii-coH of artillury, to bo iin utonial nioiiii- 
liifut of the exploit tliry hail lu-liiiviul. It was ailiiiitlcd 
that thd most cxiuTiciiiTil could not havo nianonvi-ivd 
butter than this faniicr did,' and thu Ell^lish even paid 
liim all tho justico ho doHorvod. But nothing disfonfntid 
Admiral Phibs nioro than to hoo uU tho n-j^ulars and colo- 
nial militia assomblod at (^uoboc. llo had talculatiul ou 
ft divorsion hi tho direction of Montreal, which should havo 
kept a good portion of tbuHU troops engaged, and his 
hopes wore based on this. 
Tht! faiiuro Tho iuformatiou given to tho Count do Frontenac \>y 
Hi'ii ill till' tho Iro(|Uois la Phuiue, that a largo nunibcr of Indians 
MiiMiriai were oucamiiod ou tho slores of Lake ht. hacrement wiih 
yucb'uf. I'l't too well founded. It was indeed only part of a corps 
of throo thousand men, English, Iroquois and Molngans, 
who wore to attack tho Government of Montreal, while 
tho English fleet besieged Quebec. There was every rea- 
Bon to fear that Canada, already enfeebled by the sevoro 
losses it had sustained the preceding years, would sink 
under two such powerful eflbrts, had they been well con- 
certed; but Hei'ven intervened by ouo of those unhopt^d 
for operations, iu which it is im})ossiblo not to recogni/e 
that Providence which watches over tho preservation t)f 
states, and which can dorivo tho aid it destines for them, 
from sources whouco it would least uuturally bo oxjiocted.' 
Tho English and Mohogaus, on their march to join tho 
Inxjuois, were attacked by small-pox, iiud many still boio 
tho marks when they reached the rendezvous. The Iro- 
(juois, already thrown int(j very bad humor by the delay 
which this sickness caused, woi'o seized at this spectacle 
Avith foar that the disease w^uld s})road to them, and 
they reproached their allies with coming to poison them. 

1 " < 

' Frontonnc to the Minister, N. Y. Col. Doc., is., p. 400, ond Account 
sent by tho Fluor de Mai, p. 408. '' Ante, p. 14J. 



Ill fact iiiiiiiy wrro soon iittiickcd with tlio s,iiiii< disoaso, 
mill Ml) less tliiiii Ihrcf liuii(lri'(l dicl of it. TiiiH was 
iii.)Hj,'li ti) iiidiint) 111! tiio it'Ht to iil)!iiid()ii HO fiitiil 11 siK)t, 
and witiidiiiw from tliono who liiid bioiiglit tho coutiiyiou. 
Tims tile army incited awny.' 

It is cvtii adijcd on doeunicuts tiiat I (h) not f,'uaraii- 
tcc, th;it till- Kn;,disli had si'iit on in ailvaiico clost'd i-iii'sts, 
rontainiiif,' |ioi.sonrd (lotlits, and tiiat thoir dusi^'u was to 
lut tli(( Krciicli plnndfi- tlicni ; lint tho rlu'sts iiaviiij^ been 
opont'd by the Indians, all wlioni curiosity led to attiro 
tliorasi'lvos in tlioso clothos, diod of it. What porhaps 
j^avo crodit to tliuso popular rumorH, was that tho wound 
of which Mr. do Sainto llclcno dii-d, not havinj^ boon 
doonicil serious, hoiuo f»avu out that ho had been struck 1 v 
a jioisoncd ball; yot it is cortain that m.iny others of tho 
l'"i-cnch woundetl in the various actions with the Kn;,disli 
troops who landed at IJoauport, ri'covercd frum tlieir 
wounds, and that the surgeon who attendeil Sainte Ho- 
Icne, coniplaiiiod that he had been unwillini,' to follow the 
royiiuo which ho proscribod. 

It is also said, and with a|)pan;iilly Ki'oater likelihood, 
that what linally (uubroiled tho En;4lish and Iro(|nois, waa 

' Fronti'nao to tlio Minister, Nnv. 
1-.', KI'.H). N. V. Col. l)iH\, ix , p. Hill. 
Mny. Kiill. II) 1>. I!)."!. I),. M.,ii 
Hri.,niit, MiiVH .")()(• ilicil. 111., |>. l!)l). 
De 111 I'otlic'ijf. Illhtiiirc dr rAiiii'- 
riquu Si']il., iii., p. lJl-(!. .Mj;r. (It; 
Laval, ill hie l.ttiT ni .Nov. ','(), Ul'.HI, 
rcporls tliiit llii' lii.liaiis liiok'' with 
till' KntfllHli Ihm'iuisi' till' lalliT r<' 
lust'il to iiiiiif,'lc with thi' Imiiaii-* in 
tlii'ir luilitaiy iiiovi'MiciitH, ki'i'piiij; 
till' IiidiuiiH H()art; tlint thi' Iiuliaiis 

withilrcw, anilon tlii'iriiiiirch lioi 

ward pliiiidircMl tliu i;i,-lir.i of tin! 
Eiigli!<li, ou which the Hiiiall |m)x 
broke out aiiioiifr tlicin, carninf; off 
'3(K( Si'iircuH ami lOOOnoiidapm, and 
tliat all lliu lroiniui.s lirlirvcd the 
thing;, puiduned on |iurpo8u to dc- 

Kti'oy ihi'iii. Di" la Pollicri.', Ilii-t. do 
r.\. S, iii.. p. I'.'C-t «,„! till' Uilu- 
tion, Klliil-I. N Y. Doc, ix., p. 
51:1-1. •,'iv.M the lorci' as llnO Si'Ui'- 
<as, Caviiiras and ()nonda),'aw, 170 
Moliawkn. Uiiridart and Molifj^anH. 
The Kiu'lish refused to eiiilmrk in 
the lioi|iiois eanois. 'I'hey Kive tho 
los.H :il)0 SeiieruH, Cayiiiras and On- 
onda^'a.«, 'JO Mohawkn ami OneidaH, 
") or (100 Knulish, Milet, in a letter 
Iroiii Oneida, .Iiine, Kiill, Relation 
de su Captivite, p. Ill, says small [xix 
stopped the lirst, orSorel I'Xpeditiou, 
and si'altered the si'coiid, or Lako 
(ieor^jeoiie. wlii<'h was iipcoiiipaiiieil 
liy Ilia i:ii:.'lisli. whom tin- Iruiiuois 
ordered haek. See X. Y. Col. Uoc'., 
iii., p. ~-]\i, 7.JU. Ante, p. 145. 



r I 


! V 

li" I'' 



»,Ij t 






U 4^1 





I'lgo, tliut tho foniior wdiilil not I'lnlmik in tlio oanooH of tlio 
latter, Htiucturcs of chu Ixiik, qiiito jioorly nimlo untl vory 
low lit tli(» side, tlmt on tliis iffusul \\io Iio(|uois cullfil tliciu 
cowiuiIh, ioiulcd tlicni witli bitter icproiu-lics, iind on their 
hoiuoward uiiUfli, destroyt>d all tin* j,'raiu and killed all 
the cattlo around Alhany.' For my own part, I am con- 
vinced that in tlio motives for the withdrawal of tlieso In- 
dians, there onterinl no little of that policy, of whicli wo 
shall see hereafter well-defined eil'ects. This policy con- 
sists in an uuwillinf,'ness ou their part, that either of tho 
two European nations between whom their territory lies 
sbould ac(|uire too great a superiority over the other, sat- 
isfied that they should soon bo the victims. 

Bo these circumstances as they may, and they are not 
equally attested, men wero not well assured at Montreal 
of the dang(!r they had been in, till \ou<^ after the disper- 
sion of" this large force ; and to all ajipearances Admiral 
Phibs was ignorant of the failure of that mo\ement, win n 
bo arrived beforo Quebec, and never susjteott'd it till ho 
learmnl that all was (juiot at Montreal. This suspicion, 
■which was very well founded, and tho failure of the vari- 
ous attempts which ho had made to penetrate into Que- 
bec by tho river St. Charles, at lust determined him to 
raise the siege. In the threo actions which wo havo de- 
scribed ho lost nearly six hundred men ; it has even been 
considered as a fact that he had not a single cannon-ball 
loft ; that the last day, his guns were loaded with only 
wretched scraps of iron, and that all his other military 
supi)lit's were as completely exhausted." 

The twenty-third, on the report which sj)read of tho 
Hpeecly departure of the fleet. Captains d'Orvilliers and do 
Subercase, with ouo hundred men, threw themselves into 
Isle Orleans, and the Sieur do Villieu was ordered to de- 
scend by the little chani el to Cape Tourmente, in order to 
proveut any lauding of iho English. In tho evening tho 

Tho 8lce;o 

• Di' la Pothcric, iii., \>. 137. N. Y. '' I'halm.Ts' Pnlitionl Annuls (N. Y. 
C!ol. Doc., ix., p. 5ia. Uist. tJoc Coll., 18GS), p. 5a. 

%«.. ■ 

( I 



fl.ct wii;,'!i.(l uiK'liiir, 1111(1 fi'll down with tlid tiilc f)ii tlio if»)0. 

t\V('iity-ft)iiifli it aiii'liiiii'il ill TAiliro S.'i-. (t ctiniuil oil" ■— ^r""^ 

(jiiito II iimiilx r (if l'"n>ii(li who liiid hccn taken piisoucrs 

ou viiiiouM oi'i-asidiis, and amon;^ otiicr.s tin- llcv. Mr. 

Tn»uv('', 11 jiiii'st wlidiii I'liilis liad dttaincd Hinc«: tli« nip- 

tuit) of Port lloyiil, Air. do (Jniudvillo, iiud tlio denioi* 

Ni-IK 's .lolict and dc la Landc.' 

The latter iadv luarin'' notliin-' said of ransom or ox- ^xdnmito 
. <ii prl-on- 

elian^'e, asked the Admiral wlietlicr he would imt iiid'er to ..."'"• 

; ^ . , ' \S riiiliiMl 

obtain the llii,:^lisli prisoners in Canada, rather than tuko "':'"■ "ii<i 

new liMHi'l 

Frouch to IJoston, who would only bo a burthon Sho "i ii(c Kn- 

II' I . . » 1 / > III' '. II »?"*'' '^''^^ 

oflered to }^o to tlio (. ount ilo I' loiitenu', and in iiw naino 

propose an exelianj,'o, which would rodouud to Iho adviin- 
ta.,'ei>t' both nations. Her oll'or boin^,' ac'(!opt(!d, sho wi».>i 
taken to (Quebec, and had still loss dillioulty iu induoin^ 
tlie (■ vei-nor-(»eiieral to (Mitor into nej^ntiivtions on tluvt 
point with the J'^n^lisli Adniiial. 'I'ho Count de Fronteuao 
oven sent him tho oaptain of his ^'uards' invostod with 
full powt rs, and as tiie number of prisonor.s was about 
equal on bdth sides, tho ne^^'otiation was oonoluded with- 
out any dilliculty, and carried out in ;,'ood faitii.' I'hib.s 
thou continued his route, dooply chaj^'rinod to huvo lont 
the best part of his property in au oxjioditiou iu which 
lie had g(jno to almost all tho oxponso, iu tho hopo of 
a },'reat fortune. Nor was ho froo from auxioty as to 
wiiat ini^dit befall him in tiiat advanced season without 
co.astiuy-pilots iu a rivor as to whicii ho was uot 
woU ucquaiiited, with vos.sols in sucli wretclutl ordor, so 

' |)(! .Mdiiscij^iml. liiliiiiiiri, &(• , 
N. Y. I'l.l Doc, is., II. t.s'j. !),• l;i 
I'oiln'iic, iii., p. l'J(t-l. Acciiiiiit 
Kent by till) l''lciir tie Miii. N. V. 
("ill. 1)(K.'., ix., |i. 4")S, Kroiilciiiic'i* 
l)is|ii(U'li. III., p. Ml. 

■■' Till' Sii'iir ill' Id VulliuH!, N. V. 
("ill. I)(K'., ix., p. Kil. 

•' Kiontfimc In the Minister, Xov. 
12, KillO. N. V. Ci.l. DcKv, is., p. 
4()1. 'I'lie Fniich ictdviriil Mr. ilc 
Uruuiivillf, Itc'V. Mr, Trouvi', mul 

till' liiclii'.-* iicMiliiini'il, (,'iviiif; up 
l);ivi.-, Siir.di (i.Tiisli luid lii ipUhtm, 
I'hiiMlv lidiili In- i'.irliiinil. lie Mdii 
M i:,Mi,ii. N, V. ('ill. I>c>f., ix., p. |s!), 
.MhIIut's .MaL,'iuilia, II li VII., p. (j(j. 
Dnilv.'s la.iiaii C'lipiivitii's, p. 08, 
Dccliuutiiiii (i! Sylvauus Davis, 
Mii.-s. Hint, toll.. III., i., p. 107. 
'Iliu I'xcliaiif,'!' left (iO Eni,'lisli pris- 
iiiiiTrt SI ill iu Caiiaila. I.c Clcrcn, 
Etaiilissiiiic'iil ilu la I'lii, ii. p. 



' 1 











1690. (Irstitufc of pravisiuim aiiil aiiiiiuiiiitiiin. His own sliip 

^""^""^ was wi II iii;,'li lust ill niaiviiiy tho triivj-rHc uf 1^1.. Oi- 

liiiiiH, uikI hifoio lio ^ot out i)f till) rivor lie lost, i»i was 

fdiffd tiiali.iiiilnii III) li'ss thiiiMiiiuKif liis vi-m'Is, a |tai( of 

tin- cifws having,' liicii lostliy nifkiii'ss, or Dlliunu'cidriilH,' 

'Two (liys aftii- hJH ilt'piirtiint fioiu Imforo (^imlMtc, 

soriH' AlM'iiaquis ciimo in from Afiulin or its vieiiiit}-, iiii- 

' '.?! il!r"" iioiiiicinj,' that tlii> I''ii;^'li>.li had lnn'ii luMti'ii iit sea in 

ilir Aiiii'ii'i- l'<iiri>iii', whii'li provi'd to Ini tnu', Count ih« 'I'oiirvillr liav- 



ili^' (li'fi'titt'd tli(M-oiiiliiii(>il llccts of Kii^hilid mid iloUaiid 
in till' Urilish C'lmnini.' 'I'lioso Indinns annoiuu-id also 
liiat Ihc siii;dl-|>ii\ h id swept ,i\vay four liuiidifd Iroijuois 
and II huudrrd Mcih<';^' ins of thti forcu inttinihnl to atl.ick 
Montii'id ; that lll'ty lloMaudi^rs wuro soon to Kjuvl; New- 
York, to ruuow thi« iif^^otiatioiis with Iho (Jttiiwiis of Ali- 
i-liilliniakinac, lint tliat it was Ihi-ir intention to (U)ceivu 
tiiese Indians ; that within the last two months tlio Caiii- 
bas had defeated a iiartyof soveiity J'in;^lislimen and tiiirty 
Mt»lio;,'ans ; that tho Clovurnor of New En^;land iiad mado 
thorn vory udvanta^'oous projiositions, Imt tiiat they hatl 
replied tiiat neither tiiey nor tlieir ehildren, nor tiieir ciiil- 
dnm's chiUlreu would ever make peaeo or trufo with a na- 
tion who hiul Ko often hetrayed them. In fact tho English 
uovi-r troatud with those Indians in j^^ood faith, and the lattor 
couldalxiveull neverfor^;rt thatsoineyearsliefore, wlieii sev- 
eral of them went to IJoston in timt; of peaeeand on allaiis of 
trado, tho3' had all lieen massac-rod umler various pretexts. 
The Count do Froutouac was not yet fruo from somo 
auxioty in re^,'ard to tho vessels which ho o.xpeoted from 
France ; lait tli<'y had lieon seasonably informed of tho 

' Ciipt. Avisiiiimli, wlnii iil Ta- rtciiiu' ilriviii to tln' Wt.'.st luilii.'S. 

tliiUHsur, riiiw ilii'iii iTi'iiUiii;; u|isiiiiii' Smilli, llist'irv dI' I'mmdii, i.. |i. loj, 

of tlitir vlsm'Ih. Till' ilirks nl' liU jjivi'H an Ai'i'uiiiil uf lliti MiiliTiii(;H iil' 

ulii|« were coven-il «'itli wdiiiicli'.l ilic liO uii-ii of Hiiiimt'uril'rt (iliiji, IdsI 

111(11. .hu-licri'iiu. IlUt. lU' I'lliiirl nil Amii'ii.-ii. 

Dii'u, p. ;;.;s. llmcliiii.+ m, i., p. ;;.")li, Oir lli.' I»li' n| Wi^jlit, July 10, 

NiNHoiic wasldHt nil Aiiiici.hii.lwdiir liiilli, !><• .M<>ii«>'ifriint, Iti'liitinii, X. \. 

tUiiv' mvtkvu oi uuvi.r liLini nl, auJ (-xl. I)iJt., i\., i>. iJO. 


• »» 





iiniviil of tlu> EiikIIhIi tliot at (Jiiclicc, lunl had taken r«- 


iixno ill tho Hii;,'Mi'ijay, wliiun tlmv roiiiaiiiml till llin ICn- 
^'lisli tinot passnl iIdwii a;:;aiii and hail got far <>ii()ii;^h to 
l.aiiish all l\ar of li iviii.,' I)r,.ri .htrct.^.' On th.i I'Jth of k;!,';",!",'™ 
Novi'iuhiT thi^y aiiclmrtid lu'foro tho rajiital,' wln-iu tho y,),!'!,^^. 
joy thoy oainod was lioij^htoiiod Ity tlin fear that had Ix'cii 
ent«'rtaiiii'(l for tlu'ir safoty, and l)y tho nciitTal di'stitiiliou 
that piiivaili'd. Vi't they Inoiii^'ht no niuody to tin' fani- 
iui',' whii'h soon oi-caiut! cxtn'Min, iH'cainc, us iiliiMily 
Htatod, tho liMiiKiii.-, incursions in tin' s|nin;T ||:„l very 
gonorally jirovoutiid tho farniors from plantiii;^ thoir (;rops. 
They were aci'ordin^ly olilij^cd to (luarti-r tho soldiers 
uii the riciicr farnuMs, wlio ri'ccivtid tlicni not only with- Fninitm 

*^ mill ziMil 01 

out coniplaiut, but with i-hoiTfuluoHs. '''his good conduct, ,, tii» 

,,,,., . . Coloui 

and the zral displayed oy all, m tho courso ot a canipai^'ii 
in which tlu'y had scarcely had their arms out of their 
hands ; the alacrity with which they undertook anything 
desired of them during tho siege, and tho courag(* of 


1 Mur. (I.' Lnviil, l<i'ttiT, N.. .20, 
K'p'.lll, KiiVrt llml till' I'liiliriM Xiivii'r, 
till- tilmiiiix, Ciiiil. AviMiiiiuli. aiiil 
u I'rih'iiii', l.ii I'MiMir iln Mui, I'uiil- 
ifil witli tloiir iiikI |x>rk, run into 
till' Sa;{iii'im,v, wiTi! sdiii by llit^ I'hi 
jrllnli. but mivi'il by 1'iii,'b iiiiil KtnriiiH 
til. It immc up. Si'i! I)r .Miuimi^jimi. 
N. Y. t'ol. l>iHv, ix.. p. I'.M. M«\\i 
IT .Iii''liin"ni, IlistMii'i.' (Ir ribili'l 

D'h'U. p. ■':'■'<'>. All'.. ^iVl'S luHiiy ibliiiln 

111 !■) till' (llm-ii'ux. 

•' Xi'tVS I'lUlli' till' Ivlll, lllr nllipH 

riii'lii'iHiiii'lii-c. till- ITdb, Kith, Uili. 
!).■ .\biii.<i iu'imt. N. V. (,'"1. I>iir., ix.. 
p lol. .Vi'iuriliiif; to M^rr. di- l.aviil 
till' r;ir);i('S Wiri' I'stiumlril iit 11 mil 
lion iiflivri'K mill .Motln-r .Imln'miu 
nays 111. iflor'nux hail :il:l.Ollll IIvii'h 
ill Hpi'i'ii'. Li' ('lirn|, ii., p. 4.")7, 
t^avN 1 111., missing I'vrry inrivct 

' Acrordiiijr til Mirr. cli' l.iiviil. l.ii 
riciir ill' Miii bmuL'-lit pruviriinii-i, 
Si'i', too, Ia'H l'i'.->iiliiu-tiilit ti'iii'bic, i,, 

p. -nS. Ah to the t'liiuini', fw Dn la 
I'litliiTii', iii., p. I.'."i. Uilution, iVc, 
lil'.K) I. N. V. fill. DiH',, ix., p 51:1. 
Sy Ivitiiiiri OiiviH, llrclurutiiui, MaHO. 
lii^l. Ci.ll . 111., i., p. lll-'J. 

Ni'itlii'i- puny (,'ivi'8 thi' tiitiil liiBH. 
Pliipp.'', Ill Ilii4 ri'prrHriltuliiiii U) 

Kiiii; Williiiiu, xayH lin did not lime 
..viT ;i(l iiii'ii lii'I'or.' thi' I'lii'iuy. 

Illltclllurloirs .MllfW , i,, p. '.iW, 

lliitririuson. 1111111 li'tii'i's. miiki'H Ida 
wlmli' liMs by sJi'kiii'Ks iind tlu' one- 
uiy aliiMii ',!ll(l. tiiiv. SIoiikIiIit to 
l.iinl Nolliiitjliaiii, N V. Cul. Doc., 
iii., p. iiil, luaki'S lilt) loKH III tuea 
1,000 uiid till' debt cttuxi'd forty 
lliiiusaiiil iKiiiud.i. Tbii rrluru of 
IMiipiis lliri'W .\las^a^llu^il'ltw into 
conHii'iimiidii ; it ^va^' ulti'ily uii|ire- 
|>ari'd In pay tlir hhIiIIith, and iKHUfi 
till' liriit colonial jiaprr immiry to 
iiii'it the I'niiTgL'iii'y It did not ro- 
t'DVi'i- from till' blow lor yi'ars. llut- 
rldnsiiii, i , p. :Cil\. Ki!f, History of 
MasiMuliiiBotlB Curri'iiry, p. IK. 
















Tlic A'k;- 


wliicli thoy had just givoii so iiiivny pi'oofs, nil this did 
thorn f^icat lioiior, iind the King, to whom tiiu (rovcruor- 
Goiioral took groat oaro to roudor a faithful aocouut, 
seoniod not less touoliod by it than i)y tlio liappy dolivor- 
auee of (^uobec ; an ovout which his Majesty nevertholess 
di!euiod sutlicientl}- iin[)ortant for him to desire to traus- 
mit it to the posterity among the glorious oveuts of his 
reign, having struck a modal 011 tlio occasiou.' 

In the mouth of March, in the following year, now dep- 
uties airived at the capital from all the AbOnacpiis nations, 
|"s''j,/v,.'w from whom it was ascertained that up to the mouth of 
Kii;,'iiii>.(i. j,\.bruary only four of the vessels that had laid siege to 
1 61; I, (^ntibec had re-entered Boston. It was afterwards ascer- 
tained that some had stopped in Mio Gulf of St. Lawrence 
to cruise, and had captured several fishing-smacks ; that 
Mr. do Mannoval had been sent to England ; that (Kov.) 
Mr. Petit was at Port lloyal, and the Chevalio'- d'Eau at 
Boston , that the interpreter of this last oflicer, and t .vo 
other Freuchmon, who accompanied him when he wa.s 
sent on an embassy to Onondaga, had been burnt in three 
diii'orent villages ; that the Ottawas and our other allies 
from the North and West continued the war vigorously 
.against the Iroquois ; that goods were very scarce in New 
England; that most of the fields were left uncultivated, and 
that a great many of the settlc'-s, finding themselves with- 
out moans of subsistence, had taken refuge at Boston and 
New York. This last was the result of the incursions of 



'. 'c 

' Clinrlfvoix docs not nlhulo to 
the Boli'iiin ri-joicinfrs on Suiidny, 
Nov. 7. I'hipiw' tint ;iiu! ihat tnlicn 
at Crkco 15ny wcrf Ijonu' to tin- 
CViicdral in triinii;'li. aniiil tli'' mil 
of drums. A 'I'l' Pcuni siinj;; \\y the 
Uisliop, and a imicrHsioM in whicli 
all till,' tniiips loiik 1 art. I'iirrir.l tin' 
i>tata("ol' till' Itli'ssi-d Virrin to rimi' 
eliiiirlii'H. A solemn fi'stiviil of Our 
Lady of Victory was instilutcd.and 
a clmrcli in the l.owrr 'I'cwn. nl- 
ruady bt-guu, Ut'dicatud under that 

name. Dc Monsoignat. N. Y. Col. 
Doc., is., p. 4i(l. Do la Potlu^rit', 
iii., ii|). 122-8. I.i's Ursulinos do 
(jui'lu'c, i., p. 471. Lc Clcrci], ii., p. 
\'>i. De la ('oIombiiTc, brotlicr 
of tlie ci'k'liratt'd pulpit orator, 
prcaclii'd tlic di.-courst' of iln' ilay. 
.hiilicrcnu, llisliiin; dc I'llolcl Dicn, 
p ;':>;!. The nuns obtained ixTinis- 
sion to institute a special feast in 
lionor of the Sacred Heart of Mary. 
11)., p. .'!41. This medal is shown in 
till! accoiupauyiu^ illustrulion. 

!• ■> 


• Hi 


'^: i '-' ■ ' i!Mi ■ 




I ' 

r ». 

it' i 




tho Ciinil);is and otlior Abc'iiiuiuis, who during this winter '^"H- 
ruvH;,'ca more tlian fifty lc,i;;iu..s of country. •—y-'^ 

On tills ,ui,l otii.-r iufuraiation wliicli tlio samo dtpntios Deoitfui 
gave tlio , It, Frontouiu-, that g.-u."rul suspoctod tho tionfolthe 
English of complicity in a miUKi-uvro then played by ^■■"'^""'''• 
tho Iroquois, to lull us iuto a falso contidonco, and a 
pretoii(h;d reconciliation, with tins view of favoring a now 
eutcrpriso .igaiust tiit' government of Montreal. It arose 
iu this way ; A party of on > hundred and forty Mohawks, 
anion- whom were somo Dutchmen, mado an irruption 
at Ciianil)ly and 8ur|)rised somo Iroquois of Sault St. 
Louis. Several wore killed, ten or twelve others wore 
taken and liound. 

Sometime after, three deputies arrived at tlio Sault 
from the Moliawk, unarmed, with tho prisoners just men- 
tioned, and di!clared that they came to ask peace from 
their Father ; l)iit tliat they lirst wished to know whether 
tiiey would Ije well received, should they propose to him 
to give ti:em lands in tho ueiglii)(n'hood of the Sault to 
settle near tlie'ir bn;tlireu. They added that they had 
mado ah haste in orch'r to warn tho French to bo on their 
guard; inasmuch as eight hundred Irotpiois warriors 
wore pn.paring to outer the colony between Montreal and 
Three Rivers. They were asked wliether they knew what 
had becom(> of tho Cliovalier a'Eau, and they replied 
that it was at the solicitation of tho English that they had 
burnt tho three Frenchmen who attended him; that he 
himself had been on tho point of undergoing the same 
fate; that he was actually bound to tho stake, but as English 
and Iroquois alike refused to begin tho execution, this 
dispute had saved his life.' 

Frouteuac, in reporting to Mr. do Pontchartraiu, who 
had just succeeded Mr. do Seignelay in the Ministry, tho 
various accounts that ho had received, and especially what 

'IV la PotbiM-ic, Ilistnire tie l(i!)0-l. N. V. (ol Doc ix 7 )" 

lAm,-ri,,u,. S,.p.., iii,. ,,,,. 13.-,_!;!l. s|.,.ahs „f two „„lv ,,s 'l,„nn ",u,',| 

( Immpi^nij- to the .Minister, N, Y. on- dead of disease. See Aute n 

< 01. Doc, ix., p. 499. The liehition, ryi. ' ' ' 






i wih 


i , 



I I 

1(1 Ml. (li; 



'^'9'- coiicovnod tlio Iro(|noiM, informed him tliat ho had not 
""^^ dt!GUK'd it proper uhsohitely to reject tlio i)ro])osition of 
hotter of tho Mohiiwks, nor on the otlier hand had ho doomed it ex- 
podient to show it too much attontion ; that ho hud ad- 
vised tho ChovaHor do Calhores to protrtiet tlio ne<,'otia- 
tious throuf^li tho Indians of Sault Saint Louis, and that 
ho had uotitiod tho Otttiwas, through tho Sieur do Courto- 
maucho,' tliat they would do liiiu a pleasure by constantly 
harassing tho Iroipiois, against whom ho kept himself on 
guard for fear of surprise. 

" I rocommeuded tho same thing," ho adds, " to the 
chiefs of tho Cauibas, when they left me, and I am con- 
vinced that if his Majesty adopts tho resolution of under- 
taking any enterprise in tho direction of Boston and New 
York, and seizing this latter place, this conquest will bo 
the security of tho country and deprive tho Iroquois of all 
hope of protection. On tho other hand, if tho king re- 
took Acadia and made himself absolute master of tho 
Great Bank, which could bo done by sending three or four 
frigates every year to cruise from Capo Sable to the 
northern point of Newfoundland, ho would secure to his 
kingdom a trade of more thau twenty miUions, and more 
advantageous than tho conquest of tho Indies would be." " 
" I do not know," lie says, in another letter, written two 
months after this, " whether my predecessors have noticed 
how important it is to secure tho mastery of all the fish- 
eries, iuid the iidvantago they would give to tho commerce 
to the whole kingdom ; nothing can render your ministry 
more illustrious than to induce the king to undertake this 
conquest. I believe it more important than that of all the 
Indies, whoso mines are exhausting, while these are inex- 
haustible." ' 


' Augustine Li; Oardcur, Sieur dt'. 
CouitcniaiK'hc, son of John I-(^ Uar- 
dcurdi' Hi'])cutiirny. Fcrland, ii., p. 
233. Daniel, i. \>. \k. 

'' Frontcuac to rontcliartrain, 

May, KiOl. N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., , , 
49.'J-0. Hi-latiou, &c IG'.IO-l. Ji>., 
p. Slfi. 

'FrontenactoPontehnrtra , Aug. 
13, ICyi. Canada Doc, II /.I., p. 09 



Moanwliilo tlio ^'reat Iroquois piirty, of which t]i(> ^lo- 
hawks luul ^ivou notico, appoan.'d about tho la'^'iiiiiiii},' of 
^lay, ucar Moutreal. Thi'v wcro to tlio nuiulier of a thou- 
sand, auil having ostablisliud thoir cauip at tlio month of 
tlu) groat rivor of tlio Ottawan, thoy sent out two dctach- 
iiicnts, one of a hiimlictl and twenty men which took a 
northern route, the otlier of two hundred, turning soutii- 
ward.' The former first fell on a district of Montreal Is- 
land, calli'd Pointe aux 'I'ri'iniili's, wlusre iheylnu'nrd about 
thirty houses or barns, and took some si'ttlers, on whnm 
they wreaked unheard of cruellies.' 

Tlie second l)arty, which included twouty English m.'n, 
and sonio Mohegans, glided in Ixstwi'cu Chambly ami jja 
Prairie do la ]\[agdeleine, where they surprised twelve In- 
dians of Sault St. Louis, men and women ; but th<3 m^xtilay 
S(jme Mohawks in tlio party took them homo and declareil 
that they camo to treat of peace : it was, however, soon 
perceived that their real design was, if possible, to seduce 
all the inhabitants of that village ; but in this they did 
not succeed.' Almost simultaneously a fourth l)arty of 
about eighty men attacked the Iroquois Christians of tho 
Mountain, and having invested them on all sides, cap- 
tured thirty-tivo women and children, and carried them oil" 
in broad day, by means of a skirmish which covered their 



New In>- 

ijiiiii-' lid- 


1 i 


I . 

I )\ 

! 4\ 

' Canada Ooc, II., vi., p. 7:!. 

'' Cliuiii|iii,Miy to till! Minister, 
Muy I',', 1U!)1." N. Y. (.;ol. Doc, i\., 
p. .")U','-;5, says they di'striyi'l J") 
liousi'S, killi'd Olio man and tun 
women. Tho HcUition l(i'.)0-l, 
gives La Oliine, Hivicri' des I'm li s 
and I'ointo aux Trombh's. All thi' 
accounts make tho Iroquois lore ■ 
800. Do la Pothorif, Ilistoiredo 1 A. 
S., iii., pp. 132-3. Canada Doc, 
II., vi., p. T3. 

^ I do not And the authority tor 
this. It is not in the N. Y. Col. 
Doc, ix., p. .")17, or in Do la Potho 
rie, Histoire de I'Auiorinuo Sept., iii. 

Ui'hnont, says that May 3. Mohawks 
took, near Chambly, six (Jannoyous- 
sos, who wore hrouirht hack the 
lljtli by Onnonouagaron to koop up 
socret understand iufi;. 

■• delation, &c, \. Y. Col. Doc, 
ix., p. ol7. Do la Potherie, iii,, p. 
1;};!, mentions this, without K'^ii'f? 
numbers here stated. Belmont, 
Histoire dii Canada. ]>. 33, says .May 
17tli. 70 Irixpiois attuckttd at 4, A. 
M.. were repulsed with sevon killed. 
Mis.-iion lost Toniliharon. He says 
notliiii:: of women taken ; but the 
Histoire do I'Eau di- \'ie <'ii Caiiada, 
p. 17, Bays tliey took 30 aud killed six. 

I ' 



i I 

'• i'.,r 



1691. Many other less nnmerona bunds spread over tlio colo- 
ny from Rt'pentif^iiy to the Riflu-lieu Islands, evorywlioro 
comniittinf^ fjrcat ravages, because the troops and the mi- 
litia could not keep in the field for want of provisions. 
At last the t'hovalier do Vaudreuil formed a corps of a 
hundred or a hundred and twenty volunteers, officers, sol- 
diers and Canadians, who began by going from house to 
house to obtain jirovisions. As soon as they had collected 
enough for some days, tliey joined the Siour do la Mine, 
captain, who hud started from Montreal some time before 
Mr. do Vaudreuil and had discovered a party of Oueidas 
undefended in an abandoned house at 8aint Sulpico. 
The Chevalier do Vaudreuil, to whom this was re- 
s't.'^Suipice, ported, without hesitation marched in that direction. Ho 
""^tlKny " ^^^'^ ^''^^^ '"'"' *'''"*"in other brave men, the Chevalier do 
Crisasy, Lo Moyuo do Bienville, and Ouroouhare, whom 
they began to suspect of being in correspondence with his 
nation, but who in the rest of this campaign, completely 
dispelled all doubt. Our men, on approaching the house, 
perceived liftcen Oueidas lying out doors on the grass, 
not suspecting even that there were any French in the 
field ; they rushed on tlii^so and killed all before they knew 
what was going on. Tliree others rushed out of the house 
at the cry of the dying ; one was instantly brought down, 
two others escaped to the Avood badly wounded. Then 
those still left in tlie house prepared to defend it, and 
Bienville, going too near a window, was killed on the spot 
by a musket ball.' The loss of this officer, who was well 
known to the Irocpiois, roused the courage of those sav- 
ages, and but for the extraordinary efforts of de la Mine, 
de Crisasy and Oureouhare, one hundred and twenty 
Frenchmen were on the point of failing before a dozen 
Iroquois, posted in a wretched house. At last the Cheva- 

' Francis Lo Moyne, flret Sieiir de 

Bitmvillc, fifth son of M. de Lon- 

gueil, was born at Montreal, May 

10, 1000, and was uimga in the 

marine corps. Daniel, Nos (iloires 

Nationales, i., p. 47. After his 
dcatli liis name was fjiven to one of 
liis IjrotliiTS, tlu'n nuitc young, and 
now (jovernor of Louiiiiana. t'/iuc- 



lior tlo Vaiulrcuil, aoiuowlmt too Into, thought of sotting 
it on Jiro. Tlio eiioiny tried to cut thoir way out, nxo iu 
haml, l)ut whou tho tirst two or throo woro kilioil, fivo 
wore tiikon ami moroilossly burnt by tiio sottlorrt, who 
were couviuood that tho ouiy moans of correcting tlioae 
Indians was to treat tliom as thoy treated others.' 

We sliiU have in tlio scuiuol more than one occasion to ^,j 
speak of tho Maiiinis and Chevalier do Crisasy, and the ',''," 
reader will perhaps bo glad to know who they were and 
what brought tiieiu to New Franco. There were two 
brothers of one of the most illustrious and powerful 
houses in Sicily. Thoy had boon amongst tho first to de- 
clare for Franco iu tho revolt, which had well nigh wrested 
that kingdom from the king of Spain, and when the trou- 
bles were appeased, they could not obtain or durst not 
solicit pardon from his Catholic Majesty. The Cheva- 
lier was a professed Knight of the Order of St. John of 
Jerusalem, had made his caravans with all possible 
distinction, and, iu fact, possessed all the qualities that 
can raise a military man to the highest honors in his pro- 
fessiot . 

The Marquis was also very brave, and bore marks that 
would have done him great honor had he not received 
then; dghtiug against his lawful prince. By the submis- 
sion of Sicily ho beheld himself deprived of all his pro- 
perty, which was considerable. Believing that the Most 
Christian king would interest himself in obtaining its re- 
storation, or compensate him, he proceeded with his 
brother to Versailles, not doubting but that they would 
soon be employed iu a manner suited to their bii-th and 

They were disappointed iu their expectations. Princes 
who do not scruple to use tractors, do not always feel 
bound to reward treason, esi)ecially when they do not de- 
rive all the advantage they anticipate from it ; or rather 

I) wcro 


' Bi'nac, RoliUion de ce qui s'cst Udc, ix., p. r)17-8. Du la Potherie, 
passu. Ciinuda Doc., 11., vi., p. 74. Histoiru du rAmeriquu Sept., ii., pp 
Kelaliou, &c., I«y0-1. N. V. Col. 134-.5. 



I '.i 

' Ik 


' I. 




.1 \ 
t I 


ii » 


1691. rioviilciicc, wliicli wntclicH over tlic ])iTS('rvatinn of stiitca, 

— ->— ^ niicly pciinits (liciii to accicilit |icrli(ly. At'tci' nnicli ho- 

licitiitioii, till) Crisiisys IxOicld tliriiist'lvcH lirou^^'ht down 

to accept each a company in Cauaila, for fear of having 

notliiii^' at all. Tlicro tlioy Horvod til! their death, with a 

zoal from wliirh they un;,dit liav(< hoped for eveiythiiif,' 

had they exerted it, the one for his native hind, the other 

for his onh-r ; hut of whieh tliti Court of Franeo never niau- 

ifosted any ^'reat appreciation. 

The Chevalier, after many j,' illant aetions, in which men 

were at a loss whothtu' to admire most his ai)ility in war, 

bis ])enetratiou in coniieil, his jnd^'meiit in the enteiprises 

conlided to him, or his intrepidity and presence of mind 

in action, at last sanli under the mortilicatiou of heliold- 

iufj; himself ne^'lected, without hoi)e of promotion ;' (ho 

Manpiis, witJi less brilliant merit, hut with the reputation 

of a wise and brave ollicer, supi»orted his misfortunes with 

more patience and philosophy, and died Governor of Three 


.^ Shortly before the action just mentioned, the sameBieu- 

(iiini:. i,;iiiy viii^j ^yjj^, there unfortunately h)st his life in the flower of 

Kicniii Ins age, had pursued a party of sixty Cayuj^as, among 

thf iiiiiu (if whom there were some Mohawks. He had with him two 
Ir(ii)iuiis "f, ,,.,, ,, 

Biiiiit St. hundred picked men, i' reneli and donu'sticateil li'oipiois, 

and as ho surprised the enemy, who were far inferior in 

mimbers, ho felt certain that not one could esca])e him ; 

but the Mohawks having asked to parley with the Iroipiois 

of Sanlt St. Louis, the latter insisted on hearing them, for 

fear, they said, of breaking oil' all chance of arrangement 

between them and that canton.' 

The Mohawks vowed to them that tlioy wished for 

nothing so much as peace, and ollered to return with them, 

' Tlicy were cousins to the Princo ■' Helation, &c., lOltO-1. N. Y. 

of Monacci.aiid (irimsiUli mul lioiiis Oil. Doe., ix., p. 517. De In I'otlie- 

of Mebsiua. The C.'lievalier ilird rie, Ilistoire <le rAiiii'ri(iite Sei>tunt., 

March, Ki'JU. iii- , !>• !•'■'• Belmout, Ilistoire du 

''lie died on tbo Humuier of Canada, ]!. ;!:!, ^ives June 17. as the 

170U. d.iy liieuviUu Bluned. 




on tliii 

l)r<)niisui<,' to solid (It'pntifis forthwith to Montreal to treat 1691. 
with Mr. (h) CaMii'ii's. They wcru lichovcd on thi;ir word, 
iiiid iiliowod to doptut lis wfll us tho Ciiyuf^as, for whom 
tiioy luiswonnl, and us tliis was ivll timt thoy Imd in view, 
thtsy took no pains to kcc^p thoir word. lu tbia conduct 
of tho Inxpiois Cliristians, tht'ro was nothin}^ surprising. 
Indians cannot mistrust tiioso, oven, who have most fre- 
quently broken tiicir word with tiiom ; but Mr. do Froute- 
ui , ever prejudiced against them, on thia occasion gavo 
full swecj) to his suspicions, wiiich, nevertheless, had no 
l(!gitimate basis, and lie thus expressed himself in a letter 
written that very year to tiie new minister : 

" There has been uuioh outcry against tho Indians of Fiont.-inic'j 
Sault, and their conduct has l)een suspected of insincerity, 
I have l(Uig since [lerceived a great indulgence that d(jea 
not please me, any more tlian certain secret iutercourso 
and connexion which they maintain with tho Moliawks, 
among whom thi^y have many kindred. I have freipieutly 
notilied the Fathers who direct them, and whom I would 
not like to accuse of having any hand in it ; but it is cer- 
tain that, either from a desire of humoring them, or gain- 
ing tiieiu to Christ by ways of mildness, or from other 
reasons unknown to me, they are sometimes too indulgent 
with them. The experience of twelve years' stay in this 
country, has convinced me that those missions should not 
be separated as they are from the French ; that they should 
always be left with tho latter, in order to Frenchify them 
by (Jhristianiziug them, and that, otherwise, they will be 
more prejudicial tiian useful to tho king's service." 

His Majesty's Council now saw their true policj' in re- Fnisn prin- 
ganl to tlie conduct 01 tlie missionaries- toward tho Indians, this Gov- 
aud were convinced that their zeal was neither weak nor 
blind. The intercourse kept up by their neophytes with 
their relatives had no t)l)ject but to people their village 
with new proselytes, that is to say, diminish tho number 
of our enemies, and increase that of our allies, as daily 
hapi)eiu:d. It was even admitted that the col' uy had uo 
bettor soldiers than those who were iu this way detached 


tr i/l 




! Ml 

i,<' 1! 






I \ 








1691. from t\w cautouH, and that tho towu ut tho Siuilt was ouo 
'■^y '— ' of its HtrouguHt bulwarks. 

If tht>8o ChristiuuH on hoiuo occiisioiiH did not do all tbiit 
was oxpoctod of thorn, if aoiuo individuals acted from mo- 
tives other thau those iuouleatod ujhju them, no ouo be- 
fore or after Frouteuac, thouj^ht of makinj,' the whole town 
responsible, and much less, those who directed it ; aud au 
experieuco, uot of teu yearn but of more thau a ceutury, 
has tauj^ht us that tho worst system of f^overuiuj; those 
people aud maiutaiuuif^ theiu iu our iuterest, is to briii<^ 
them iu contact with tho French, whom they would have 
esteemed more, had they seeu them less closely. 

Iu tiue, there was no louf^er any doubt that the best modo 
of Christianizing them, was to avoid Freuchifying tlioin. 
In the sevou or eight mouths that tho Iroquois of the Sault 
and tho Mouutaiu, spent at Moutroal, after tho ravage of 
Lachino, they became uurecoguizable,boiii as regards mo- 
rals and piety, and there h no ouo now who does uot ad- 
mit, that if their fervor is uo more, as it was so long, the 
edidcatiou aud admiration of New Franco, it is because 
they have had too much intercourse with us. The example 
of the Abi''ua([ui uatious, much further removed from the 
French settlements and whose attachment to our 
could go uo further, alone sufficed to convince the Gen- 
eral of the fallacy of his principle. His complaints and 
his atlvice were little regarded at Court, where they were 
at last persuaded that his project, which they had taken 
up so warmly thirty years before, was neither useful nor 

The Christians of the Sault St Louis and tho Mountain, 
gave them even a proof of their tidelity sufficient to dispel 
the suspicion of the Count do Frouteuac. The Onondaga 

' Le Clercq's Etablissement de la of tlie Mississippi, p. 80. Li; Clercq 

Foi, ]mblislu'(l in l(i!)l, ilcdicati-il to iidduccans 11 proolDriiis posilimi, tlmt 

Count di' [''rontcnuc, ami siiid by in Now Kny;lan(l aud .N'cw Voili llio 

Charlevoix to bv in part hy liiui, is huliaus had ainiilgamatiHl with tlio 

eutirt'ly in tliis view of l-^onchifyiiig wliiti-s! Tlic lu'st modi! of nianaj^o- 

the Indians, tieu tshta, Ditjcovery iug the ludiuua is still a problem. 

I . 


I ( 



Clinton, which hiul iidoptud tho fiiniily of H'umr lo Mt)yno, 1691. 
rcsolviMl to scml liiin a liolt to (lt'|ilorn th(» ih-ath of Saintu ■— r— ' 
UoUmu), his Hon. With tho ono appointoil for this ccni- ^.^ ^^ ^^^ 
mony thoy sunt two woiuon of tho vilhi^o on tho Mountain ";'>^|".''/'' 
who haJ boou hoiil us prisouoiM, lint woro now Hot 'iuu'*- 

As uo doubt was outortaiuod in tiio canton, hut that such 
a favor had brouj^iit thcso woniou ovor to tiio intoionts of 
tho nation, thoy tiiou},'ht that thoy could ontrust ihoui with 
a very doUoato comniission ; they hainh'd thoiu two bt^its, 
wiiioli thoy woro to duHvor soerutly, ono to ono of tiio chiefs 
of tlioir villa^'o, and tho otiior to Louis Athoriliata, wlio Uvcd 
lit Sault St Louis, and was god-sou to tho king, liy tiioHo 
bolts thoy woro invitod to return to tlioir country and bring 
back as many as thoy (!ould of tlioir lolativos ami friends, 
and to give groator ollicacy to this invitation tho two Iro- 
quois womou woro to add tliat thoro was uo othor moans loft 
thorn to escape perishing with tho Preuch. On what this 
throat was based, wo shall soon see. 

Tho two [udians rocoivod tho bolts, but at onco carried 
thoui to tho Governor of Moutroal, swearing inviolable fi)!,'''',''!),."! 
fidelity to him. Tho Uhovaliordo (Jalliorcsat thosamo timo '"'" .'"'* 
loaruod from tho two woinon, who brought tho bolts, that a 
largo Iro(^uois party had g(Mio to take post on tho Ottawa 
liivor, at a place called tho Long llapid, and that it was 
their design to cut oil" all who passed that way to or from 
MichiUiiuakiuac, thou to spread ovor tho Frouch sottlomouts 
and provout their gathering in tho crops. 

Tlio iut\)rmatioii was true, but tho Chovalior do Vau- 
drouil, who had assembled at Quebec a large number of .sol- 
diers and volunteers to give chase t(j those savages, learned, 
on passing Three ilivers, that they had decamped, either 
because tliey got information of tlie preparations on foot 
against them, or because tho incursions of our allies into 



' Kelations, &c., N. Y. t'ol. Doc, toin- du rAlueriquu ii>.'{>t., ix., p. 
ix., p. 518. De la PotUerl^^ His- 135. 

(*' 't j 

-I' ); 


'' •■, 





.' :i 



lllSTtJllV Ol-' Ni;\V KUANt'E. 

' ,. 

Il '<; 





their ('(iniitry rcciillfd tlmiu to tlefi'inl tlioir fmuilit's mid 
priivtsiit tint laviixiii;,' of tlu-ir own tonitory.' 

Ill fiict llio Will coiitiuiicd (juit(! vi^'oroiisly hotwooii thoMo 
Our riiHiM IiidiiiiiH, iiiid it iH ccatiiiu that thin divorHiua wns of vury 

nilltllllK' to 1 il'i I T? i III I' I ' 

piwh (iitt ^•'"'i*' iit'l'ty to 'i**- I' roiitfiiiif liiid l)('t'ii vi'ry Miu'CDSMtiil 111 
rcxjuoiii. gujiiiiij^ {!„, ottiiwiis mid lluroiis, wlio did woihUtm diiiiii^^ 
thu wiiitiii'. Still liu hud not yot licrii tdilu to Ht'ud tluni 
iiitLdlij^oiico of tlio victory i,'iuiiod liy our troops ovor tlio 
Eii;^'lisli tlot't, iiud it wiiH uot until ttio ico multud, tlmt du 
Courtfiimncho mid do llcpi'iiti^^ny wero mnit t.) inform 
thoiu. Those two ollici'is, with only ten nion, passed tlir(iii^,'h 
that host of Iroipiois who surroundud tho island of Mou- 
troal, and arrivotl at Miehilliiuackinac without rucoivin^tho 
least check. Tiieir mission proihu'ed all thoetl't^et expected, 
and as soon as they returned to Montreal, Courtemancho 
received orders to start back to tako command aiuon^ tho 
Miamis, whom it was doomed uocossary to roassuro a},'aiust 
tiio incursions of tho Iroipiois, and whoso conduct tho au- 
lliorities wi'io ilispcjsi'd to watch.' 
Rriiof from ^^" '•'"' ^^^ "' July a small shij) from Franco, comiuaiul- 
*""*■ cd \>y tho Siour Donys do Donavouturo anchored boforo 
(Quebec, and tilKul tlio whole city with joy, not so much ou 
act'ount of tho relief which it broa^^iit, and which could uot 
bo very ^'I'oat, as by the assurance tho conimaudaut f^avo 
that tho colony would soon rocoivo onoujj;h to restore 
abundance to tho couutiy. In fact, twelve days after Mr. 
du Tast, captain of a ship of tho line, arrived with a con- 
voy of fourteen sail of dillorent siztis. In truth, all this 
armamout was. uot intended to rovictual tho colony. It 
was destined chiefly to recover Port Nelson from tho En- 
glish and tho Northern Ct)mpauy had iuourrodmoat of the 

' Tlie chief of the Mountain was Cnnada Doc., II., vi., p. 5:}. 800, 

Taiuiiurulouu. N. Y. C(il. Diic., ix., p. t(H>, N. Y. t'ol. Uoc, is., p. ,510. Ho 

51H, or'raniioura'ma. Uc la rothoriis set imt iroiu Montival April '.!'J. 

iii., 1/. loli. ' Ki'liition Sir., N. V. Col. Doc, is., 

'•' .loiiruiil (lu Sii'ur clo Coiirto- p. ."Jlll. Dit la I'otlicric, iii, p. IDT. 

niancho. ilcpuin Moiitroal Du Ta^t is culli'<l in the foriiuT 

jUMpiaux Outaouas, June If, lOUl. Du Tartre, and in tliu latter Dutas. 

'it I 

' u-ht 



Yot tliiH nnt<>rpriso wuh not tlnu oftrrieil out, lunl the '"9'' 
roasoii iiiMiu-(^(l I'nr (U>fi>ri'iti^' it, iitiiiicly, tliiU tlut hi'iinoii 

WHS too fur lulvillicud, WllH littlo lllol'ii tllilll a prt'tt'Xt, lll- Knlirprmo 
tliuii^'li uut t'litirt'ly witlioiit foiiinliifioii. 'i'lif real rc.isoii rn.i\,i,„|, 
WHS lliiil tlio wliolt) |>iolil WHS to )^o to tlio (Joiiipiiny, luid WUyV"" 
thiit (ril)orvillo WHS to slum) tlio ^loiy with tho Coiumiiu- 
diiiit of tin) iiinj^'s sliips. Aci!oriliiif,'iy tlmt olUcor, on arriv- 
iii;^' at (^iu'Imh', did not conceal Ids f^!clill^,'S tiiat such an ex- 
pedition was not at ail to his tast' . i't.'t, as tho kin^^'s or- 
ders were positive, l-'rontcnac, to wlioiu they were ad- 
ih'esscd, did not wish to take npnn liiiasi'lf to cli,iii;^e any- 
tliin;4 of Ills ou II luilhiii'ity. 

'riii: e\|icdi.'nt tliat he a loptid was to asscmldo those 
interested in the Noidicrn Company, and ail wiio possessed 
any kiiowlt!il;,'o of tlic navigation of tlie Day. Tin ru Mt. 
lUi Tast sot forth tho reasons wluch ,<eenied to hiui most 
suitalile to convince them of the dan^'erof exposin;^' ships 
on that sea so late in the season. All wiTe convinced, or 
saw that it wouhl bo useless to seem not to be, and do 
Frontouac and do Chami)i^'ny deemed it expedient not 
to express thoir own opinions.' 

Moreover they had positive iufonnatiou that tho Gulf 
of St. Lawrence, ami all tho lower river, were infested by 
English cruisers, who had already captured sovoral 
merchantmen and tishinj,' smacks, and it did not displease 
tho Cioveruor-General to tiud that du Tast preferred 
cruising iu those parts to making war in Hudson's 
Bay ; more cs})ecially as this second destination was 
given iu that captain's instructions, iu case the tirst was 
doomed absolutely impossible." 

Withiu a short time a rumor began to spread that tho orcnt pro- 
English were seriously thinking of taking thoir roveuge 'of"'tiic"' 
for tho atl'.out they had received tho year before otF *;"^^"0' 
Quebec ; it was oveu positively stated that Pliibs had 

' Decision prise par MM. de Fron- '' Frontunnc to tlio Minister, Oct. 
tennc ft Champigny, July 10, lOUl. !.'0, 1091. N. Y. Col. Doc., U., p. 
Canada Doc, IL, vi., p. 60. 


i ' 









U ■ 


i6gi. gone to Enp;lan(l, and was to return with a fleet ninch 
>i^y— y more powerful tlian the last for a new attempt. Finally 
they were iiifonned tiiat very f^roat preparations were 
making at Albany to attack the island of Montreal, 
Phibs' voyage and plans were real ; but his exertions were 
useless ; to all appearance they had not sufticient conti- 
dence in his ability to entrust him with a second arma- 
ment, the more especially as ho was no longer in a position 
to bear the expense.' 

That preparing in New York was not strong enough to 
act successfully alone ; for it was composed of only live 
hundred men,'^ one hundred and eighty English, tl.>o rest 
Mohawks and Mohegans. Yet it gave rise to a very 
sharp action ; but that Providence which protected New 
France appeared in a very sensible manner. The army 
which the preceding year was to fall on the head of the 
colony, having been dispersed by the disunion which 
arose, they were able to meet the English fleet with all the 
forces of the colony, and this year the fleet in its turn fail- 
ing, Montreal had means to resist all the efforts which the 
English and their allies could make to penetrate to that 
The enemy In fact, the Chevalier de Callieres no sooner learned that 
jJ^Huroai'. the enemy were approaching, than he without difficulty 
collected from seven to eight hundred men whom he eu- 
camjjed at la Prairie de la Magdeleine. He then sent out 
several scouting parties, and a few days after, one of the 
sons of the Sieur Hertel, to wl.iom he had assigned three 
Algomiuins and an Iroquois of the Mountain to watch the 
march of the confederates, brought in word, that he had 
seen a canoe in Sorel river, a little above the Chambly ra- 

' N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 540. bnwks, 0(5 River Indians : tntnl, 2GG. 

' Somi! nu'nioirs even reduce it to Tlio Helution, lOOl-'i, N. Y. Col. 

280 men. rhtftcnnx. This was Doe., ix., j). 5'JO, says :200 Knglish and 

Major Peter Schuyler's Expedition, n great number ol'.Moliepiii.s and Mo- 

as to which, see his Report, N. Y hawlis. ThoUistoirede I'Eau deA'ie 

Col. Doc.,iii., p. 800; he there makes en (Canada, p. 180, says 140 English 

hiB force 120 Christians, 80 Mo- and 80 Mohegans. 



pid ; tliiit on approachiuj,', Lo saw that tbcy were Mo- 
hiuvks, who seemed to hiiu to be also on a scout ; tliat he 
fiii'd ou them' and brought down five.* 

On tliis report tlio Governor of Montreal perceived that 
Chambly was in danger, and he deemed it advisable to 
s(!iid the Siour de Valrenes' to the spot with two hundred 
men. He ordered him, if the enemy made any movement 
against that post, to threw himself ir and defend it ; f 
lliey passed on, not to allow himself to be seen but to 
follow their trail so as to take them in the rear, while he 
himself attacked them in front. Two other captains, 
Messrs. do Muys and d'Orvilliors, the Sieur Dupuys, lieu- 
tenant iu Valrenes' company, and many subalterns, wore in 
tliis party, which was followed by a number of Indians 
and provincials, Avho were to form a corps apart under the 
connuiuul of the Sieur le Bert du Chesne, who was al- 
ready ported near Chambly.' 

Among the domesticated Indians, were three chiefs of 
L,a-cat renown ; Oureouhare commanded the Hurons of 
Lorette ; Paul, an Iroquois of Sault St. Louis, led the 
warriors of his town and those of the Mountain, and la 
Routine, a Temiskaming chief, was at the head of a large 
party of his nation of Algonquins. For three days those 
who remained at la Prairie de la Magdeleine, slept in biv- 
ouac, when, on the night of August iOth and 11th, which 
was extremely dark and rainy, weary with previous 
watches, and soaked with rain, they retired within the fort, 
where Mr. do Callieres was contined to his bed with a vio- 
lent fever, ' 'i li:id not left him since he started from 




tions for 



it i 

t ii 



'X. Y.Col., Doc, ix., p. 531. 

'Du la Pothcrk-, iii, p. lliO, aiUl« 

' C'liMiicnt (U> Vuault de Valri'iincs 
wa8 from St. ,Jran (!<- la Poteric in 
the iliiH'i'Sf or Hcauvais, and dc- 
sci'uded (Vdiu tlic Clements, Mar- 
shals of France. He entered the 

service in lOUa. He was on Denon- diers. 

ville's expedition, in 1G87. Dan- 
iel, ii., p. 284. Ferland, ii., 235, 
N, Y. Col., Doc., ix.. , 3.59. 

^ N. V. Col., Doc, ix, p. .T'l, Bi'nac, 
Canada Doe , 11., vi„ p. 77. De la 
I'otlierie, iii., p. V.',\>. Failloa, Vie 
lie Mile Le Ber, p. 123, says Lo 
Ber had 80 Canadians and 80 sol- 










Action of 

Ln Prairiu 

(111 lu 




This fort was thirty panos from the river, on an aljrujjt 
elevation between two prairies, one of which, facing a 
place call La Fourche, is intersected by a little river within 
cannon-shot of the fort, and a little nearer by a ravine. 
Between the two is a current on which t. mill hud be(>u 
built ; on this side to the left of the fort the militia wore 
encamp(Ml, and had boon joined by some Ottawas who 
Happened to bo at Montreal when the alarm was given. 
The regular troops were encam])od on the right, and tlie 
officers had pitched their tents opposite on an eminence.' 

An hoiar before daybreak, the sentinel posted at the 
mill perceived men creeping along the height where the 
fort stood. He immediately fired his piece, called, " To 
Arms !" and sprang into the mill.' They were enemies, 
who, creeping along between the little river La Fonrclie 
and the ravine, gained the bank of the river and took up 
a position there ; then, finding the militia quarters un- 
manned, drove out the few who remained, and held their 
gi'ound. Some provincials and six Ottawas were killed in 
thio surprise.' 

At the sentinel's call, Mr. de St. Cyrquo, an old captain, 
commanding in the absence of Mr. de Calliores, marched 
at the head of the troops, a part of whom followed the 
river edge, and a part crossed the prairie, passing around 
the fort. The battalion commanded by Saint Cyrque in 
person first came in sight of the militia quarters , although 
that officer was not yet aware that the enemy were in pos- 
session, still having some suspicion he halted to get infor- 

' Relation, 1691-3. N. Y. Col. 
Doc., ix., p. 531. Do la Potliorie, 
HiBtoire de I'Ameriquu Sept., iii., p. 

' lb. Belmont, Histoire ilu Cnnnda, 
p. 3fj. 'riiis was Aug. 1, O. S., 11, 
N. S. Sdiiiyler says tlie sentinel or 
miller killed one of his Indians, and 
was firing ajriiiu from tlie window 
when tliey shot liim. Miijur I'eter 
Schuyler's .Tournal of his expedition. 
N. Y. Col. Doc., iii., p. 803. 

3 Relation, &c., l(ini-3, N. Y. Col 
Doc., is., p. .lil. Do la Potherio 
Histoico de I'.Vin.Tiqiie Sept., iii., p. 
130-40. Both BelnKint, Histoire du 
Canada p. 33, and the Histoire de 
I'Kau de Vic en Canada, p. 18, as- 
cribe! the surprise to a night spent 
in debauchery. Schuyler, Journal. 
N. Y. Col. Doc, iii., p. 801, says the 
Ottawas were under cano(>s. He 
claims to Lave destroyed most of 





mation. At tliat moment a volley of musketry opened 
upon them, mortally wouiuliug him and the Sieur d'Escai- 
rac inul killing Mr. d'Hosta on the spot.' 

Tlie second battalion came up at the moment, led oy Mr. 
do la Chassivigne, and rushed headlong on the enemy, who, 
after a very vigorous resistance, seeing themselves ou the 
point of having the whole French army upon them, re- 
treated in very good order. Mr. do St. Cyrque wa.i bleed- 
ing to death, the artery in the log being cut, but nothing 
could induce him to retire within the fort till he saw the 
enemy turn their backs ; and ho thus by his intrepidity 
atoned for his fault in allowing himself to be surprised. 
He fell dead some moments after, at the very entrance of 
the fort, and d'Escairac died the next day." 

Men were quite surprised to see them allow the enemy 
to complete his retreat tranquilly, and with an aii- which 
was rather that of conquerors than vanquished. More- 
over, we had killed only live or sis. of their men, wounded 
about thirty and taken a single grenadier at the moment 
when he was preparmg to throw grenades into the fort. 
Our loss was greater, evuu without counting the three of- 
ficers already named. Moreover, they carried off the scalps 
of several of the Froncli, and uttered loud cries, as though 
they wished to insult our troops. 

Tins inaction resulted from there being no one to com- 
mand, or perhaps, every one wished to command ; ^"" - ° 
but it did not last. The enemy had nearly entered a 
wood, when they perceived a small French detachment, 
commanded by the Hieav Domergue, following closely ; 
they formed an ambasoado into which those In-avo fellows 

Mr. do 

' Bemic, Relation, Ciiuada Doc. It., 
vi., !>. 77. Rfgistor of la Prairi.', 
KiiJl. Daiiiol, Nos filoirns, ii., p. 'iH2. 

■ Ri'lation, &o., X. V. Col. Doc, is., 
I'. r>3i. Dc la i'otlii-i-io, Ilistoirt' dt- 
rAm.'riqiiu Sept., iii., p. MO. Bel- 
luoiit, llistoire du Canada, p. 31. 

Ilia life iu t'le best regiments 
in France, and to Lave commanded 
a battalion in Sicily. N. Y. Col. 
Doc, ix., [). ,j-,"J. Cliainpigny to the 
minister, Aug. V2, 1091. N. Y. Col. 
Doc, ix., p, rm, describes the action 
briefly, and there is ([uite a detailed 







■ Tx 

St. Cyrque is said to have served all account in the Register of La I'rairie, 



1 «V ' >. 



% !! 








Defeat of 
the eiK'iny. 

Loss oil 
both Bides. 


fell aiul wfr(3 killed to a man.' Still more elated by this 
new success, the coufeileratcs resumed the route by which 
they had come ; but after marching two leagues, their 
runuers discovered Mr. do Valreues, who, at the first 
sound of an action, had hastened up with Mr. lo Bort and 
the Indians. The runners had seen only the head of this 
corps of troops, and the enemy, not thinking it so large, 
imagined that they could dispose of it as easily as they 
had of Domergue's. "Without a moment's hesitation they 
attacked it, and that with a resolution that would have 
disconcerted a commander less firm and li'ss ready than 
Valrenes. Fortunately for that officer there were at the 
sjiot two large fallen trees. A man who knows his busi- 
ness, turns to advantage what would escape the attention 
of another." 

Valrenes accordingly made breastworks of these trees, 
placing his men behind, flat on the ground, to receive the 
tirst fire of the enemy. He then gave the word to rise, 
divided them into three bands, each of which tired ; then, 
with incredible presence of mind and celerity, he drew 
them up in line, and charged the enemy with so much or- 
der and vigor, that they gave way on all sides. The allies 
nevertheless rallied no less than twice ; but after a fight 
of an hour and a half they were compelled to disband 
and their rout was complete.' One hundred and twenty 
were counted on the field, and it was afterwards ascer- 
tained that the wounded far exceeded the killed in num- 
ber." This action was a very sharp one, and managed 

' Doiucrgiio was killed in the ra- 
vine, with twelve men, and Seliuy- 
lertook three of the party prisoniTs. 
Schuyler's Journal, N. Y. Col. Doc, 
lii., 1). 801. Hehnont, Ilistoire du 
Canada, ii. 114. Benao, Kelation, 
Canada Doc.. II., vi., p. 78. 

•^Relation, &e., l(!!)l-3. N. Y. 
Col. Doc, is., p. '>2'2. Do la I'otlierie, 
Histoire do I'Amerique Sept., iii., p. 

' Schuyler's Journal, N. Y. Col. 
Doc, iii., p.804. gays that Valrenes 
was between him and his canoes ; 
that h.; cut bis way through the 
I'Vench, then turned and drove them 
liack. The Friiieli accounts admit 
that Routine »as repulsed, in a 
charge, and that sniue of Le Bert's 
Canadians at first gave way. 

J Th(! Kelation, 10!Jl-a, from In- 
dians who counted the dead and in- 



1/ ^i, 


with (ill possiblo skill. Valronos was evcrywhoro, bravely 
exposing his ixtsoii, aud giving ^lis orders with as much 
saiigt'ioid as if commaudiug a drill. Tho young aud va- 
liant lo 13ort Du Chesuo distiuguished himself extremely 
at the head of the Canadians, and was mortally wounded,' 
as well as auother olUcer, named Varlet. Thetliree Indian 
chiefs outdid tlunuselves, and PauP was killed eucourag- 
iug his Iroquois by word and example to light to the death 
against the enemies of the Faith. Tho English aud Mo- 
hawks di.'-'pla3'ed a courage that at tirst made tho victory 
doubtful. For a long time they fought hand to hand or 
so near as to blackeu each other's faces with powder. Tho 
victors took Hags and baggage, but Jo Valreues would not 
pursue the fugitives, his meu being so spent with fatigue 
that they could uo longer stand or hold their arms. 
They had indeed been marching three days over frightful 
roads, uuablo to tako a momeut's rest, without provisions, 
aud with nothing but muddy water to quench their thirst 
Valreues thought that a fresh troop of Iroquois from 

eluding prtsonors, and Do la Potlie- 
rie, lUiiku English loss 200 : 'I'lio 
foniiiT says that the Mohawks h'ft 
30 deiul oil tliu iield, \). 'yiii Bel- 
mont says Suiiuylor had 101 killed. 
De la I'othi'ilL' says tho Froiich lost 
in all, 40, and "had 40 wounded. 
Schuyler, N. Y. Col. Doc, iii., p. HO."), 
gives his loss, 2i Christmns, 10 .Mo- 
hawks, six Kiver ludiaus, wounded 
35, but roducoB his dead by six re- 
turned. Ho ostimates French loss 
in all :iOO. Colden, History of the 
Five Nations, p. 1:29, makes Freni^li 
loss l;j olHcers, 300 men. He does 
not give Schuyler's loss, merely say- 
ing the Mohawks had 17 killed, 11 
wouudeil. Smith, History of New 
York, p. 78, makes the French loss 

' John Vincent Le Her du Cliesne. 
son of James Le Her, from I'istri' in 
the diocese of Kouen and of Jane Le 

Moyne. was a brother of the famoUij 
Canadian recluse, Jane Le Her. Ht. 
v.iis born at Montreal in lOGd, and 
after receiving his death wound as 
here stated, was taken to his father's 
house, and di(!d there, Aug. 13. 
Kaillon, Vie de .Vile, le Ber, p. ia.5, 
oUo-1, correcting his life of Mar- 
guerite Uoiirgeoys, i., p. 358. James 
Lo Ber was surnameil La Hose and 
after being ennobled, assumed tho 
namo"de Saint Paul." 

'' Paul was a Huron by origin, but 
was one of the oldest, and the most 
eloiiueiit of the Dogiciues or chiefs 
of the Mission in La Prairie and tho 
Sault. He seems to have been of tho 
earliest settlers, and was a chief as 
early as l()7.j. See Sliea's History 
of the Catholic .Missions, pp 3(i;^, 

'' lieiiap, lielaliou, Canada Doo., H., 


1 6(1 1 


ml (I 




r -i.i 




'! IN ! 




J 69 1 Raiilt St. Louis who had startotl at tho soiintl of tlio firing, 
'—^ v ^' to take part, but who had como up ouly when tho atl'tiir was 
over, mi{,'ht do what his own men wcro no longer in a con- 
dition to attempt ; but those Indians, liearing tho voUeys 
fired at the funeral of tho officers killed in tho first acviou, 
imagined that a new battle was going on at la Prairio do la 
Magdeleine ; they at once hurried thither, and this ojror was 
tho salvation of tho English and the Mohawks. Wo had 
this day sixty men killed and as many wounded, some of 
whom died, among them, Messrs. lo Bert and Varlet. An 
Englishman taken prisoner by do Valrenes, told hiui that 
after tho I'eturn of this party, a second of four hundred 
men was to come ; that at the same time five hundred Iro- 
quois were to como by Catarocouy, and that their object 
was to prevent tho French from gathering in their crops ; 
but nothing appeared, and the harvest, the loss of which 
would have reduced the colony to the last extremity, was 
gatherec' "ery tranquilly and proved very abundant." 

I ' 

' Rulation, &c., 1091-2. N. Y. 
Col. Doc, ix., J). 523. Cliampigny 
to the Minister, Aug. 12, 1G91, des- 
cribes Valrcues' action brietiy. N. 
Y. t'ol. Uoc, ix., p. 504. So too La 
Hontan, Voyages, i., p. 239. C'olden 
in his History of tlio Five Nations, 
pp. 127-8, confounds John and Peter 
Bohuyler'B expeditions, ascribing the 

affair to Peter, but making it pre- 
cede Phipps' attack on Quebec. 
Smith, UiBtory of New York, p. 78, 
though ignorant of Jolin Scliuyler'a 
expedition, corrects < 'olden 's error as 
to Peter's. Chalmers, Con. Political 
Annals, p. 74, is also misled, See 
Historical Magazine, II., iii., p. 



*i A< 



' 111 


I' I 





i 1' 


iK '.> 

'', ('I 





( • 



! ';' 


/.N/.iM/.N Dim i;hs. 

^^OK^oiAMA^ De. tXeteic 



jVfc -~. 



1 69 1 . 



On lioaring of tho enemy's approach, Froutonac sot out 
from (^iifl)oc for Moutroul ; but ou arriviiif^ there ho 
Itunied of their defeat and llight, and at oiiee retraced his 
.steps. Shortly after lie received letters from tho (iover- 
uor-Geueral of New Euyhiud, bef,'i,'iug him to restore tho 
prisoners takeu by the Abi'uacpiis ou his territory, aud 
proposing to him ueutrahty in America, uotwitlistuudiug 
tile war still subsistiug botweeu tho two Crowus iu Europe. 
It was easy to iufor that this proposition was uot made 
sincerely, iuasmuch as the English general said nothing of 
sending back the French detained by him at 13ostou ; and 
that the oidy motive for tho step, was some diliicvdty iu 
which New England found itse' , 

The Baron do St. Castin, who had made a considerable J^^^^ \ 
establishment among tho Abeuaiiuis and even married a 
a y<niug woman of that tribe, soon solved the enigma iu a 
memoir which he transmitted to do Froutonac. Ho there 
stated that the English and Dutch in New York, were at 
war, and that tho object of the Englisli Governor was also 
to seduce from us the Abenuipii Indians by means of tho 
proposed exchange, or at least to induce them to arrest 
their incursions, but that he woulil undertake to baffle tho 
execution of that project.' 

Ou^this information Frontenac replied to the English 
General, that when he restored to him tiio Chevalier d'Eau 
aud Mr. de Manuoval, whom ho retained as prisoners, 

' Hcliitidii, &c., lOOl-','. N. Y. Col. Pontchurtruiu, Oct. 20, 101)1. lb. p. , 
Uoc., ix., p. 52.'). Frontenuc to 505. 








I ■> 




> i 

tho fonii»>r hy tlio troiiclu'iy i>f tin' Iro(|\K)iH, tlio liittir 
tlniiii^'li tho bud faith of Adiiiinil I'hilm, ho nii^ht (>|ii'n 
, ii(i;,'uliiUioiix, liiit williuiit this prchmimiiy ho would hst"'ii 
njiiy. to iiotliiiiL;. lie tlnii wroli' to liiu Count (hi I'outcliiiitiaia 
to l.iy litl'iHT liiiii thn iidviintii^'fH \vhi»'h thi* troiii)h's iu 
Ni'VV York iitVoidt'd lor [\ir corKjui'st of that proviurc ; 
hut the MiuisttT ri'iiHi'd tii it tint Kin^' ui'i'ihxl ail ids 
forni'H iu ICuioin'.aud tliat Ids Maji'sty's viows iu I'ci^ard 
to Now Fntuo(!, woro contiuoil to a luoro [uovoution of 
Eiip,'lish uttouiittH. 

Allliou^'li tlioy hiul oiitiroly rocovorod at Montnnil 
from tiu» fi'ur iuspin^l l)y tlio two larj^o partios inoutiou- 
cd in tlio priTcdiii^' IJooli, lucu woro uot entirely tnuuiuil. 
Minor hostilities coutiuued, fow woi'lis passod without 
Hovoral ahiriuH, and but for tho precaution of ^'iviuj^ 
f^uards to tho harrostors, many of tho farnnTs wtjuld 
liave Ijeeu killod while yottiu;^ iu tho crops. Ouroouiiari', 
who had distinf,'uishod himself on ho miuiy occasiou3 
during tho two last caiui)aiyus, aud quite lecoutly iu tho 
hist combat under do Valrenos, performed, towards tho 
closi' of this campaign, au action which otlectually de- 
termined liis position as tho ally ou whom wo could 
most surely rely. 
ETvloit of Ho hud scarcely reached Montreal after tho defeat of 
tho English ani Mohawks, when au Inxpiois party ad- 
vanced to Dos 1 ' -ies river and carried oil' throo Frouch- 
mon ; he at oace gave chaso, aud overtaking them at 
tho Flat llapid, ou tho route to Cataracouy, killed two 
men, took ftjur jirisoners, aud brougiit back tho French 
to Montreal. Some tinio after he came down to Quebec 
to see the Governor General, who loaded him with pro- 
seuts and courtesies ; to these ho was quite seusible, 
aud ou starting back to Montreal, said, with a modesty 
remarkable iu au Indian, that he had not yet done enough 
to show his obligations to hia Father, and tho sincerity 
of his language is evinced by the fact that when several 
tribes ofl'ered to uiako him their chief, he replied that 





Iio would novrr cttacli liiiiiMiIf except to tlio jhtsou uf 

Oii'Mitliiii.' —"v^ 

^lutinwhiltt FroiitiMiac, not conti'iil with licholdiiif^' tliu inriTi'i'timi 

I'liiliirr III' llin nii'iiiics' pn>jt)ctK (iK"'"'^t Now Friuict', IikIiImm 'I'l'm 

winlii'il ill llllll tiMMlTVllin Will' llldl ( llcjl' lllidst, llllll IIS till) ''"'""*"• 

MdIiuwLh had iiddiul pfi'liily to tlirir oM aiiiiuosity ii^'aiust 
thi( I'li'iich, ho roHolvod to bcf^lii witli tiiciu. Fivo or h\\ 
hundred iiii'ii had orders to outor that ciuitoii, ami iic- 
tiially to ik iho lii'id. I havo 1)im)I1 ui>al)lo to iiHciM'tain 
who was ill coiuiaand of this oxpcditioii, hut it oortainly 
did not roaoli thu oumny's territory, tlm oouditioii of tho 
roads and tlio udvaueod sotisou lnvvinj^ compollod it to ro- 
tiiru.' llo was c'ousol(>d by tho arrival of tliii Si(Mir d' 
Iherviiie IVoui Hudson's Bay with two ships loaded with 
eij^dity tliousand franes worth of bciivor-skiuH, and ovor six 
thousand six hundred livros of smaller furs.' 

llodid not romaiu lou'' at Quebec, but proeoodod to 

, . Ncwn from 

France with tlie \'u\\v of reviviii!^ the )>rojcH?t(Ml oxpcnlition Acudlu. 

iij,'aiust l*oil Nelson, whicli ho knew hi;^ddy in favor at 

eonrt. At tho sanio time camo in intelligence tliat tho 

Ab'''iiu(piis had gained new vietorii's over tho English ; 

that the Chevalier de Villebon had reached Port 

Roj'il on a vessel commanded by de Bonaveuturo, 

who had brought in an English prize, having on board 

tlie Chevalier Nelson, and tho Siour Tyne,' appointed 

Governor of Acadia. Those two prisoners wore somo limo 

' II) ; !>.' Ill P.'MiiMic. Ilistoirc do 
rAiii. Si'pt., iii., p. 1 tl-.'). 

■•' TliiTc iiri'Diily viifjiii- iiidicatioiis 
118 to tills iitjiiir; a (luciiinrlit l''i'li 
ir. IDlf,', N. Y. I'ol. Doc, ix., ]).. .l.'S, 
iiicntinns an intended iiioveiiieni 
nuainst the .MrilunvkH, mid HeliUDnl, 
llistdire du Caniida, Inii^e lil, spenks 
lit' a party for (liieiila, under Ueau- 
<• mrt ; wliile de la I'litlieiie, id., p. 
lll'.l. and the Itelaticm, Kilr.' ;i. N. Y. 
('ill. l>iic., is, p. ■"i.'iT, mention an 
aliiiitive expeditiou against Ouud- 

' Relation. &c., 1CI)3, N. Y. Col. 
nor., ix., p., 5'J(I. 

* Tine, De la I'litherlc, IliBtoirH 
de r.Vni>Tii|iie, iii., pufro 14y. Tync, 
Keliitiiiii, &('., N. v. Col., I)oc.,ix., p., 
ry'u. C'lil. Kihvard Tyni;. lie pur- 
chased land in Portland, in !«(!*); 
removed there in iiiso, and next 
year rDinnianded the fort. He lonj; 
wa.-i line iif the Ciiuneil ol' Maine, 
am. in l(i:-iS Lt. Cnl. of Siipidahoc. 
From Ciiieliee, lie waH sent to I'rancH 
and died thero. Maino Hist. Coll., I., 
p. llCi, 214. 





1 '■ 

■i' i\ 


I '^ 

M . V I 





: ([ 



II ! 






:l ;■ 


.afti'i' sent to Quo])oc, wliiro Froutenac received tlicm quite 
AvcU. Ho troiitoil Nelsou witli ^reat courtesy, not only 
from gratitude, that geutleiuau having acted very kindly 
to the French in several instances, but also because ho en- 
joyed great intluence at Boston.' 
Mr. do To return to Acadia. After Admiral Phibs had effected 
iiiiiii' 11)111- the conquest, the Court of England seemed not anxious to 
"tiim'" retain it, and Port Iloyal fell to the strongest, sometimes 
to the French, sometimes to the English, sometimes aban- 
doned by both alike. Tho Chevalier de Villebon had, as 
Ave have seen, proceeded to' Quebec after tlio loss of the 
vessel that had taken him to that \wvt. Thence he pro- 
ceeded to France, laid before the Minister the ease and 
importance of preventing the English from planting theia- 
selves in Acadia, and undertook to effect it with the Abe- 
naqnis alone, if he %yas authorized to put himself at their 

He was listened to with favor ; Mr. de Pontchartrain 
issued to him a royal commission to command in Acadia, 
and ordercnl him to embark for Quebec in the month of 
Juno of the current year 1(391, there to receive his orders 
from the Count de Frontenac. His majesty at the same 
time notified that General, that being informed of the at- 
tachment of the Abenaquis Indians to his service, their 
courage, and all that they had done against the English, 
and wishing with the help of these brave men to maintain 
possession of Acadia, until he should deem it expedient to 
carry out the resolution he had formed of restoring Port 
Iloyal, he desired that they should be furnished, in their 
]ilace of al)ode, M'ith all tho munitions that they had soli- 
cited through tho Sieur de Villebon, his intention being 
that they should not be i)ut to the trouble of going to 
Quebec for tliom ; that with this object he had enjoined 
the said tSicur do Villebon to go and put himself at their 

'N. Y. Col, Due, ix., p. .VJT, f)3'2. •Villebon to Pontcliiirtrnin, Oct 

La Ilontnn, Yoya^iw, i., ji. 2;J2. 

V2, Kiyi. N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. .JOO 




1 1 ii 

head as Comraandixut iu Acadia, with tho Sioui- do Povt- 
ucuf, his brother, and lioiitouaut iu his company, aud 
some other Canadian olficors to bo chosen by the Gover- 

Early in July, Villebon anchored off Quebec in tho 
Soleil d'Afri(]^ue, tho fastest vessel then in Europe,' but his 
aft'airs were not furthered by las having boon so exjiedi- 
tious. In Canada all were convinced that tho English 
were preparing to return, and at such a juncture, tho 
Count do Frontenac did not feel bound to deprive himself 
of tho aid that ho might derive from tho Soleil d'Afri(pio ; 
ho detained her till the sixth of Soptoinber, when, believing 
that ho had no longer anything to fear from tho English, 
he permitted the Chevalier de Villebon to depart, after 
furnishing him with all that his orders roijuired. 

It was not till the twenty-sixth of November that 
Villebon reached Port lloyal ; as soon as ho weighed 
anchor he manned his long boat, aud embarking with 
fifty soldiers and two peterci'os, advanced to tho houses 
where he perceived the English flag, but found no Eng- 
lish to guard it. He lowered it, and ran up that of 
France in its stead. The next day he collected tho settlers, 
and, in their presence, made in his majesty's name a new 
act of taking possession of Port lloyal and all Acadia.' 

The Sieur des Gouttins, who had come with him to re- 
sumo the office of Commissaire Ordonnateur, notilied 
him that he had buried a sum of thirteen hundred 
livres remaining in his hands when Phibs captured tho 
place, and this money was found just as he had loft it. 
Tho Commissaire, who alone knew of it, and might have 
appropriated it had he been a less honest man, employed 
a part to pay an officer what was duo him on his salary, 
and put the rest in the king's treasury. Ho lost nothing 


lie tiikua 

of P(,.t 






I ' I 

Uk i 


' r 'I 

' She is said to bavo r.ado soveii iiiaqiiiil srizrd IIi-i;rman and two 

leasjUL's an hour. Cli'iiirniix. otliors, wiit liy (iov. Slimi^litcr of 

* N. Y. Col. Doc, is., 1). 520. Em- N. Y. Hist. MS., xxxviii., p. 2Vi, 

boldened by this, tho Indians at Pe- xxsis., j). 1*9. 

'il 1 

; 'i?' ; 


1 i 


illSntliV OV NKW l-'RANCE. 

•Is ■ 


Atti'iii))! of 

Siuill St. 

691. ^'y t'li^ conduct : .accused some years afterwards of dofal- 

--f cfitiou, the ronieiubrauco of this proof of his fidelity and 

disiuterestcduess olitaiuod his discharge without an iuves- 

The Iroquois had constantly kept up their hostilities ; 
two Indian women, prisoners in their hands, having escaped 
si'i'nlri^ic early in November, warned the Chevalier de Callieres that 
two parties, of three hundred and fifty men each, were on 
the march to surprise Sault St. Louis. On this intelli- 
gence the Governor sent part of the troops he had at 
Montreal, to that town, distributed another portion in the 
neighboring forts, and committed the defence of the city 
to its inhabitants. A few days aftei', one of the two par- 
ties, coming by way of Lake Ontario, appeared in sight of 
the Saiilt, but did not venture out of the wockIs ; the 
troops marched against these Indians, and for two days 
there was some sharp skirmishing, with about equal loss 
on both sides. Ihe enemy, who had counted on a surprise, 
then retired. 

This first party comprised Onondagas, Cayugas, and 
Senecas ; the second, composed of Mohawks, Mohegans, 
and Oneidas, had taken its route by Lake Champlain ; 
but some having deserted, and the chiefs learning of the 
retreat of the first, deemed it inexpedient to go any further. 
There were, nevertheless, forty or fifty men who, detached 
and in small bands^overran the French settlements, carrying 
off some settler.s, who, in spite of orders, had strayed off. 
Towards the end of the month, thirty-four Mohawks 
near the Mountain of Chambly surprised some Indians of 
Sault St. Louis, who were hunting there without any pre- 
caution, killed foiar, took eight, some of whom escaped, and 
hastened to notify the village of what had just happened. 
Fifty braves immediately gave chase to the enemy, 
and overtook them near Lake Champlain. The latter, 
seeing their approach, took post behind some rocks ; 

' The Marquis de Crisasi commanded. De laPotlierie, iii., p. 167. 

V ill ous 
iiostil ties. 



but ihc Cljiistians foil upon them with such fnry, axe iu 
huiul, as to force the iutreuchmeiit. Sixtceu Moluuvks 
were left elead on the tiekl, tifteeu taken, aud the pris- 
ouers delivered. 

At the commoucemeiit of February, 1G92, de Callieres 
received orders froni de Frontenac to raise a party, and 
send it to the peninsula formed by the St. Lawrence and 
Ottawa. The Iroquois often went there to hunt in winter, 
and the Governor-General was informed that great num- 
bers were actually there. De Callieres soon gathered 
three hundred French and Indians, whom he placed under 
the orders of d'Orvilliers, but that officer having scalded 
his leg after some days' nuirch, was obliged to return to 
Montreal, leaving his party under the command of de Beau- 
court,' a reduced captain who is now Governor of Montreal. 

Tliat olHcer, on arriving at Touiliata island, a short day's 
marcli this side of Catarocouy, there met fifty Senecas, 
who had advanced that far, hunting, intending to follow 
our settlements and prevent the farmers planting their 
crops. Ho attacked them in their cabins on a very stormy 
day, killed twenty-four, captured sixteen, and delivered 
an officer named La Plante, taken three years before, and 
mIk), not at tirst recognized iu his Indian guise, came very 
nt'.ir being killed as an Iroquois.'^ 

Here this expedition terminated. From the prisoners 
they learned that another jiarty of a liuudred Iroquois, 
also of the Seneca canton, were hunting near the Chau- 
diere Falls on the Ottawa, that it was their design to en- 
camp there as soon as the snow melted ; that two hundred 
Onondagas, commanded by Black Kettle, one of their 

' The Chevnlier Dubois Bcrtelot IVrtlierie, llistoiro de rArat'riqne 
(If Bciiucourf, a valuablf officer, born Si'iitcnt, iii , p. 15(i, l(!(i-8. L* 
iu llilil) ; lieuti'iiiint iu l(!i)l ; reduicd llontiiu, i., p. ',';!;), describes t'lie biiru- 
raplidu and naval ensiirn in Ul'.Ml ; ing of two of the 1',' InMpiois prisou- 
ibrtitied yuebec iu Ki'.Ci and 1TI2 ; ers. Hehnont, UiHtoiredii CiUiada. p. 
governor ofrhret^Jivors iu 17;i3 : of ;il, savs the Seneca chief, Tatet,'ue- 
Montrenl iu 1789 : active during war nouihilii. liad (iO men, of wlmni 'J l 
down to 1 748. Daniel, ii., pp. 28:3, 
2U0, •,>!).■>. N. Y. Col. Doc, is., [.[i. 51U, 
b71, 1005, s., p. 149. 

» N. Y. Col ix., Doc., p. 534. De la 

were killed, and -'I taken. Six 
Chippewavs liilletl, and three cliiefs 
of the Mountain, 




■H '[■ 









\a' -■ ! I 



I I 




1 1 



1 i 




1692. bravest cliiefs, Avore to joiu them aiul spend the wliole plca- 
^— -— -' saut season tlioro, so as to stop all the I'lciich who eu- 
deavorecl to go to or from Micliinimackiuac. 
The, As a great convoy from all the North and West, was 

biockudc daily expectcil, all felt the aU-ioluto necessity of seuiliug a 
Jivxr""^lol ii°o^^ escort to meet it ; but do Calliures could not strip 
Ottawufl.] ^^^ district of soldiers, requiring all his troops to protect 
the people engaged in agricultural labors. Ho accordingly 
notified tho Count do Frontenac of what he had just heard. 
The General, ';ou\:nced that the defeat of fifty ISenecas at 
Touihata had broken up the designs of the Irocpxois, or- 
dered him to dispatch at once, St. Michel with forty Cana- 
dian voj-ageurs to carry his orders to ^Michihimackiuac and 
to give him an escort of threo well arm'.'d cauoes till ho 
got beyond the Chaudiero Falls.' 

The ChevaUer de Callieres obeyed; the escort conducted 
the Canadians to the designated spot without meeting a 
single Iroquois ; but a few days after tit. Michel perceiv- 
ing trails, and two Iroquois, apparently scouts, had uo 
doubt but th-iit Black Kettle was at hand with all his force, 
and returned to Montreal. Ho had but just landed there, 
Avhen de Frontenac, arriving from Quebec, sent him otf 
again with thirty Frenchmen, and as many Indians. The 
General ordered Lieutenant Tilly de St. Pierre to follow, 
taking the lliviero du Lievre, which empties into the Otta- 
wa, five leagues below the Chaudiere Falls, and he gave 
that officer a duplicate of tho order to de Louvigny car- 
ried by St. Michel. 

His jDrecpution was fortunate. St. Michel arrived at the 
Portage des Chats," the place where ho had turned back 
on his first attempt, and again saw two scouts, and a great 
number of cauoes just launching. Deeming it imprudent 
to expose himself to too unequal a contest, ho, for the se- 
cond time, took up his route for Montreal. Three days 
after reaching there, sixty Indians from the inland, k)adud 
with furs, arrived byway of Ilivicro du Lievre, announcing 
that they had met de St. Pierre, beyond all danger. They 


' N. Y. Col, Doc, is.., p. 535. » In Onslow Township. ' T6te de Boules. 


i i 



ti-iultnl tleir furs, and askud uu escort to roach the spot i^Q?- 
where they were agaiu to take the by-ways. 

St. Micucl ollV'reil to accompany them, and his offer was Dofout of a 

accepttid. A.U escort of thirty men was assigned to him, 
commanded by Lieutenant do la Gomerayo who had under 
him hi Fresnicro, eldest sou of the Sieur Hertcl, and ano- 
ther of his brothers, both ensigns. This detachment 
reached the Long Rapid on the great river (Ottawa,) where 
it was necessary to make a portage ; but while one part of 
tlie men was getting up the empty canoes, and the other 
marching along the bank to cover them, i. volley from un- 
seen hands drove off the Indians who formed the second 
party, and killed or wounded several of the French. 

The Iro(piois immediately issuing from their ambuscade, 
rushed furiously on our surviving men, and in the confu- 
sion caused by so sudden and unexpected an attack, those 
who sprang to the canoes overset them, so that the enemy 
had easy work with men lightiug at once against them 
and against the current which was sweejiiug them away. 
La Gemerayo, the two Hertels and St. Michel, neverthe- 
less defended themselves wdth a valor that would have 
saved them had not the Indians abandoned them ; for it 
was afterwards ascertained, that Black Kettle had with 
him only one hundred and forty men and about sixty wo- 
men and children. 

But these officers having soon lobt their best men, hf.d 
no alternative but to embark and retreat with all expedi- 
tion. Unfortunately, the canoe into which St. Michel and 
the tv/o Hertels sprang, oapsizod, and they were all three 
taken. La Gemeraye and some soldiers were so fortunate 
as to escape and reach Montreal.' There news had just 
arrived of the esea^jc of the Chevalier d'Eaufrom Manhat- 
tan, and of the continuation of the troubles between the 
Dutch and English in Ne -v York. 

For some time no more was heard of the Iroqnois, and 
the Count de Frontenac, who had asked the court for 
troops, his own not having been recruited for several 

> De la Putherie, iii., p. 15T-8. La Hontan, Voyages, i., p. 237. 







t (1. ' i 

M ,, 









I ( 

I ' 


I j 

^1 ,>: 



lowed to 


mill srlllU! 


jfiU'H, K'ft ^[outri^iil, wlicrc all wiis ti';vii(|iiil, so as to bo in 
■ Qiiobci.! ou tlio aiTival of tho ships troin Fiiuici'; but on tho 
15th of July, when least c'X2)cctc;(l, Black Kottlo laado a 
clash iuto the island at a place called la Chesuayo, and 
carried oil' three little Indians who were fishing, and four- 
teen countrymen who were making hay. 

As soon as the Chevalier do Callieres heard of it, ho 
sent Captain du-Plessys Faber against liiiii with a hun- 
dred soldiers, followed by the Chevalier do Vaudroail attlio 
head of two hundred men. The encnny, veeing himself 
about to be attacked by superior forces, and that the Siour 
do Villedonui'', a Froneli officer, taken at tho same time as 
tho Sieur do la Plaute, had also escaped, took to tho wood.s 
and tliid prcjcipitiitoly, abandoning his canoes and somo 
baggage. Ho -was not inirsued, but had time to make other 
canoes and reach tho Ottav/a again. 

Villedoune, ou arriving at Montreal, told the Governor 
that tho Iro(£uois had cached quantities of furs on tho 
banks of the Long Ilapid. All the detachments Avcro 
thereupon recalled, and formed into a single corps, to 
which were attached one hundred and twenty Indians of 
Sault St. Louis, and tho Mountain, and with this little 
army, the chevalier do \ audreuil was ordered to pursue tho 
enemy. Ho was so expeditioiis as to overtake tho enemy's 
rear, two leagues above the Long Rapid, killing ten men, 
capturing five with thirteen women, and rescuing the three 
little Indians, with six of tho French. The rest escaped.' 

Some daj's af':er tho Sieur do Lusiguan, reduced cap- 
tain, fell iuto an ambuscade, while passing the llicheliou 
islands, and was killed at tiuy first volley ■j' la Monclerie, 
his lieutenant, almost single handed, sustained a continu- 
al fire for tw(j hours, and thou made a masterly retreat." 
This intelligence obliged do Frontenac to go uj) to Mon- 

' Oi'laPothcriu, Ilistoirode I'Ami''- 11, iuchulini,' 4 oIHcith. X. Y. t'ol. 

rique [Sept. iii., \>. lliO-l. siivs, uiiu^ Doc, ix., \t. .j:))!. Uclmont, ]). li.j. 

wouK'U uiul live cliildn'U taken, ami ■' Niirriitivi', &c., IH'.II-'J. N. Y. 

beskioH till' nine prisoiicistaki'ii at la Col. Doc. ix., p. ri-W. Di' la I'othcric, 

Chesniiyc, tliive otliiT French jiriHo- Ilistoire, iii. p. Ull, says .Inly '.30. 

nerswere rescued. The French lost ' De lu I'otUerie, iii., p. 101. 






troiil early iu August, ami ho took up tlirca liundrotl mili- '92. 
ti I, wliom ho (hstributud iu tlio most oxposoil .sottlomeuts '^^ 
to [)rotect tlio harvcjsturs. 

Iu tho city ho t'oiuul two huudroil Ottawas, v ho had 
successfully mu all tho passages ; l)ut thoy had uot voa- 
turctl to briug ilowu their I'lirs, do St. Pierre having ^ 
warned tlieiu of Ulacli Kettle's presence on the Ottawa. 
Tliat ollicur even exhortcsd them, conformably to Fronto- 
uao's or.ler to him, uot to start till they had certain iutol- 
lij,'euce of the de[)artare of the Iroquois ; but their utter 
want of muuilions aud provisions had prevented their 
lou^'or delay.' 

Fronteuac received theiu cordially, and proposed an ex- Fronteniic 
iieditiou a'''ainst the coiaiuou eueiuy which tho domicihat- an oxpcdi- 

1 T '• 1 ir 141- • 1 1 i! ''""• '^'''0 

od Iroipiois aud iiiirous aud Abeuacpiis liau lor some ottawiisdo- 
time desired ; but the Ottawas refused to join, either from 
lack of good will, or more probably bocauso thoy thought 
it wrong to make any eugagemeuts without tho consent of 
their sachems." The Cleueral was consoled, when, a fow 
days later, he received a letter announcing that tho ships 
had arrived from Franco, but without any recruits ; for 
ho noeded all his forces to maintain his posts, most of 
which would havo boon loft uum luned, had he, dopondiug 
on reinforcouionts from France, d 'tached part of his troops 
with the Indians, as ho had proposed. As soon as t'^a 
Ottawas started, ho returned to Quebec, where the Cheva- 
lier d'Eau arrived almost at tho same time as ho.' 


'Narrative, cSic, 1(5!) 1-i. N. Y. 
Col. Doc, ix., p. o37. Du la I'otluTie 
iii., |). 103. 

'' Uo la I'othoriu, Hist, di; TAiu. 
Siipl., iii.. p. lii''. (iruat I'carn worn 
ibit (It Albany, liowovur, and many 
(k'sortud tlu'ii' I'anus, i'roL'laniatloii 
.Moll. IU, l(j',)-.',, Albany MS., sxxviii., 

p. «5, (). vn. 

^ N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. .n:]. Uo 
la Potherio, iii., p. 103 Tlio narra- 

tivi! of d'Aux was ai)parently used 
by Do la Pothurio. Aftor suoing Ilia 
attendants butclierod, and being 
tied to the wtako hinisflf, ho was ta- 
ki'n to New York, rid there harshly 
treated. He escaped, but was reta- 
ken at New London, and sout to 
Uoston, wlwnce he escaped, seo N. 
Y. Col. Doe., ix., p. .5:J;5. His Indian 
name is u;iven as Dionakaronde lb., 
iv., p. 131. 







•1- ? 


» .'v 




i6i^2. Wliilo tho Iro(iU()is iilouo thus kopt tho coutro of tliu 

colouy in coustiuit uUiriu, I'Licoiiti.-i aud Acadia woi'o in 

Hcarooly less tlilliculty to clcit'oud thuiuscivos against tlio 

'■ J Eugiish. lutolliyouco vocoivocl by Frontouac aud comiuii- 

im i<:iii;iisii uicatod to tho Court, that Sir i Wiiliaiu) Piiibs, haviu'' bo- 
como troveruor-Gouoral of Now Euglaud, was seriously 
tliiukiug of ouco moro attouiptiug tho oom^uost of Now 
Frauco, had boon coutirmod frciiu othor quartors so cir- 
cumstantially, that tho Kiug aud his miuistor folt it uo- 
cossary to tako positive uioasuros to ohook tho Eut;! ,i iu 
tho St. Lawrouco. Propor as woro tho moasuros a loptod 
they would not have proveutod tho passage of tho ououiy, 
hatl they appeared.' 

Tho Chevalier du Palais sailed from Frauco with a squad - 

Tin' uini; i-qh which was tirst to ougago the Euglish doot, should 
Knmii it attempt to force a passage, aud thou take his opportu- 

N>wi<)iiii(l- uity to fall ou the posts occupied by tho Euglish ou tlie is- 

iiii-scs its laud of Newfouudlaud. That officer stop[)(id for some 
uiiy. time at Spaniard Bay,' detaching a vessel to tho mouth of 
tho 'iver to rocounoitro, with orders to the captain, iu 
case It/ saw the enemy, to returu at once aud report. After 
cruising a long time in the gulf, and the mouth of tho river, 
the officer thus detached, seeing nothing, sailed back to- 
wards Spaniard Bay at tho time designated, but encountered 
such a furious and stubborn wind, that after many fruitless 
efforts to rejoin the squadron, he was compelled to go before 
the wind and returu to France. 

This accident entirely disconcerted the projects of the 
Chevalier du Palais, who, while awaiting this ship, lost all 
tho time he might have employed iu tho euterprises as- 
signed to him. His mortidcation was doubtless redoubled 
Avhou ho learned iu what pjril the Newfoundland colouy 
had been, and what an opportunity he had lost of captur- 
ing an English lleet, for apparently that squadi'ou could 

' Memoir on the i)r()jccte(l attack Uelation, 100^-3. N. Y. Col. Doc., 

on Canada, N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 543. ix., j). ."iljl. Dr. OCallaghau, N. Y. 

-Do la I'otherio, Histoire <le I'ol. Doc, ix., p. .JU, iiiaked it Syd- 

rAnieriiiue Sept., iii., p. 17"), and uey Harbor, Cape Breton. 




iiol liiivc enppd with him, since it failoil before a more shell ,(,^2. 
foutaiiiiii;,' lit most lii'ty iuhabitantH, ami iu vaiu attacked a ^— y—- ' 
wretelicd i'ort, garrisouod by only tifty men. It happened 
thus :' 

WHion the fleet of French morcl'autmon which liad coiuo 
to tish oH' Newfoundland, was ready to sail home, du aii,irk,,i'i,y 
BroniJlan, 'die Governor of ''lauontia, was informed, on the eii,i;1U1i. 
lith of Sej)tember, that an English lleet lay at anchor tivo 
leagues from that i)ort in a l^ay near Cape St. Mary's. The 
intelligmico was correi't, and the next day tho squadron 
anchoreil in sight f roadstead, but out of range. Tlio 

Governor at once . ined a company of sixty men under 
tiio Baron de la Hontan, a reduced captain, wlio had re- 
cently been sent to him from t^uebee. He is the same 
person wlioso Memoirs we have on Canada, a work wliieli 
is seen at a glance to have been dictated by the spirit of 
irreligion, and by resentment at having been dismissed 
from the service.' 

This detachmout held a post where there was every 
reason to expect tliat tho enemy would attempt a landing, 
and from which he might then gain tho summit of a moun- 
tain, ami silence tlu guns of the fort by his musketry, 
.itill the English made no movement that day, except to 
sound the harbor. On tho 17th all their boats, full of sol- 
diers, ajiproached the bay, where la Hontan was posted ; 
perceiving him i)efore they came witliiu musket shot, they 
changed their course. They ran iu behind a little capo, 
Avhere they hastily put some men ashore, who set tire to 
the woods, and re-embarked with the same precipitation. 
Tiuiy doubtless hoped, by tho favor of this contlagratiou, 
to reconnoitre tiie situation of the fort auil other posts oc- 
cupied by the French, but time was not allowed them. 
During tliis interval, de Brouillan, after providing, as far 
as in him lay, for tlie safety of the fort, throw up a log re- 
doubt on the mountain alluded to, and on the 18th, plant- 

' So.' bri.'ay, N. Y. Col. Uoc, ix., 

pp. 544, am. 

'■ Soo auto, vol. iii., p. 330, i., pj 




I 111 'I 





1 ' 


' I* 








i; .1: 

hi ; 



I I'' 



Tlipy fliim 
iiiiin tliu 

Tbo fittac 


rd a fonr-j^MUi hjittorj on tlio Pointo dii Gonlct, at tlio 
utlitu" sidu of tlio moiilli of tho Basin, both to roiidor the 
Croiilot iuaccossililo to tlio oiiomy, aud to di-fond tho ca- 
l)l('s with which ho had closed it. Morc(»V(a' tho uior- 
chaiitmou had diawu up in lino to disputo tho j)assaf^o 
which tho English durst not attempt. 

At noon, on tho samo day, a boat was soon advanciuf^ 
with a white tlaj,' ; tho Oovornor sunt a S'.'rj,'oant to int-et 
it, and the olDcei' in charj^o havinj^ told this man that ho 
wished to speak to tho commandant, was taken to tlie fort 
bUndi'olded. Mr. do BrouiUan asked him what this com- 
mission was, and ho ro])lied, that ho came in tho name of 
Mr. Williams, his {,'eneral, to salute him, and be^' him to 
acud an oflicer on board, to whom ho miyht explain tlio 
object of his voyage. Ho addod that there were on board 
tho squadron, a French ship ca})taiu and several sailors, 
prisoners of war, aud that an arrangement might bo made 
in regard to thorn. 

Tho Governor, seeing no objection to granting this re- 
quest, dispatched do hi Hontan and Pasttmr, a nephew of 
Mr. do Costobello, and lieutenant in his company, to tho 
English geuei'al, who received them with great courtesy 
and dismissed them without tolling them anything. On . 
their return, tho English officer already mentioned, and 
another, who had remained as hostages in tho fort, were 
also sent back ; but the former, before embarking, declared 
to the Governor that ho had orders to tell him that they 
were sent to take possession of Placcntia in tho name of 
William III., King of Great Britain, aud that General 
Williams summoned him to surrender the place, aud all 
possessed by the French in the Bay. To this summons Mr. 
do BrouiUan replied as became him, and the officers retired. 

La Hontan and Pastour had reported that the Albans, 
'■' tho English admiral's ship, carried seventy-two guns, that 
there were two others of a2)parently nearly tho same force, 
tho Plymouth aud Galere ; a f rigato smaller, aud a store- 
ship of 28 guns. The manceuvro of the preceding evening, 
however, induced a belief that there were few laud troops 




on ))oar(l tliis H([nii(lron. On tlio lOtli, tlio l)OHiop;ors, who 
liiid I'cckinioil on tiikiti^ ""'.>' '*"" post, found tliriM) : Kort - 
8t. Louis, tilt' rmloiilit on tlio Mountain, and tlio liatlory 
nt the Poiuto du Goulut. Tho sij^ht of this aoomod to as- 
tonish tlioin ; for tho samo day Admiral Williams sout to 
inform ^[r. do Brouillan, that whoii ho wished to mako any 
proposition, he iiood only raiso a rod Hi ^. 

Tho Govornor sooinj^ that WilliaiU'J 'oworod histoao bo- 
cauHo ho disti'ustod tho success of his outerpriso, was tho 
first to open fire. Tho English at onco re])li(>d, and for 
fT)ur hours their firo was (|uito heavy. That of tho fort 
was inodeiato, do IJrouillan wishing to oconoinize his am- 
murtition, his Hup[)ly Ix-iitg but small; I)ut his guns were 
biittor haudlod, for after six hours light, tho flagship was 
K(U'n running before tlio wind and drawing out of the lino. 
The Freiieli were almost down to thoir last chargeof pow- 
der, and wcYkj using only tho onemy's balls, picked up iu 
tho houses ; nearly every building being riddled by thoiu. 
Tho niorchautmou, tho captains and crows of which 
showed great alacrity, were not better supplied ; but one 
hundred and twenty men whom they landed, and who 
were encouraged to exertion by tho presence and words 
of the ollicers, were of great assistance in tho batteries. 
Towards evening tho four ships, which remained in liuo, 
retired one after another ; but tho Governor, uuablo to 
imagine that so strong a squadron had only two thousand 
sJiots to firo, had no doubt but that they would renew the 
attack the next day. 

He accordingly labored diligently to repair tho broaches 
made in his ramparts and batteries by tho cannon, and as 
he had only five or six men hors du combat, tho work was 
done iu six hours. On tho 20th a French prisoner on tho 
English x\ Imiral's ship escaped, and reported to tho Gov- 
ernor that the enemy seemed very irresolute as to what 
they should do ; that they had not expected n find Pla- 
centia so well fortified, and that the crews murmured loudly 
against so ill concerted an expedition. 



1 ')(;.'. 







J "I' 





I. )i 




' i!f 





/ Hi 



1602. Inflict tlioy Hoon drew ofl" mid proceeded to Imni tho 

^— ^— ^ liouses oil Pnilite leilj,'tie ficilll Folt St. TiOllis. Ah 
Hooii iiH d(^ lii'niiilliiii s;i\v tlieiii tui'ii ill Unit (lirectioii, ho 
suspocted tlit'iv dcHij^n, and sent a conHideraldo force to 
disputo tlieir landinj,' ; but a heavy raiu Htorm which ciiino 
up, retarded th(^ soldiers on tlieir march, and when they 
reached Pointe Verte, all the houses, or, to speak iiioreac- 
cnratoly, all the cabins wore consumed by firo. This was 
tho solo fruit d(>rived by Williams from his expedition.' 
On his retreat h(> was very fortunate in not encountering' 
tho Chevalier du Palais, and thus tho En^'lish and French 
alike miss(!d their ol)joct ; tho hittor in consivpicnco of uii- 
foresoou accident, and perhaps from lack of precaution, for 
what was tho f,'ood of goiiiL,' to shut himself up in Spaniard 
Bay, tho former for ju'csuminj^ too much on tho weakness 
of the enemy whom they were to attack. 

Both parties met about the same fortune on the coast 
irmir of f^f Aciidia, and for aluiost the same reason. The new Gov- 
Kn>,'iiind ovnor of New England chafed at Ijoini' prevented by the 

WisllLH lO 001 -J 

hiive tiio iutestine dissensions which disturbed New York, from at- 

t'luviilicr »^T -n m 1 1- 

lU' viiic- tempting once more the conquest of New France. To deliver 
oii. himself at least from all disquiet in regard to Acadia, ho re- 
solved to carry ott' tho (!iievalier do Villel)on from his fort 
on St. John's river," where that commandor had stationed 
himself, while awaiting reinforcements from Franco, to ou- 
nblo him to establish himself at Port Eoyal. Ho sent a 
sliip of 18 guns, with two brigantiuea there, tho three ves- 
sels carrying 400 men. 

Villobou was far from having means to resist so large a 
force ; yet ho would not lose his post without at least mak- 
ing a show of defenco ; but ho did not roipiiro to go to 
much expense for this. He sent a small detachment of 

lllC (iov- 

' LaHoiitan, VoynfTc, i., pi>.2t'J-0, ont fait, 14-','l Sept., 1(J93. Cannda 

pivcw his nccoiint (if thiw ntt'uir, which Doc , III., iii., pp. 14()-1.jM ; Ui'latiou 

C'linilfvoix niiiinly follows, llo du I'attiuiue du 5 vuiswiuix. lb., 

miilifa the Kiifflib^li loss six ; tlie 15;i-l(J0. Leitrc dc M. ilii liiouilliiu 

Frciicli one wounticd. CoiiiparcJour- lli. lUO. 
nal du ^louvcuient (lue les Enueuiiij ' N. Y. Col. Doc., ix., pp. 53^, 514 


,' I 



Froticli (111(1 Tiidiiiiiw down tin' river, in order to obtain '^"ji. 

t'lirly iiitelli},'enee of tlio limdin;,' of tiie (;ncuiy wiiieii iio — ^t— -^ 

could not prevent. The Hnj^disli pereeiviii-,' this dotiich- uu f,,ii3_ 

mont, nnd Hiipixtsin^' it nmcli j^reator tliiiu it really wim, 

fe'iirod to bo comptiiled toen^'.i^'o in n doubtful 


This fiiiluro f,'roiitly eliu^'rined Sir (Williiuu) Pliil)s, but 

h(* soon liftd his t-onsolution. The English hiid reoisntly 

returned to Penikuit, and restorod their fort, from which 

th((y ;,M'eatly annoytMl the Indians of that district. Tlio 

(Jliovalier do Villeiiou had reproscnited to the Count do 

Frontena(! tiie neo(!Ssity of expelling them forovor from a 

post which exposed us to tho danger of losing our best 

allies, and which at least thwarted all their ent<'rprises 

against New England. The CJeneral felt tho iniportanoo 

of this project ; and thought that he had found a favorable 

opportunity to ell'ect it.' 

DTborviUc! had also left Franco with the design find ex- _, . 

" EiitcrprUo 

press orders from court to go and attack Port Nelson. He nu'uliMt 

, I'cmLult. 

had I'lubarked on the Envieux, a royal vessel C(jmniandud 

by do Bonaveuture ; and he was to meet, at Quebec, with 
tli(! Poll,' another royal vessel, on which he was to embark. 
The Northern Com[)any agreed to furnish two other ves- 
sels. It was his Majesty's intention that dTberville should, 
after capturing Port Nelson, remain thoro to guard it, and 
send back the Poll to Franco, in charge oft' his lieutenant. 
But tho Euvioux siuled from hi llochello so lato, and 
mot such contrary winds, that it anchored olY Quebec only 
on the 18th of October. This wa?' much too late for any 

' C'lmri'li, 111 Au:,'ust, puslicd on to 
tlu' I'mioiiHcot. anil iniiy Imvo li'd 
liis party totlii' St.. rohns. Cliuivli'. 
liurmn Wars, ii., pi). Ht-.'). Mutlui'n 
Mu^-miliii, irii. Vll., p. HI ; Hutch, 
insoiis Miissiicliusctts, ii., p. (i'.l ; us 
1 liiid no ijtlicr expi'diliou ol' tin' 

• Yorls wus ilcstroycd Ft'l). 5, llillsJ, 
O.S. Iiy I'-ii'iicli and Indians. Matlmr's 
Magiiulia, ii., p. OIJO-1, and Wells 

attack(!d Juno 10, O. S. lb., .W3-8. 
WilliamsoUH .Maine, O'iS-lU Port 
Williiini Ili'iiry, at I'eraa(iuid 
wan ruljuilt in Aiij^. , lOO'J. lb., p. 


■' •• A f^rrat Diitcli scpiarc sterned 
nliiji " of .")i)() tons, :is ^--uns ; and a 
tVij,Mti'ot';!l. tin' tiaj^sUip. ,\rl.-ion to 
(ii-ii. Court ol' Mas.saclitisrtfs, Aug. 
•Vi, Kilt'.'. Hutchinson, Mai-s., lllBt. 
i., p. 3oS. 



■ I 


i J 




; 1 '(, 

1 ' 


.1! , 




, '-i^i ^u;^ 

' . f 

! 'li' 


t: '<•■ 

ill ' 
■i'l'i 1 

II • 




, ■ 

1-^ b 




Its fiillure. 


expeditiou to Hudson's Bay ; lieuco it was uocessary to 
tliiuk of cmployiuout elsowliovo for an avinameiit which it 
would have bocu a pity to leave idle. The siege of Pem- 
kuit was pi'()i)osod to d'Ibeiville and d'( Bouaveuture, wlio 
joyfully accepted it. They iuiuiediately sailed for x\.cadia, 
and after a coui'ereuco with the Chevalier do Villcbou, it 
was resolved among them that the two royal vessels should 
besiege it by sea, while the Chevalier attacked it on land 
at the head of the Indians. 

This arrangement adoi)ted, the Poll and Euvieux steered 
to Pemkuit ; but the two commandants tiading an English 
ship anchored under the guns of the fort,' and having ne- 
glected the precaution of taking a coast pilot on board, or 
finding none, they deemed it imprudent to '.;o into action 
on a coast which they did not know. They accordingly had 
to return without doing anything, wlucli greatly displeased 
the Indians, who had flocked there in great numbers, in the 
hoi)e of being soon delivered from a neighbor who incom- 
moded them greatly." 

Men were astonished, that d'Ibervillo, never suspected 
of a lack of either zeal or bravery, did not make every 
eli'ort to come with honor out of on oxjjedition on which 
he had seemed to oiler himself so cordially, and those en- 
vious of his glory seized on this atl'air ; but it is very pro- 
bable that he had reckoned on surprising Pemkuit, and 
had not taken prcjper measures for carrying it by storm. 
It was afterwards ascertained that what saved the fort, 
was the information given to the English commandant by 
two soldiers, deserters, of the preparations making against 
him at Quebec, and that the desertion of these two reuo- 

' Maj. Cluircli Wii.-i then at I'oiiie- 
qiiid ri'buildiiif,' tliu lort, iiii.l nwii- 
tiiiiis a iiuin iif war as Ih re at tlio 
tiiuo, althoiiKlj '"■ gi^'i'H no luiiu ■ 
('liiirch's Imliaii War, ii., p. 8li. 1I(! 

■^ N. Y. Col. Doc, ix„ p. 5U, 552, 
555. The Caiuida I )(H'iiiiu'iits con- 
tain only one (locuincnt of \'illid)()U, 
i'.ilicTvilli.', and di; UonaVfUtiiro in 
regard lo raiisomini; 'ionii' womi.'n 

niaki'8 nu allusion to thoaiiin'arancf and cliildrcii lu'ld as h<istagcs by the 
of tho Fronch vcissels. English. Burks 111., vol. i., p. 311), 







gailcs hail boeu planned by the Chevalier Nelson, still a 1692. 
prisouor in that cai)ital.' ^-""v^^ 

Such was thou, at all points, the condition of New ;^pt„^,g„n. 
Franco. The En,t^lish secnied littlo to be feared, and ''"^'^|'^"' 
asked, ai)pai'eutl\', only to bo lot alone in their settlements Fnmca 
and trade. The Ii'onuois, like tliose swarms of flies that 
annoy more than they injure, incessantly disquieted tho 
colony without intiictinj,' any great injury ; or at least they 
alarineU it more for the future tlian for tho present, for it 
was always a diversion on whicli the English could depend, 
when their domestic troubles enabled them to unite all 
their forces against us. 

This situation, far different from that in which the col- ^.^^jp,^.^^ 
onv had been two years before, was in a great degree tho asainstMr. 
result of the vigilance, activity, and hrmness ot tho Count touac. 
de Frontenac. Tho lofty manner in which he had repressed 
the superiority of the enemy, the olhcacious means ho had 
cuiployed to render his allies more docile, and to re-estab- 
lish tho honor of tho French arms, made him feared by the 
one, and respected by the other. In one word his own 
glory and the felicity of the peoples he governed would 
hive lacked nothing, had ho combined the virtues of his 
predecessor with these groat qualities. 

But at the very time that men rendered him all tho jus- 
tice due to his eminent talents, and his devotion of them 
to give the colony lustre abroad and security within, they 
found, nevertheless, much in his conduct to censure. 
Many complained that through indulgence for the oihcers, 
of whoso esteem and attachment he was very jealous, he 
let all the burthen of the war fall on tho colonists, ruining 
them by exactions of service, while the soldiers had all 
liberty to work for tho profit of their captains, who de- 

' 'li 'I 

n .,1, 










' N. V. *'i)l. D(ir,, ix., \>. 511, ."),"):>, 'I'lic two ili'si'rtiTS witc Aruaud Du 
55,"). I'liipiw iflmil; I'l'iuiKiiiul ii- Vigiion, mid Fnincis Albi-rt. Nt'l- 
imiMiaiico of instiuction.s. Ilul<'li son's Ictcr, Aujr. ;)(), lUilJ. Hutch- 
inson, Hist. Muss., ii., p (jy. Maine iu.-on. Histoid of Miissac-'.insrtis, i., 
llist. Coll, V. 11 28!i ; vi., p. '^83. p. ^08. 





^ ' ^^ t 

i ,1. '" 


'i li 




1 6^2. rived large reveuues from their gains; lionco it ensued 
that the colony gained no strongtli, and trade languislied. 
A still more serious and univei.;nl rumplaint arose from 
the ojien favor which he continued to give to the liquor 
trade, or at least his toleration on this point, as culpable 
as favor even, in a Governor who had, more than any 
other, the gift of inspiring obedience when he Avished. 
Those who looked more closely into the disorder produced 
by the wretched traffic, and whom the visible decline of 
the towns of Christian converts kept in constant' alarm, 
were compelled, for fear of aggravating the evil by wishing 
to remetly it, to mourn in secret, and they counted it as 
little, that their very lives were often in danger amid their 
neophytes, infuriated by liquor. But all the world did 
not feel bound to observe a similar reserve, and many 
sought to bring to the throne itself, a kno^'-'ledge of a dis- 
order, which the Sovereign's power alone could in future 
arrest. The following is what the Abbe de Brisacier wrote 
on the 17th of September, 169U, to the King's Confessor : 

" It seems al)solutely necessary that his Majesty be in- 
formed of the brutalities and murders recently committed 
in the streets of Quebec, by Indian men and women intox- 
icated with liquor, who in that state gave way to every- 
thing, without shame or fear. The Intendant (]Mr. de 
Champigny,) moved by these horrible excesses, and con- 
strained by his instructions to write nothing here except 
in concert with the Governor, states, that if he is ordered 
to lay the truth before the Court, hi' will do so ; but as 
the evil presses, and the fact is attested by several letters 
of trustworthy persons, extracts from which will be given 
you, this unrestricted sale of liquors must be again arrested, 
not only to prevent oifence to God, by the continuation of 
so many crimes, but also to ret:un in our alliance, the In- 
dians, who leavci and abandon us at the present press- 
ing crisis of the war. You only, my very reverend Fa- 
ther, are in o, condition to spc u^z ; the cause of the Lord, 
and the public weal of New France, are in your hands : 
your neul will not be unrewarded." 






It is evicloiit from what this letter' says, and still moro nx,?. 
from what it implies, why ^Ir. ile Frouteuac had been per- — ^y—- ' 
stiadcd that the Imlians should be mingled aud confounded 
with the French, and the reasons why the missionaries op- 
posed it. 

Meanwhile the desertion of the two soldiers who had .Anxipty of 
caused the failure of d Iberville s Pemkuit expedition gave ana its 
the Governor-General no little anxiety, especially as sev- 
eral Dutch prisoners at Montreal and Quebec, had escaped 
at the same time ; and all wore soon convinced that these 
evasions were also the result of Nelson's plotting, and that 
greater liberty than it was expedient to give a prisoner of 
his importance had been allowed that gentleman. There 
was, too, every reason to fear that he had transmitted to 
Boston, by these same deserters, information which the 
English might use to the prejudice of New France.' 

What increased the Count de Frontenac's embarrassment 
was the failure of all his repeated instances to obtain re- 
inforcements of men and munitions from France ; and 
should the Governor of Njew England decide to make an 
effort to take advantage of our weakness, the whole Colony 
was in great danger of succumbing. It was conseipiently 
deemed necessary to employ all means to arrest the deser- 
ters before they reached Boston : but all the exertions 
used, were unavailing. It was even too late to think of it. 
as there could be little doubt of thefr having already 
reached Pemkuit, aud consequently that the evil dreaded 
had been already done. 

' Si'i' tho Histoire de I'Eiui dc Vie 
en CauHdii, Quebec, 18 10. Li'ttre de 
M. Dollier il un de ses iiuiis. Canu- 
da Doc, II., vi., p. 82. 

' The deserters wore caught. N. 
Y. Col. Doc, ix., !>. oOl, aud execut- 
ed in preseucc of Nelsou. 'I'he let- 
ter to Massachusetts is dated Aug. v!ii, 
1lil)2. Willianisou's Maine,!., ]>. (loT. 
John Nelson was a neiihew of Sir 
\Vm. Teiu|)li',und had lieeu in Ann r- 
ica from about 1070. Having been 

sent in lO;*! to put Col. Edward 
'I'yng in coninumd of Port Uoyal, was 
captured. lie was finally sent to 
France and coulined at Augouleme, 
and in the Has' ile. and rekvised only 
after four years and a half iui[)rison- 
nient, when he was allowed to go to 
England on parole. He did not return 
to his lamiiy till afler an ii').-ence ;f 
ten oi I'lrv.ii yeiir.', N.Y t'ol. I'oc, 
iv.. p, ni. n Hutch'uifou's Hisf 
jMass., i., p. oo7. 

Hi 1. 


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li . .. 

.. I 

i .!•,: 






I. r 

4' >' \ 







To crown the difticnlties, tidings came in, that a corps 
ot eight huudreil Iroquois had been seen witliin throe days' 
Thf coionv ^'^^'"'^ north of Albany, on their way to attack us. It was 
attiukwi i)y subs^'ouontly ascertained that these savages had divid(id in 
two i 3arly equal bands, cue to descend by Lake Chom- 
plain, the other by Lake St. Francis ; their design being to 
nnite near Sault St. Louis, intrench themselves there, then, 
by hollow negotiations, allure a" many inhabitants of that 
Indian town as possible, and butcher all who fell into 
their hands. 

It was at first thought that there was no better plan 
than to advance to meet these two army corps ; but this 
required more troops than it was possible to seud against 
them ; for it would not have been prudent to strip the 
country of all its forces in the actual uncertainty whether, 
while they were marching upon the enemy by the two 
routes they were said to have taken, the Irocjuois might 
not turn oil" and fall upon quarters where they were not 
expected. It was accordingly deemed more expedient to 
hold themselves on their guard at all points. 

On their side the Indians of the Sault promised to meet 
by stratagem the snare intended to be laid for them, and 
to enable them to sustain a sudden assault, in case of need, 
a reinforcement of soldiers and munitions was sent to the 
Marquis de Crisasy, who commanded in their town. 
Foris Chambly and Sorel were also placed in a state to 
defy insult ; the settlers were again forbidden to go too far 
from their hoiises, and all officers ordered to remain at 
their posts. These precai^tions, due mainly to the wisdom 
and vigilance of the Governor of Montreal, were crowned 
with merited success. 

The part;^ , which came by way of Lake St. Francis, ap- 
peared in sight of Sault St. Louis ; but as they learned 
that the French expected them, and were so strong as to 
entertain no fears, tliey contented themselves with firing 
several volleys, more like a bravado than a serious attack. 
They were answered in the same style, and that very eveur 


taken by 

Mr. i!q 


I*j V 



ing ihoy retreated. The otaer party caine mp subsequent- 
ly, and acted iu the same way, but tlireo hundred of them 
remained on an ishiud in Lake Champhxin, to see whether 
our men would not grow weary of being under arms at 
Sault St. Louis, so that they might profit by some lucky 
chance. At last, learning that wo M'ere constantly well on 
oiu' guard, they got tired of waiting, and took up their 
route for their own country.' 

Then the Count do Fronton ac resolved to do the Mo- 
hawks all the evil that they had intended to do us : for it 
was this canton that had mainly made up the last party. 
Moreover, their pretended relations with the Indians of 
Sault St. Louis always disturbed the General, much moro 
indeed than they should have done. He accordingly dis- 
patched to the Chevalier de Callieres, two hundred Cana- 
dians, some Hurous from Lorette, Abenaquis from the 
Falls of the Chaudiere, Algonquins and Sokokis from the 
neighborhood of Three Ilivors, with orders to add a hun- 
dred moro Canadians from his own district, a hundred 
soldiers and Iroquois from the Sault, ami the Mouutaiu ; 
to form them all into an amy cor[)s, and to send it forth- 
with against the Mohawks." 

These orders were executed with extreme diligence ; the 
force was composed of six hundred men." De Callieres 
assigned the command to Lieutenants do Mantet, de 
Courtemanclio and de la Noue,^ and on the 2oth of Janu- 

' Tliis yenr 1093, eveu amid the 
war, witui'ssi'd llio ustabliahmont nt 
Montreal of a Ufucral Hospital l)y 
Francis t'haron of Blois, who formi'd 
a ccjmmuuity of Hospital Urothcrs, 
Thi'y obtained IjetttTS Pali'Ut iu 
lUsJl and 1718. Edits ot Ordonnaii- 
CL'S, I., p. 377, iiSd. Charon went to 
France in 1710, to ^'et ausiliarii's, 
and died on his voyage hack, Boon 
aftet leiiviu}; Hochelle. This led to 
the S[ieeily extineliou of tlic work. 
Juchereau, IIist<iire de I'lhitel I'iiu, 
p.ii5C. His earliest and most iaitlitul 
associate was Peter Le Ber, brother 



Tlie Iro- 
c|ii(iii> re- 
tire witli- 

Ollt (lllill^ 


iiit'> thu 

of the Recluse, and the first Ca- 
nadian painter. Faillon, Vie de Mllo, 
le Bel', p. o'J!). Vie de -Mme. d'You- 
ville, p. 3:!. &c., ante, p. 3(17. 

'■' Narrative of Military Operations 
](il)3-;j. N. Y, Col. Doc., ix., p. .m 
Uehitiou, l(iit3-;!. Ill, p. r),'j7. 

' De la Pothcrie says, more than 
liOO, with thirty officers ; the Narra- 
tive of Military O|)erations says 530. 

' I)c Miinteht led the van svith tlio 
forces I'rom Three liivers ; de Cour- 
temaiiclii' followed with those of 
Quebi'C. llelaiion, &c., 101)3-3. N. 
Y. Col. Uoc, ix., p. 557. 




; ; ■ 

"• di ■! 

If I 













I ,,t 



t ,1 

{ ^i 

, I 


', M 




Success of 

till.' expu- 



ary, all ombarkod at Moiitroal." Notliiug had boon no- 
glecterl to ousiiro the success of this expedition, and so 
completely had tliey reckoned on the entire destruction of 
the Mohawk oantou, that they had recommendeil to the 
commandants to give quarter to no man able to bear arms, 
to put them all to the point of the sword, without retaining 
any as prisoners, and to bring away the women and chil- 
dr*en to people the two Christian towns of their nation. 

But more than one experiment should have taught our 
generals, that these projects were not as easily executed 
as they imagined. On the IGth of February, the army ar- 
rived in the Mohawk canton undiscovered. This canton 
seems then to have boon composed of only three towns, 
each having a fort. La None' attacked the first, and cap- 
tured it without much resistance ; he burned the palisades, 
cabins, and all the provisions. Man tot and Courtemaucho 
had as easy a time with the second, which was only a 
quarter of a league from the first, and as several prisoners 
were taken in each town, Oourlemanche was appointed to 
guard thorn.' 

The third, and larger town,* cost them more. La None 
and Mantet arrived there on the night of the 18th, and 
found them chanting the war song. There wore forty- 
eight Mohawks, who, unconscious of what was going on in 
their neighborhood, were preparing to join a party of fifty 
Oneidas, and then reinforce a body of two huudved 
English, who were i)reparing to make an irruption into the 
colony. The French attacked them without hesitation, 
and the Mohawks, although surprised, defended themselves 
with great valor ; twenty, with some women, were killed at 
the first onset, and two Imudred and fifty prisoners taken. ■ 

' They moved that way from La 
Frairio. lb., 558. Do hv P., iii., p. 170. 

' La Nouc, liuut. ru l(ii)i. N. Y. Col. 
Uoc.ix. p. r,:i\), died niil. 11). X., lO-W. 

'' De la I'otherie, llistoire iii., p. 
17L Relation, &o., WJi-'-i. N. Y. 
Col. Doc, ix., p. oSi. Narrative of 
Military Occur. lb., pp. 550-1. 

'- Tiououdag:i (X. Y. Col. Doc, iv. 
p. 10, Beyard and Lodowick, p. 20,) 

or Teonontiogen, (see ante vol. ii., 
p. 1 10, u.) near Fort Hunter. 

' lb., p. 558 ; the Narrative, &c. 
pp. 550-1, makes only 80 (ighiinjj 
men in the three town-", of whom 
the French killed 18 or ^), ana took 
the rest. i)e la I'otlierie does not 
btato losri, but says 30 French In 
Jiaus fell in the assault, or died of 
intoxication. Hist do I'A, S,, iii. ITl. 





their word. They wero the movo iucxcusablo, as thoy hail "■'"tiu'i'r ""^ 
been warned that thoy would bo purrtuod ou tlieir roturu. Iw""'^^'''''! 

AS stated ah'eady, the Govenior of ^loutreal, had, above 
all, uri;ed them to j^'ive (|aartei' only t(j the women and 
children, and this tho Indians i)roniised, but did not keep our men 


To this first fault, they added another, which was eoinpoU- 
ing tho French to intrench, after two days' march, to 
await the ouomy who had immediately pursued thorn. 

The Iroquois of Sault St. Louis especially wore respon- 
sible for this straugt! proceedin<;; ; but they had ahnost all 
come from the Mohawk canton; a lingering love of coun- 
try, the hopes some gave out of their settling among them 
and the impossibility of their subsisting in their own can- 
ton just ravaged, wero motives capable of inspiring them 
with some compassion for persons who Avere so closely 
connected with them. It would, one would think, have 
been prudent to foresee this, and dispense with them in an 
expedition against tlieir ow 1 brethren. Bo that as it may, 
they wore soon punished for their indocility. 

The army, although it had scarcely provisions enough to 
reach Montreal, waited two days for the enemy : he ap- 
peared at last, and also intrenched. It was the same pai-ty 
that had assembled at Onoida and had not had patience 
to wait for tho English. Our men charged them three 
times with great resolution. They made a vigorous de- 
fence, and their intrenchmeut was forced only at the third 
attack. Wo had eight Fnueh and eight Indians killed, 
and twelve wounded, including do la Nouo. Tho loss of 
the Oneidas was scarcely greater ; the rest escaped ; but 
they soon ralliid, and for three days continued to follow 
the army, though without venturing to approach, as long 
as thoy marched together.' 

' Narralivo nf Military Occur- ed by Maj. Peter Schuyler, and coil' 

rencet*, N. V. ('o\. Doc, ix., |i. 'I'y'. 
Kelation, &c., mii--',. lb., p. r,r,'.)- 
yiiO, saysHevim French kilji'd and ['t 
wounded. De la I'oihrri'', iii., p. 
173, says, eight killed, l") wounded. 
TUi; party pursuing svas eonuiiiuid- 

sisteil of '^'.j whites, and i'M) Inilians. 
Tlii'V canio up to the French, Feb.- 
17, Vm, (.). S. Major Peter Schuy- 
ler's Report to Fletcher. N. Y. Col. 
Doc, iv., ]). 17-18. I?eyard and 
Lodowick, Journal of tho late Ac- 

■ ' 













I 'i^ 

I !:■ 


of ii^rijiit 




At last, tlio bail ro.uls ami tho want of provisions liaviiig 
coniiiolled thuni to disband, a Icrj^'o nuuibor of prisouom 
oscapod, and only sixty-four wore brought into Montreal. 
It was on tho 17tli of Marcli, that tho fragments of this 
victorious army roachod Montreal, to announce, on tho 
statement of some of their prisoners, that the English 
were to descend on Montreal in tho Spring, to tho number 
of throe thousand, while a deet of the same nation, also 
carrying three thousand soldiers, was to lay siege to (Quebec. 

This was the third time within two years, that these 
throats had been made ; but to all appearance, this one 
might be carried out. D'Iborvillo had announced tho 
same thing from xVcadia ; he added that the two soldiers, 
who had deserted from Quebec the year before, and who 
had been dis});itched by the Governor of Now England to 
assassinate the Baron do St. Castin, had just boon taken, 
and that it was known from their depositions that tho Che- 
valier Nelson had sent to General Phibs a detailed ac- 
count of the actual condition of the Capital.' 

This intelligence led do Frontonac to believe that ho 
ought not to lose a moment iu fortifying that place,'' as 
well as repairing forts Cliambly and Sorel. Ho even sent 
orders to Montreal, to throw up some intrenchments there.' 

Ticns of tlic Frencli at f'linndii, pp. 
lo-'^T. Ill- ailinits tliu tliri'c lUtiickH 
ol' llie Fivncli. but not the sutrrss 
of the la.-it. Ill' gives liis own los«, 
four whites, four Inclinns killed ; 1-1 
wounded ; and makes tlie Frcnoli 
loss at least, ~7 killed, 3li wounded. 
He reju-eseuts the Mohawks as not 
pursiiini; vijiorously, fenriuj,' that 
the French would kill the prisoniTs. 
Ou the first intelligence, Fletcher 
uasteuodupto Albany with troops. 
N. Y Col. Doc. iv., p. 14; Ueyard 
and Lodowick, pp. 7-8. Coldeu's 
Hist. Five Xatioii.'', 2nd Kdition, pp. 
]4i;_7. follows f<clniylrr's re]iort, Init 
censures him for not demanding the 
surrender of the French. Smith iu 
Ids History of New York, pp. Hl-i, 

professes to follow Colden and Char" 
levoix. Fletcher, N. Y. Col. Uoc, 
iv., p. -tl, makes the total French 
loss on the expedition 80, and 33 

' De la Potherie, Histoire do 
rAnii'riqui! Sept., iii., p. 17.5. N. Y. 
Col. Doc, Ix., p. ')'yi. 

'^Tlie Chevalier de Heaucour, re. 
duced captain ano naval ensign, waa 
tlie engineer at Quebec. De la I'otli- 
erie, [). H.'i-O. Relation, lG9'3-3. N. 
Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. r,m. Ante, p. '^n. 

■' A fort with four bastions, and a 
ditch, was thrown up ou a hill com 
mandingtlie town. lb., p. 178. Thii 
Chovali'T 'tit. J"an commanded ut 
Soi^i, und Desbergeres at Chauibly 
lb. p. 173 



:i / 

insroiU Ol-' NEW I'iiANOK. 



On Ills Hido, do Callii'ves put sovoml parties in tho fioltl, ^^^ 
to oud(!avor to tako priHoii(3rs, so as to acquire bottor iu- 
formatiou of tho dosij^ns of tlio Eii<,'lisli. La Plaque, who 
commaudod quo of thoso parties, l)roaf^lit to him a Prouch- 
man, takoii at soa four years bi'foro, who coutirniod all that 
the Mohawks and d'Ibc.rville had said. Ho added, that 
the various governors of the English places, which are be- 
tween Boston and Vir<,'iiiia, had assembled in the month 
of March of this year, to decid(! how many men each 
should faruish, and tha they were actually raising soldiers 
at Albany ; that Boston was designated as the general 
rendezvous on the twentieth of April, that tho force was to 
be ten thousand men, six thousand of whom wore to bo 
lauded by the fleet.' 

Another point gave the Couni; do Frontonac still more pronto- 
anxiety. There wore great stores of furs at Michillimacki- °'t'„rrivs?-' 
nac, and the Indians did not venture to bring them down '"'^"'■ 
to Montreal without an escort, which ho was not in a posi- 
tion to send thoui. It was, nevei;tholess, highly important 
to obtain these peltries, and still more so, to communicate 
to tho Hieur de Louvigny tho intelligence just received, 
and instruct him how to act. in tho delicate emergency. 

At last the general proposed to tho Sieur d'Argenteuil, 
a reduced lieutenant, and brother of Mantet, to go up to 
MichiUimackinac. Tliat olUcer cheerfully accepted the 
dangerous duty, but it was only by groat promises that 
Fronteuac could induce eighteen Canadians to accompany 
him. Mr. de la Valtrio' had orders to escort them boyond 
all tho dangerous points, witli twenty Frenchmen and 
some Christian Iroquois, and it was found necessary to 
pay both a round sum daily. The instructions sent to de 

I !)(■ la Pothi'i-io. Hist, de lAiut'ir ' Daniel, (ii., p. '^70,) supposes this 

qu(! hi'pt., iii., p. IT!). offlcer tti have been tho one v, 'lo was 

- IVtcr .I'AiUulioiist. Sieur d'Ar- lieuteiuuit in the Hegiinent Carignan 

geuteuil, fourth son of irAIIleboiist Siilieros, and l)ecame japtain in 

de MusHeaus, lieuteniiut in Ki'.tl ; UiST, Imt as In* was a Cai.adiun, and 

captain in ITld ; IHuii<'l, i., '^'.2 ; ii., nierely an enaign, (New i'ork Col- 

p. ',>M:i ; sei".ca nt MiiliiUinuickinac. onial Documents, ix., p. oii'i.) ho 

N. V. Col. Doe., ix , p. oUD-liDO ; died was probably a son of the FrencU 

of apoplexy, in i; II. lb , |' n.Vj ollicer. 



I I 








,> . 






1693. Louvigny, (lii'L'ctod liim to ictiiiu witliin liis i-oimuiiml o.Ay 

«— v-~-' Fit'uch fuongh to guard tlin posts, and to soud all tho rost 

down with tlio convoy. D'Argoutcuil luivdo tho trip sufo- 

Prnposi- ly ' '"'^ '^^ ''^ V;ilti'ir, on liis way buck, wiis attiickcd lUNir 

pim'i'Vroiii Montrcul Isliuul, liy an Inxiuois party, wlio cU'lVatcul iiini, 

""cUl'c'i."' ' J^ill'i'n lii"i> "■"'I three other Frenchmen ; an Iroquois of 

tlio Mountain was tiikon, all tho rest escaped.' 

Amid those hostilities, appoai'ed some gleams of peace 
On till' Kitli of Jvno, Tareha, an Oneida chief, arrived at 
Montreal, with St. Amour, a rcisidont of that town, who 
had boon four years a prisoner among tiio Iroquois. Ho 
proposed to tho Chevalier de Callio'cs, to exchange this 
man for a nephew of his, and prescnbid him a letter from 
Father Milet, who had been all this time a prisom r at 
Oneida. This religious stated, that Tarolia was very well 
disposed, and that credit could be given to all he said. 

Tho Chevalier de Calliercs at once dispatched him to 
Quebec, where tlie Governor General cheerfully consented 
to exchange his uophev 'jr St. Amour. Emboldened l)y 
this welcome, Tareha v . jsented to the Count do Frontcnac 
belts on behalf of the chief cabins or families of Oneida, 
and especially of his own, in which he said Father Milet 
had been adopted. Lastly, to convince the General com- 
pletely of tho upriglituess of his conduct, he warned him 
to bo on his guard, especially at harvest time. 

He nevertheless assured him that tho cantons were not 
far from peace, that tlio families' which deputed him, had 
long, earnestly desired it ; that they had deferred asking 
peace only from fear of appearing before their justly in- 
censed Father ; that ho had at last risked his own safet}' 
for the gener.d good, lio[)ing that his frankness would be 

' Niirrativi' ni' Militiiry 0]it'ra- S'l, Ommaii was t;ikfn, 'Phi' place 

tioiis, l()i)'^-:i. N. Y. (All. Doc, ix,, was below the Uriile Uapiil. A 

;.. 5.-);). Eii>i^'n la Valirii' was Diitcli prisoner's statement, (Beyanl 

killed encli'avoriiiic to land. I'e la and liodowick, .lour, of the late Ae- 

PuUierie, ili., ]i. 1T(I. lii'lulimi, tion, |).;>lMnakes the French hiss 107. 
lUi)-'-;>. N. V. Col. Doc. ix., |i. .Vli. - delation de la giiei >, 1(J1)3-:J. 

IX' l<elni()nt frives t.'ie dale as May N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. S.jS. 
28, l(i!J3. llistoire dii Canada, p. ■' SiiO uiite ii. p 140, n. 





Ills Hafcf^nard, and that ho saw ovKii'iitiy tliil ho not i^i,,}. 

niistuk(^n ; and tliat if he was ho I'ortiiiiato us to rcc,)i'cilu — ^— ' 

his nation witli th(( Fri'iich, his inlcnlioii win to como and 

snonil Iho rust of his days witli his bivtiiron at S;uilt St. ''''','' «■","'■■ 
' . "^ iiU reply., 


Tho f,'onoral was too familiar with pioti'stations of tho 
kind, to bt) d("''>ivjd ; and tlio tiistimony of a missionary 
who was not at Hlxu'ty, did not soisin to hima sulUc-iont 
])roof of tlio sincerity of this one. Yet, h)th to dispel all 
Taroha's hope, he re(>li('d tiiat althoni^'h the horrible per- 
fidy of tiie Ononda.^as in re^'ard to tho Chevalier d'Eau 
and tho other FriMiehmtai, who had f^onc; amon<j; them 
nnder the sai'ej^nard of tho hiw of uati(jns, and to restoro 
tiiinn IrcKjnois, just returned from France ; and the un- 
licard of cruelties, daily wreaked in all tho cantons, on 
tho FriMich ])risoners, justified his retaliating' on him, still 
ho would liiiukon to a last speck of alVoclioii f(jr his chil- 
droii, who no longer deserved tho nanio ; that Tarcha had, 
therefore, nothing to fear either for his life, or, cwn for 
his liberty ; but that if all the cantons sincorc^ly desired to 
outer into negotiations w''h him, they should hasten to 
send him deputies ; that ho cousontod to wait iu patience 
till the end of September ; but that term passed, he would 
hearken only to his just indignation. Tareha promised to 
.••eturn at that time, come what would, and very joyfully 
started for Oneida.' 

A few days after tho Count de Froutenac reeoived 
a letter from Father Binneteau,^ a nussionary to tho Abo- 
naqnis, announcing that tho English fleet hail sailed from 
Boston, and the )iext day, 8t. Miclu-l, captured tho year 
bctore on the way to Michillimaekiuae, arrived at Quo- 



"I r 



j!' i 

' N. T. C. D. ]>. r,m. De la Potlic- LawToncf iu l(!i) 1. IIo snccci'di'-.d 

ric, iii., IT'J-lSi. Milct to Dtllius, (ii:iviir in tlit^ lllinniH missiDii, aud 

July :!l, 1(1*!. N V. Col. Doc, iv, p. diid tlicrc Dec. ■J.">, H'W. ImuIkt 

•li), I{c]iiii'l IVoMi Oui'vdii. II). p, 77. Miirliu, iu CnriiyouH Pcjc. lucdits 

•'.ruliiiu Uiui'tciui ciiim' I'roin xiv., p. 117, Ut'l. di' lii Miss, ihi Mi- 

Kniiicc ill Ki'.tl, was in lliiiiu'. us cissijii, pi>. I'J. ^'J, 01; Iti'lutioii lOtfO^ 

liorc siuiL'd, iu IG'JJ ; ou the St. &c., p. 51. 




' It. 



ii', I y 

il '> 


Itci'.' TI<« liiid cscaiicd from ]irisoM, iiftcr Ictiniiii^' lli.'it Iio 
wiiHCoiiilciaiu.'d to tlio stiikt), mill lio ruixtrttHl tliat tlm Eii^^- 
li^sli Inul Wiiilt ii fort with uiglit biislious, in tho cliitif tuwu 
Jit OiiDiitlii^'ii ; tliiit tliis fort liiul tliroo rows of imlisiulort 
nroiiud it, mid Hint it wius tlio iutciition of tiui IndimiH, 
that all wiio wcro not altlo to boar aruin lu thoir oau- 
tou, Hhould taiii) rofii^o withiu thu8u pulisiuloH, uiidur tho 
caunon«^of tho fort, iu case tho Frouoh Hhoukl bo toiui)tod 
to ropoat thoro, tiii>ir operations in tiio Mohawk canton. 
lIo added that oi;^'iit iuindrod Iroquois wero on tiio point 
of takiufj; tlio Held to piovout our farmers from gotting iu 
thoir crops ; that Tarchii, who had ahoady aunouncod tJKS, 
might havo s[)okon siiu-eroiy ouough on all other points ; 
but that tlu) Iroipiois nation in geuoral, had assuredly uevor 
boon less iuclincil to make poaco than tlioy wcro at that 
time, although sovoral Ouoida I'amilios soomod really very 
weary ci tho war. 
filfiit iniii- At the very time that St. Michel was making this reijort. 
(lUdls lip- tho eight luindreil Inxpiois were already at tho Cascades, 
Muiitiuiii. at the extremity .of Lako St. Louis. Tho Govoruor-Goiio- 
ral, ou the intelligence which ho receiveil ou tho '21st of 
July, dispatclieil the Chevalier do Vaudreuil iu haste with 
Hvo companies of tho King's trooi)H, and one huuilred and 
fifty recruits who had just urrived from Franco. Ou his 
part, tlie Chevalier do Callieres had assembled a force of 
seven or eight hundred men, and marched in pei-son at their 
Itead as far as the Cascades, but neither ho nor do Vau- 
dreuil found tho enemy any longer there ; reports brought 
in, iu ijuick successiou, haviug induced them to decamp.' 

The chiefs of this i)arty were first informed of tho arri- 
val of throo ships from Franco with troops; uext they 

• Ii 

' III! -Aas captured witu Ensigns rois, wlio was tortuivd, but Buvcd 

la FroHnic-t' and Ilcrtel, and taken fioni the staki' by ScliuyltT. He re- 

to Onondaga. Ante p. ','!!). He was portiil the Fnncli licit as of tw.'lvu 

madi' a ruc'uocd lii'Uleuant iu Ki'Jl. tliips, bringing 500 recruits, amiuu- 

Daniel, ii., i>. 2s;j. nitinn, caiinim, and provisions, 

'' Among those taken at tliis time Fletcher to I'hipps, ;J1 Aufr. 109*1 

was C'reviur, Seigneur of St. Frun- N. Y. Col, Doc, iv., p. 67. 

IIISTolty (tK NI'AV niAN'CK. 


learned that the Oovcnior of ■Slotiticil wns iimkiuf,' larval '^'VJ- 
|ii'i!|)Hruti()UH to coiiin mill iittiiciv tlirm, mxl tiu'v alruiuly ■"■""'""" 
know, or Hooii liMiriKMl, tliat tlio iCii;;lisli no lotij^'ta' tlioii^lit 
of l)(JHi<'''iiii' (|)iicl)L'(!. tlt'iuJi), tliov worn iifniiil of liiiviii'' to 'I'l"')' '<•- 
eiicoiiiilur till) \vliol() powci' of lli(» FriMU-li, ami .-<aw that if "lU ii.iimr 
thoy dill not wish thoir rotrnat ciitotl', tiioy must not clofor 
it iin instant. In fact at t^iiobDi;, thuy no lon^nr iult nuy 
ilrrad of tho l"'n)^lish, and llio ci^dd liuadrcd Ironiiois w(;ro 
uut then onouj,di to alarm thi; colop;; 

Till) int()lliij;(»neo rocoivod of tho powt'iful annunnnt |)ri>- wimt he 

i1 I II i* I 1 rilliH- of 

l)ann.%' at IJoston, was, msvortholuss, very W(!ll loiindt'd ; w,,- tiiut 
l)\it thi* rumor tiiat tlicsn prcjjaralions wci'o iMtcndrd I'or ,„,. i 
New Franco, had sprcail by tins Kn^lisli only to hold 
that colony in (diuok, dojjrivo the Count do Froutonac of 
any idea of atttsmptin},' to disturb them at home, and con- 
ceal mort; elliictually their real desiyn.' Tho three shijis 
which had just arrived at Quebec, had, on their way, fallen 
in with a small vessel dispatched to France by tho 
Count do Blouac, Govoruor-Gouoral of the French West 
Indies, which informed them that Marliniipxe had l)(;en 
attacked by fifty vessels, some from Old, and some from 
IS'ew England." Nor did the thiee lhou.-.aiul men who 
were to make an irruption in tlu! diiection of Montreal, 
make their appearaueo. Thus, tiie harvest was <;i*li('Vtd 
with great trancpiillity, the crop was ;d)midant, and tne fa- 
mine, which had begun to l)o felt ki;enly, ceased at once. 

To complete their hapi)iness, the fourth of August bo- Arrival of 
held the arrival at Montreal of two hundred canoes loaded cuii^ny „f 
with peltries, under the direction of tho Sieur d'Argen- jioutreai. 
teuil. This great convoy brought eighty thousand francs 
worth of beaver, and the piincipal chiefs of the Nations of 

.1 1 







1 ' 





' Uuliition, &.C., ID'.yi-ii. N. Y. tiircivl by Nuw EnglauJ, conqiiur 

Col. Ddc, ix. PI). "ifJIJ-S ; Do lii I'o- Aciidiu imd ('iiiiiulii. Ul.iythwuit to 

thc'-ii', ii.. i)|i. li'J-lSt, iMiiihcr, Fi-M. 'iO, til'j;!. in llutchin- 

' Tliis fli'ft. under Sir Fnincis hou's Hist. .Mass., ii., p. TO. n. tii.'U 

\Vlii'cliT, \vii5< 111 reduce MiiriiMii|ue N. V. (.'ill. !>(!(■., iv., p. oU, 05. As lo 

cluijug llio wiiJtor, and tliuu, ruin.- its luie, see posl p. "JW. 






li > j?i 


2 12 





I ' 

IN t "■ 

1,1 '<: 

1693. the North and West, camo in person. As soon as do 
^— "> — — Frontonac hoard of it, ho procoodod to ^NEontreal, whero lie 
arrived escorted by thos(^ V(>ry chiefs, wlio had f^ono to 
Threo liivers to meet him. 'i'lie next day, ho lield a great 
Conucil, at which all i)assed to the general satisfaction. 
Tho Huron orator s^joko at length, making a long recital 
of all tlio ex])oditions sent out by his nation against tho 
Iroquois. Tho others merely said that they had como to 
hear iheir Father's voice, to receive his orders, and beg 
him to givo tliom tho goods they needed at a mo(h)rato 
Do Fionto- No one camo to rei)r(>sent tho Miamis. and the Govcr- 
\n)U iiio nor-Gen(!ral was oven informed, that they had rcooivod 
from trad- presoiits from the English, througii tho Mohogans, (Alahiu- 
KiigUsii. gans,) and that they had permitted them to come and trade 
in St. Joseph's lliver. It was dangerous in its conse- 
quences to sulVir this door to bo opened to English trade. 
Accordingly, the Count do Froutenac adopted all tho m(>a- 
surcs that his extended exporionce could suggest in order 
to baflle this negotiation. 

Nor did he spare any ett'ort to rivet this attachment of 
the various nations, whoso deputies were at Montreal. 
This was his great talent. All the Indians set out, eharmod 
with his manners, and loaded with ])resents. He had 
them closely followed by a considerable nund)er of Fren<'h 
under tho Chevalier do Tonti, still commandant in the Il- 
linois, and whom private afl'aiis had compelled to como 
down to Quehiic. Do Courtemauche" and do Mantet also 
went, as did Nicholas Perrot, whom tho General instructed 
to prevcmt the Miamis, either by persuasion or force, 
from trading with the English ; d'Argenteuil, who was 
appointed delouvigny's lieutenant, and Mr. le Hueur, who 
was sent to form an establishment at Ciiagouamigon, and 
renew the alliance with the Chi])])eways and Hioux." 

These arrangements made, Frontenac was preparing to 

1 Ueliition, 1(1!)3-;!. N. Y. I'ol. ' Anti', p. 19',>. Onnicl, NosOIoine, 
Doc. ix. p. 5il0-r)0',). Do la Potlierie, i., p. t(l:i. 
iii., p. lT'J-180. ^ N. Y. Col. Doc. ix. p. SOS). 


i ' 


1 1. 

. ■ 1' 

1 I 



loavo Montreal, wlieu an (jxprcss from tlio Sieur Provot, i^")3 
Kii\;,''s lioutouaut at tjuebcc, bronj^'lit him iutciUigeiico from ^■''^'' 
Hudson's Bay, ami Acadia, annoimcinf^ that Fort St. Anno tiw f.h:^ 
at tho hoad of Hudson's Bay, had boon takon i\y the En- ']?„',., iit' 
^'lisli, oarly in July. Tiu'co ships of tiiat nation had win- j\'',|i^';,„''^ 
torod so\ euty k'agnos from that fort, which thoy approached ^"y- 
us soon as navigation oi)onod.' 

Thoy rcelvoned on tinding a weak g.irrison, but coukl 
uovor liave imagined that it C(jntained oidy four men, ono 
of them in irons. This wretch, in a })aroxysm of frenzy, had 
killed tho surgeon of tho fort : rt'covering his sanity, and 
niueh troubled at what ho had done, he feared that tho Jo- 
suit, Father Dalmas, who had been tho solo witness, 
would disclose it, and fear of being imnislied for an invol- 
untary crime, led him to commit ono which rendered him 
guilty indeed. Ho killed tho missionary, and wouhl liavo 
carried his fury further, had they uot socui-od him by put- 
ting him in chains.' 

The English landed forty men to atta'ck tho fort. Tho cM-.mi 
three Fieuclunen at first killed two, and drove tho rest olV, 'ii,',Vo 
but th(! latter, learning from somo Indians tho condition 
of th'3 i)lace, and tho number of those defending it, were 
ashamed to have recoiled before thi'oo men ; still thoy did 
them tho honor of sending a hundred against them. Our 
bravo fellows saw how useless their ell'orts would bo 
against so large a force , but they would not surrender. 
They loft their prisoner in the fort wivh forty or lifly tiiou- 
sands of i)eltries, embarki'd nnperceived, in a canoe, and 
were so fortunate as to ri-ach (.^neljcc, where they found 
de Fro'iLeuac deeply chagrined that the tardiness of tiio 
vessels from France, had again entiuled tho failure of tho 
projected expedition against Fort Nelson.' 

1 N. Y. Col. Doc.ix., 1). 570. ^ VIiucsi, l.ctlns Kililiiuit.'s ft 

-' Uuill.iiv. lb. I.. 551. Curii'iisrs, vol. x., (1 rf.'.ri'niv.'ls of 

•' FiitluT Antliony Oaliiuis cuiin" Lciirni'd Mi^^sioluu•il s, (tTt I,) p. 'J.!!!. 

(Voin iMancc in KiTO. S.'iit to .Moii- !).■ lii t'otlirnr, iii., p. ISj : N. V. Col. 

iii'Miiiisiu liHi'J. PciuMratrdIo lliul Poi'.. ix., ]i,i. ."ir)!, .")lii, ."irO. 

.,o',Vs I'.av l.y SiiKUcmiy. Killv.l ' Marr.M sivs tliiil nl' liv.' \vl,<, r^.fc 

March li," lUU;i. ""' - 1'"™ '''•■'^' "'" ^^"' " ">'• 






W : : 










. * i i. 




,: i 
f I 

« -I 


) r: 




The Eng- 
lish com- 
pelled to 
retire in 


The news from Aciulia was more coi>- iliug. It notifiod 
the geueral, that lifteeu men of war of tlie fleet that hatl 
attacked Martiuique, had arrived at Boston ; that they 
seemed iu very bad trim ; having sufi'ered terribly from 
the pLigue, and that they wore subjected to quarantine ; 
that the Englisli had, according to the rumors, lost sis. 
, thousand men iu this unlucky expedition, besides a great 
number of deserters, and that two of their largest ships 
had been sunk by the guns of Count do Blenac who ac- 
quired great glory indeed, on this occasion.' 

The Chevalier do Villebou, who sent this information to 
the Count do Frouteuac, added, that General Pkibs had 
said that if his fleet had not come back so shattered, he 
would .yet have had time to take Quebec ; and that after 
the crews were rested a little, he would send several vessels 
to cruise ofl' the mouth of the Saint Lawrence ; the two 
Frenchmen wh.o escaped from Boston prisons, had as- 
sured him that the same general was preparing to como 
and attack hiiu in his fort of St. John's river, at the head 
of eight inxndred men ; but that he did not fear him. It 
was, however, fortunate that this news proved false, or that 
Phibs had changed his mind, for he was iu no position to 
make a defence." 

Towards the cud of September, Tareha returned to Que- 
bec, agreeably to the j)romise he had given, and he brought 
an Oneida woman, impelled to make the journey, from 
the mere desire of beholding the Count de Frouteuac, of 
whom she had heard such groat things. It was not quite 
the Queen of Sheba, but the Iroquois woman was animat- 

' Relation, &c., l(103-;i. N. Y. 
Col. Doe. ix., ]). 571. The expedi- 
tion was eoninianded by Sir Franeis 
Wheeler : lie landed :l(IOi) men, who 
were rejHilsed by Caiil. Collet and 
Count di> Hlenae.andal'tcrlesinu- five 
or six killed, and lilM) |)ri!^:iner.s, 
with arinH, umunition, and baguajre, 
ghumefidly retreated, and re-ein- 
l)arke<l. Jetterys' Freiicli I'oniin 
ions, II., \t. 14y. De la rotheiie, ill 

p. 188, makes their loss .SOO men, 
and two shiiw. Wlieuler reached 
Boston, June 11.0. S., having' buried 
l:!(IO out of -^MOU sailors, and 1800 
out of "J^lOO soldiers The distenipei 
spread in Hoston. Uulchiiison, Hist 
Mass., ii., p. 71. 

*I)e hi Potherie, Ilistoire de 
rAini'rii|ue Sept., iii., ]>. 188. R»- 
latioii, &c., N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., p. 




ed by the same motive as tliat princess ; aud the Fronch 
geuoral was so flattered, tliat he seemed to regard this wo- 
man as something more than an Indian squaw. She had 
indeed rendered great services to the French prisoners in 
her canton, and it was to her that Father Milet owed his 
life. Tlius tlio Count do Frontenac had more than one 
reason for giving her a cordial welcome." She merited 
even something more, aud God gave her charity, the same . 
r(!W:ird that Cornelius the centurion obtained of old. 
Like him, he enlightened her with the light of the Gospel. 
She was baptized under the name of Susanna/ and I saw 
her in 1708, at Sault St. Louis, where she died in a happy 
old age, after long edifying that town by the constant 
practice of all Christian virtues. 

It was doubtless on her account, also, that the Count de T^eha's 
Frontenac received Tareha quite well, although he was ex- proposUioa 
tremely shocked at the propositions submitted by that In- 
dian. Aft'}r rather lame excuses for his canton's not send- 
ing deputies to the general, to treat of peace, throwing the 
blame on the English, who had, he said, prevented the 
Oneidas from following the wishes of their hearts, ho had 
the hardihood to ask the Count de Frontenac to send an 
ambassador of his own to Albany, (Orange,) where these 
same EagHsh absolutely insisted on this great ali'air being 

The indignation excited in the Governor's heart at such Fronte- 

conduct may bo conceived ; he beheld hinvsolf mocked by 
a nation, by whom he always flattered himself he was es- 
teemed and fearcid. Yet ho did not display it comi)letely ; 
ho even seemed couviuced that Tareha privately thought 
much better than he spoke iu the name of those who dele- 
gated him ; he gave him presents, and dismissed him, say- 
ing that he would take in good part, the excuses of the 
Oneidas ; but that ho would not delay in making the can- 

u, '.'a reply. 

' De la Potlicrie, iii., p. 19. already Christians, ami luiioug them 

•'Milci's narrative does nut iud' he names rspceially, Sunanna (Jnu- 

O'lte precisely rhis wcnian. Those cntHjrrandi, au Agoyaiuler in the 

w'lo prowctcU iiiiu, he speaks of, as tribe, liekitiou, pp. uO, 31. 



I. ,i 


'.■■ :'!l 




• V.'l 



■ ■ I- 



■ «, i 






I 1. , 

■ I 




M ^> \t ! 

I , i ■ * 


'1';i •*:' 


i :'i. 


Why lio 
dt'liiycd to 
pusii tlio 

Zciil and 

Bfi'vicos of 



tons repent their ^ot profitinj; by the favorable disposition 
towards them, wlien he arrived from France, as well as 
their adding insolence to perfidy. 

Yet Tareha understood that this threat was only con- 
ditional, nor was it so much the general's conduct to him, 
that induced him to think so, as some mitigated expres- 
sions which he had intermingled with his threats. Yet 
there was some ground for believing that these menaces 
would not bo without result, because the Illinois and Mi- 
amia, encouraged by the Chevalier de Tonti, and the 
Sieur do la Foret, were then making fierce war on the Iro- 
quois, and had already within two or three years killed 
more tlian four liundred of their men.' 

But what pi-incipally induced the Governor-General not 
to break ofi" all negotiations witli these Indians, is that he 
maintained secret correspondents among them, by whom 
it would be very easy to see what would be the result, 
before taking a final step. His faithful Oureouhare, 
who had recently retired among the Christian Iroquois 
of the Mountain, made fi'equent excursions to his can- 
ton, ajid omitted nothing, that ho deemed most advis- 
able to inclme them to the French interest. Moreover, 
Garakonthie was still alive, and although a fervent Chris- 
tian, ho had remained at Onondaga, where his presence 
was deemed necessary to seize the ojjportunities which 
might offer of restoring a good understanding between us 
and his countrymen. This venerable old man, deprived of 
all spiritixal succour amid that Babylon, never allowed his 
piety or zeal to relax, and by the care which he took to 
maintain his credit, like another Daniel, he more than once 
found moans to thwart the intrigues of tlio English, who, 
but for this, would have frequently reduced us to mortify- 
ing extremities. 


' ( s 

lKchiti(m,&c., 1()!l-2-:!. N.Y. Cnl. Col. nor, iv., p. 50. FlctclnT with 

DoL'., ix., p. ■'i'i'2. \)r 111 I'otlnrii', (111 Scluivlcr convi-ni'd tlic Suilu'ins 01 

I'AiiKMiiiHf Sept., iii., p. I'.IO-l. On tlio Ii'oi|Uois nt Alliany, ',' Feb. llillt 

tlic ri'liini of 'I'iiri'liri, Dirck Wes Sec l'ropo«itioiis nt Iciilt'Ii. H) p 

wis WHS Hfiit to Oiioiuluga. N. Y. )5o. 






;ird uri. 

I liavo boon muiblo to ascertain wlietbov Toganissoruus "'").v^ 
was tbou a Cbristiau, for it is certain tliat be oocauie one, ' 
and died at Sault St. Louis. At tbe time now spoken of, 
bo was still at Onondaga, wliero be perfectly seconded tbo 
good tlesigns of Garakontbie, aud it may be affirmed, tbat 
New Franco was in part indebted to tbe services of tbeso 
tbrec Indians, for not liaving its fields and dwelUngs cou- 
tinnaby overrun by bostile parties. 

Witii tins exception, -tbo cantons continued to follow for Conjima « 
some years, the plan of conduct from wbicb they bad not ^^^^i^ 
swerved -inco tbe beginning of tbo war, and wbicb con- 
sisted in negotiating from time to time, witbout ever com- 
ing to a conclusion, and in incessantly barassing us ; but 
in"stopping wlien tbey were in a position to do us most 
injury. Tbo Englisb, on tbeir side, never co<\sed telling 
tbeni tbat tbey would sooner or later destroy tbe French 
colony, and it was mainly to keep up this idea in their 
minds, that the English every year spread the rumor 
of a great expedition to besiege Quebec' 

If they perceived tbat auy of those sincerely attached 
to us in tbo cantons, were active in urging the nation 
to make peace, tbey left nothing undone to till the n>st 
of tbe canton with distrust of these chiefs, or else of- 
fered tbeir mediation, which tbey knew wo would not 
accept, and thus to induce the masses to believe that 
we were not acting in good faith. They then induced 
some chief of repute to raise a war party, which cured 
tbe most pacific of all desire of arrangement. 

The reason why we would not listen to tbo idea of 
receiving them as arbiters, is that they always wished 
to dictate the terms, ai they easily made our refusals? 
pass for a proof that we sought only to deceive. Thuf^ 
assured of the majority of the leading chiefs, they cared 
very bttle for the advances occasionally made by our 
most zealous partisans to the French general, aud they 

> Engiy. ixcoounts wlmit that the th..^ war. N. V. Colouial Doc, iv.. 
Indians wavi'red and were weary of p. 58. 

1 4 





!•« 'I 




d I 


, h-i 


; i|,< , 

f Ir^ 

'^ I'M 


P '. 

\ ■ 


; ;.'»■' 

I,- 1 


even doriveil this adviuitago, that ou the faihirc of tlioso 
aclvuuccs, thoHO wlio luado thcuu somotiiut'S fell umlor 
our Huspicious. Thoy had, in tino, fonud the secret ot 
inspiring tho entire nation with tlio desire of drawing 
the whole fur trade to them, by showing the cantons 
tho great profit that would redound to tlieniselves. 
Hence arose all the intrigues of them both, to seduce 
our allies, some of whom always let themselves be 
gained, or surprised. 

I liave uovcrtheless observed, and this must not bo 
lost sight of, to understand the whole thread of the Iro- 
quois manieuvres, so ai)parently variant with each otlier, 
that these Indians would not calmly have beheld the 
English solo masters of all Canada. Thej- were not ig- 
norant how much they should have to fear at the hands 
of the English, had the latter no rivals, and at bottom 
they asi3ired only to hold the scale evenly balanced be- 
tween the two nations, whose mutual jealousy made the 
Iroquois sought by both and ensured their safety. 

The English themselves were very fortunate to have 
such a barrier to present to us ; for they coiild not en- 
sure the tranquillity of their colonies, powerful as they 
were, except by keeping us enqjloyed on that side, 
while the Indians in the neighborhood of Acadia, close- 
ly allied to us by the bond of religion, incessantly dis- 
turbed the repose of New England, and the domestic dis- 
sensions of New York exposed that province to the dan- 
ger of i^assing under the French domination. 

This policy of two nations, too proud to esteem each 
other, and too restless to remain on a good understanding 
longer than their interest demanded, had ceased to be a 
mystery for those who had any share in the atlairs of New 
France. Frontenac knew this better than any other, and 
if on the one side, it obliged him to be ever on his guard, 
it reassured him on the other, and iuduci.'d hin;. to listen to 
the Iroquois, whenever they sent him de])utie8, witli whoi.i 
he could treat, without exposing the dignity of his charac- 
ter, ilureover, by tliis iiieaus, lie always recovered some 





prisouers, and generally r;aiuod a few months' peace, of •6i>3. 

which lio availed himself to givo the colonists time to ~" " ' 

Ijrcathe, sow their lauds, and reap their harvest;!. Fin- 

allv the Iroquois deimties rarely left him without cou- '•"»■ P^""- 

ceiviug esteem, and oveu feeling attached to him person- Ucd by it. 


Thus, at the commoncement of the year IfiOl, two On- 1694. 
ouda'^as,' having come to Montreal to ask de Callieres 
whetlier the Deputies of the Five Nations who were, >[u»\h atriUn 

. , . .. make slidw 

they added, already on the way, would bo well received 11 of mukiiij,' 
they came to ask their father Ouonthio to grant them 
peace, that governor, informed of his general's intentions, 
replied, that they would be heard, when they came, but 
that ho doubted whether they would come. They retired 
with this reply, and then nearly two months elapsed with- 
out anything more being heard of it. De Callieres was 
not at all surprised, yet not to be wanting in anything 
that depended on him, he deemed it pro[ier to send out 
some i)arties hi the direction of New York, in order to ,seo 
whetlier by means of prisoners that they might take from 
the Iroquois, he could not discover the real object of 
their sending the Hrst deputies, or the doluy of the sec- 

On the 23rd of March, two Mohawks came to ^Montreal, 
bringing the excuses of Teganissoreus, who should have TlioFmiPh 
beeu the head of the deputation. They said, that if the 
cantons had failed to keep their word, it must be asiiibed 
to che English.' They were ill received, the more espe- 
cially, as Indians from Acadia had warned de Frontenac to 


' Torskim, luphew of CJranilo 
Oiu'uk', iiiiil a son of (iarioyo, an 
Iroquois of isault Ht. Louis. Do la 
Pother e, iii., p. lilS-t). 

' La Motte (.'atliUac. Roliition, 
&c., 101)4. N. Y. Col. Doc. is., p, 

■" Tlicy ljrouij;lit tUret" l)(.lts, witli 
an ''xiilaiiiitory document in I'n'iu'li, 
giving Ilium aa lliu ducisiou of a 

tonfci'cnco of tliu Five Niitious, lirld 
in Alljany, Fob. 9, l(iSi4. This is 
given in Ui; la I'othcric. iii., p. 300. 
N. Y. Col. Doc, ix I). 578. Colden's 
Five Nationg, p. llici. They were ad- 
dri'ssud to the Karigouistes, or In- 
diiins of the' S«uU, who answi'ivd 
tlirni hiUiiiluily.cimiiikiiinnLrof tlicir 
not scudiiig (It putit'B Iriiiu all tho 
cantons. 11)., 




i i:!i? 




■ I, 







1 , 1. 

.1 I IK 

■ 1 > 



' « .-I 

•i ^ ; 



■H •]'■■■ 


1694, liowarc! of tlic Iroquois, who niPi'jly wished to giiiu tinio, 
^— >— — ' ami throw liiui oil' his j^nanl ; thiit it was ovoii tlicir tlcsigu 
to stal) him iiiid tlic Chovahcr ilo Callioros at a council, 
whoro thuy woukl l)o in larj^'c! nun.bers ; to have numcu'ous 
parties in the vicinity of Montreal, roaJy to pounce upon 
the astonished colony, deprived of its commanders ; to 
carry tiro and desolation everywhoro, and then introduce 
the En}j;lish into the country. 
Iro'iiii is There was doubtless oxaf^fj;;u'ation in this ; but prudencQ 
^S«cLwc. required him to be on lis guard, and the Irocjuois I'aihiro 
to keep tlicir word, excited rellection. However, in the 
month of May, TeganissoreiLS arrived at Quebec, with 
eight deputies. It was the sowing season, aud this cir- 
cumstance made the Governor-General refrain from show- 
ing how little importance he ascribed to this embassy. 
He gave the ambassadors public audience' with much 
pomp, aud never did they speak better on both sides. Te- 
gauissorens' goodness of heart appeared, not only in tlio 
harangue, which ho delivered in this assembly, but also 
in his private interviews with do Frontenac, to whom he 
presented belts in the name of Garakonthie. 

The General treated him very kindly, begged him to as- 
sure Garakonthie of his gratitude and esteem, and to these 
marks of friendship, added very fine presents for both ; 
but convinced that neither of them entered the councils of 
the nation, in which the English took part, ho relied'only 
on their sincere atl'ection, without Hatteriug himself that 
their intiuence was great enough to bring the whole nation 
to a perfect reconciliation. He then prolonged the stay of 
the deputies as mueli as was necessary to give the colon- 
ists time to sow thi'ir fields, aud this dehiy led to another 
result, no less advantageous to tiie colony.' 

Mr. de Louviguy had grounds for fearing a rupture with 
our allies of the North and West, to whom the Iroquois 

' May 23, IflOl. N, Y. Col. Doc, fnco are given at length, in Dc la 
is., p. 5T!). P.itlierie, iii,, i)|>. !>(IJ-^JO. N. Y. 

'' Tlie iiruceediugs of tliis confer- Cul. Doc, ix., ]>. .^TD-oSiJ. 

4 I 






woro uncoiisiii<,'ly iiisiimatin;:; that tlio Froncli wished to '^ \ 
iJiiiki' ti'i'iiis with tiio c'luitoiis without iv^'ard to tlioir inter- " "" ' "^ 
ests. All tiiat lie foiild ilVcct, was to iiuhice tlio principal . .tof 
chiefs of these nations to convince themselves of the truth "'latiou.'" 
in person ; these chiefs started for (Juebcc, and arrived 
two days after the departure of the Irocpiois deputies. 
Frontcnac, learninj^ from their own lips the object of thoii 
visit, sent an express to Tei^anissorens to ho<^ him to re- 
turn to (^acl)cc ; he came at once, and saw tlio chiefs of our 
allit's and thii latter, after liearinj^ him, understood that 
the Tro([uois had no otlier object tlian to divert them, pre- 
vent tlieir parties attacicing the -i -miu enemy, and em- 
broil them with the French, so "■■.!. b uivo au easier task 
■with both of them.' 

It wtiH not the Governor-(' 'cr '"s fault that he did not M. doFron- 
drrive from Tej^anissoi'ens' t', ip t .ion another advantaj^e, iiKiicitiml 
which seemed to him no l<)ss essential, although all the nsiom 
world were not ot his opu lUs was tlie re-establisii- 

ment of Fort Catarocouy. it was first proposed by Tega- 
uissorens,'^ altJiough perhai)s at the General's own sugges- 
tion. Frontcnac certainly seized the opening with all tho 
ardor of his nature, and did not delay for a moment, the 
preparations for au enterprise so long desired. Ho pro- 
pared witli great diligence a largo escort, which was to 
conduift to that post a garrison, mechanics, munitions, and 
all necessary for au establishment which he proposed to 
make tlie bulwark of t!\e colony. He gave the command 
to the Chevalier de Crisasy, but as that olHcer was on tho 
point of embarking, he ri'ceived orders to disband.^ 

This change was caused by de Seriguy's arrival at Mon- ^y,,^^ 
treat, where the Governor-General was, bearing a royal J^'^^^'it* it- 
commission to raise a considerable force, for an expedition 
against Fort Nelson. The court still clung tt) this project 
and committed it to Serigny himself, and his brother, 

' Kdatioii, Kliti-;?. N Y. Col. Doc. ■ Eightli lu'lt. N. Y. Col. Dye is., 
is., i>. .")'j;! Df hi PotbiTii', His- p. .581. Du la Potlu-rif, iii,, p 2\)'^ 
tuin; d(^ I'Ain. Sri>t., iii., p. 2'2'K •iiT. 


I ! 



1.1 H 


1 1 













jii, i .!., 



1694. (I'lIitM-villc. T1h'1'(> was not 11 iiioiiiciit to loso, unless tlioy 

^— V- -^ wIsIumI till' project to I'.'iil for tlio tliiiil time, uiul for tliis 

imiposo it wuH uucossiiry to take a piirt of tlio mou who 

woro to accoinpiuiy tho Chevalier do CrisnHy. Frontoiuio 

gavo Scri^'iiy oiiu liiiudrcd iiud twenty Caiiiidiitns, and somo 

Indians from Saiilt St. LoniH ; the rest were dismissed till 

fiuthur orders.' 

Now iii"'()- Soon after, two Fronchmou who \ia,iX oscajied from 

wi'i'ii "I'lTr Ouoii'^'io"-! whoro tlioy woro prisoners, assured do Front- 

lrui|i!..u. ix-n;^ that he must no lon.^or count on makinj,' peai-e witli 

tho Iro(|Uois nation ; tho Cronoral believed them ill informed, 

and tho chiefs of tho western and northern tribes ha\ing 

arrived towards the close of August, with a groat convoy 

of furs, brought by do Louvigny," he carefully withheld 

from them the information which ho had just received. 

At tho end of a fortui^dit, Ouroouharo, Avho had accora- 
l)anied Teganissorens on his return, came back witli thir- 
teen French prisoners, whom he had delivered, among 
them tho two Hertels, taken two years before at do la 
(lemeraye's defi;at, and who Avero supposed to be dead ; 
but ho brought uo deputies, except those of his own cau- 
toii, Cayuga, and of tho Seneca.' Only Count do Fronte- 
nac's regard for their conductor, made him give them a 
favorable hearing, and ho wished tho chiefs of our allies to 
be present at the audience. 

Ourcouhare, who sjioke, began by presenting a belt, the 
meaning of which was, that ho had burst the bonds of thir- 

' Deln Potborii', iii., ]). 227. Es- 
nininatiou of M. I'liwling ami N. 
Smith. Si'u N. Y. Col. Doc, iv., [). 

'' Do la Porte dc Louvigny ciuin.' 
from Paris in KIST, ami bfcaino 
liinttc'iiant ami capl;iin. In IHUO, 
bi'iit to tlir west with ii convoy, ami 
fcatuil the IriMjiiois. Antu, |i. liiT. In 
KiUo. he was made luli'tihipman and 
ensign in the navy, i>"cording to 
Daniel, i., p. !307. He ret, rued from 
the \ve«!t, OH here eluted, in 1UU4. 

Major of Three Rivers in 1700; of 
Qm-liec in 170;l. Knight of St. 
LiniiH in 17iiS ; King's lieutenant 
at Qiiehec, in 1710. ( 'oinuiandant 
in the Upper Country, 171(i-1720. 
Conducts e::pe(lition against tho 
Foxes, 1710. (ioviTuor of Three 
Rivers, 1724 ; lost on Cliaineau, Aug. 
27, 172r). Daniel, i., ji. ;H)0. N, Y, 
Col. Doc. ix., !>, !);W. 

' De lu Potherie, iii., p. 227, N. 
Y^. Col. Doc, iv., p. ll.")-110, men- 
tions eight as escliauged. 


II s 




liiic'tt lllllkl 



toon Froiicliiaou ; lio then pn^Hciitod otlioiH, to show tlmt 
tlio cantoBH, wlioHo (Itii)nt.'eH iippoiirod, |v rcoivin^ that To- 
j^iiiiissoi'i'ii.s' iu'ij;()tiiiti(iii was too loiij,' protriii-tcd, and 
kuowiiiy tlmt it wuh tniviTscil \>y tlio lliif^'lisii, had takoii 
tJH) iiiitiativo, and diroi'tod tlu;ir envoys to hvt^ tliiii- Fa- 
tli( r not to loso pationco, but to assuro liim that tlioy 
wished at any prico to ic^'ain liis favor, and thny conjured 
him to hold i)ark his hatflu't ytit a iittlo lon^'cr. 

The (toncrai asked (honi whotlu!!' they diil not intend to 
inchide all the nations in tiie treaty propostul, ami this 
question end)ai'r;>ssed thoni. They eonforred for somo 
time to<;etlier, and then rejjlicHl in a very amhij^'uous man- 
ner. Father iJruyas, Superior of the Missions, who acted 
as interpreter, begged them to be more explicit, but their 
trouble incroaseil. Then the Count {] • Frontenac told 
them tlu't iio accepted the tirst belts, and that he with 
])leasure beheld his chihlren whom he had mourned as 
(lead ; that hu thanked the dojiuties of the two cantoua for 
their eager protestation of liiUdity to him ; but ho did not 
receive the other belts, by whicli thoy proposed to stay 
his arm, and that ho was about to strike at ouco, un- 
less they i)romptly gave him a precise reply to all that lio 
had declared to Teganissoreus. 

He then treated tiiem magnificently, and during the nc au. 
bancpiet, resuming that nobly alVable manner that alway.s '||,':p'ai|,J' 
became him, he sought to convince tiie Sonecas and Cay- •''''"j:'j'|'.''''^" 
ugas that he de^ireil peaci; less I'oi' his own sake than for 
their.s, and as a father, who reluctantly punishes his chil- 
dren. Some time after, he gathered all the Imlians, and 
evincinl much displeasure at 'reganisst)rens' failure to re- 
turn at tin; apiioinled tinu;, and still more at their consult- 
ing the Fiiglish, who, looking only to their own interest, 
could not but dissuade from iieacc. Ho added that ho 
should not long be the dupe of the irresolution and incon- 
stancy of the cantons ; that he and his allies were about to 
resume the war in earnest, and carry it ou more vigorously 
than ever. 

The dc[)uties, wlio Lad not exi)ectcd this threat, wished 

, '.1 

*' :'i 

' ' I 




" k. 










(■ \ 



'^<l ':;' 

i 'J : 

I '■ 1 

« • 

Return fif 

K. Mild 

nii'l 'ruri.'li:i 


t(i »\( itc Ills tliwlniHt (if liiw iillics, but lio took up tlifir il - 
I't'iu'i', iiii.l |>iol("-,ti'il til it lid would iicvcr si'|i,ir,itt.( liin iu- 
ttrcsts I'niiii theirs. Vol liu liNtcut'd (juili! calmly to soiiio 
I'l'proiiciu'S tluit till) IliU'dUS iiud IroipioiH iiddiosHcil each 
otlii r, wiHliiii^', doubtlcHH, to suo wliotlicr he could not thus 
derivi) souu^ I'^'I't us to llu) conduct of tlm former, whom ho 
liiid ncvcf tiuslcd iiioiv tliiin modcriilcly ; hut iiftci' (juito 
a wiirni idtrrcatioii, from wliich ho learned notldiii,' but 
wliiit 111' already knew, he imposed silence on boih parties. 
He then told the Irocpiois that he would make his picpar- 
ations slowly, in order to ;,'ive them time to return to their 
duty ; but that if they continued to aliuse his patienc(\ ho 
would make liiem feel that, as on the one hand he was a 
good father and a faithful ally, so on the other they would 
find him a terrible enemy, if they utterly exhaustc^l his ])a- 
ticnce. lie spoke in the same tone to the other Indians in 
liriviito, and dismissed them all with presents, and full of 
esteem for him in iierson. 

Towards the end of October, Fathcu' Milet' arrived at 
Montreal afti'r the years slavi'ry, a j,'()od part of which ho 
liad spent in constant expectation of the tortures intlicted 
ou prisoners of war, and he informed the Ooveruor-Geno- 
ral that he was closely followed by Tarc^ha with deputies 
from the Oni'ida cantcm. In fact tlicy landed a few days 
after, but were very ill received, and iilmost trciited as splits. 
Nevertheless Frontenac relaxed a little on the testimony 
of the missionary to whom Tareha had really rendered 
great services durliijj; his captivity, and altl'.ungh ho bej^'an 
to credit the statemeiit of tlu? Al)i'na<iuis, ihat all tlieso ne- 
gotiations were intended only to amuse him, he reflected 
that they had not lieen useless to him, in so far as they had 
all'orded some re|)(jse to tiie inhabitants of the colony. 

It was, moreover, a matter of ni'cessity either to make a 
show of meeting these advances or to go and attack tlia 
Iroquois with forces capable of d(!stroying them, and lio 

' Ah to ^lilftV oaiitivity, sci' Hcla- N. Y. Col, Doc, iv., j). i!), 7!), '.>:', &c., 
tion d'um' ciqitivitt' [i;iniii Ics Oiiin'- Miitlicr's Maguiilia, Hook, ii., p 
loulN, New Voik, 1^01. l.i'UiTB in 01. 








waH fur fioiu lifiviii^ oiiou^;li for sik;!) mh cxiunlitioii. Tim "'"r.- 
Eiiylisli, us alii'iuly notict'il, Imd irci'lril ii fort at Oiioiidi- '" ' "~^ 
ga, iiml that jiliicc was in vi'It ^'ooil coi, lili,)ii. Tlic I'o- n,,, ,j^,|„,r, 
(juoirt (.•oiiKl at iiccil |iiit ill tlu( licM tli)"i« tlumsaiid '"I'lii i',',':'" '.'nVic 
uiul tlio Govoi'uoi' of Now York \V( mill lio siu'o not to lot r,."'',"u 
thoiu ju'rish for want of his aid. 

Frniitcnao I'oiiiil count on two thoiisaml men at most, 
inchiilin;.; rc^^ulars, militia, and domiciliati'd Indians; pni- 
ilent'c not |n'rmittin^' him to h.-avo nni^'arrisoncd tho nioro 
ox|(OM'd [losts, wiiioh woro ([uitn numiu'inis. 'I'lms, con^id- 
-rin;,' all tliin;,'s, la,' had dono much l)y iliviu'tin;,' this {^roat 
war ]iartii>s, which would at thu It'ast havo ravu;^'i'd tho 
tiflils, a ilisastiT thai would entail a ^on va' I'amini). Now 
til'.' I't'ssatiou of ho^tilitii'S on a i^rrat S(m1i', . is tho result 
)f tlic n<';,'oliations just nioiitioiied, aii'i tln^ small p.itics 
that apix'arud on oiio sido ov aiiotlier diiiin;^ thai time, 
liail only forced us to ijo ever on unv ^uard. 

Tliu Ln;,dish of Boston were far from (•ijjoviii;^' as yreat S'lmr W": 
ti'aiKiuillity at the hands of the Abi'naciui nations. .Sir uiui HkI 
(William) IMiibs had based ^'reat lioixiS on Fort I'emUuit, "" " 
.situated iu thu midst of these Indians, and at lirst, by iuti- 
midatiou, brought some to a kind of tonus. This was loss 
sur[)rising as these Indians often beheld thomsolvos aban- 
doned i)y the French, who counted a little too much on 
their attachment, and the inllueuce of those who liad ^aim;d 
their coutideuce ; moreover, somo of their relatives wero 
prisoners at Boston, and tliero was nothing that they 
would stop at, to got thorn out of the hands of tho Eng- 



• ■ 




Things had oveu goue so far, that two of their chiofa' 
had bound themselves iu tho mouth of May, to conclude a 
treaty of poaco with tho Governor of Now Eugland, aud 
that Geuoral, after receiving hostagi^s, had ])r(jct!eded in 
person to Pemkuit," to hasten tho conclusion of an all'air 

' Du la Potlu-rle. iii., p. 227. ' Slv in .MiitluTs .Mn^'iuiliii, i., \>]>. 

• Kil/.iniu't, (I''^''i'r''i'i''' "''•'^'"i''i''"-) "'l''-o. a .rw.l; >it;iii'il a: I'niiaii'iiil, 

nnd Mctuwumto, (Muduckuwuiulo,) Au^'. 1 1, <>. ;■'., Lk tlu; iibov' cliiufs, 

lb., J). 227. niul limr iitlii'Vs. 









, 5 



t '>< 


I* ' 


Tlie Sieiii- 
do Villic'ii 

IjRMk.S (ill 

the iini^.i- 

Bi.kl ;in<l 


of tliat 


wliicli he justly regarded hh a master stroke. He would 
{\pparoutly have succeeded, but for the exertions of the 
Sicur de Villieu, who had so greatly distiuguished himself 
at the siege of Quebec, nud theu commanded a compauy iu 
these parts. 

At the very moment wheu Phibs felt most assured of at 
last freeing his colony from all anxiety as to such danger- 
ous neighbors, Villieu, seconded by Mr. Thury, missionary 
at Pentagoet, found means to regain Mataouando, a Male- 
cite chief, who had already declared for peace. Raising a 
party of two huudretl and lifty Indians from the neighbor- 
hood of Pentagoet and St. John's river, and being joined 
by the Abeuaipiis of tlie eider Father Bigot's mission, 
Villieu put himself at the head of ah these braves, having 
with him only a siDgle Frenchman, and led them to the 
river Pescadone, (Piscataway) iu the mitl:;t of English set- 
tlements, and only twelve 'eagues from Boston.' 

Here there wore two forts," a short distance from each 
other ; the Abenaquis uudcrtook to attack one, Villieu, with 
the Malecitjs and Micmacs, marched against the other, 
and they wore .soon carried. Two Inmdred and thirty En- 
glish perished, tifty or sixty houses were burned, a success 
that did not cost the victors a single man, only one being 
wounded.' Mataouando always fought beside the French 
commandant, and greatly distinguished himself. 

1 Du 111 I'othriic, iii., p. '^'OS. Rt;. 
latidii liu Voyiu,'!' liiit i.iu- Ic Siciir 
ill' Viilii'ii. . . a 111 tcti' ili'S. . . Ivii- 
nilmts ft Miilrri/it s. C'.iiuulii l>iii'., 

I!., vii., 

IJiirot was 111 I'liiia- 

oumkik. Hi! li'l't Naxoiit, May 'J."), 
with his ludiiins iiiul two Fri' 
lai-ii. 11(3 wiisiit l'i'Uliii,'oi't .Jiiiii' \j. 
Williiimsoii, Hist. Maiiii", i., p. Ii:)il, 
{^is'i'S till) substiinci) of Ri^ot'.s and 
Tliury sHiTiuonis. tutln'r Iroiii ai'i iiiiUy 
lifariii;,' tlioui 111' irrm his own iiua 

■-' Fortified lioii.i's, IX' la Pothi'riu 
iii.. |i. '.',;'■). Vill''ii, ('iiiiai'a One, II., 
vii., p. Il2, wi'.p i>u\v tlic'ui .Inly 'M, 
calls tLcm " little lorts." 

■' Villieu, Relation, Canada Doc. 
II., vii., )). Vi, claims to havi; burned 
(iO houses, killed 10 1 men, uiul ta- 
ken :iT. De la I'otherie, iii., p. a,",), 
iv., )). -Ill, f,'ives 110 kilioJ. Tliu 
placi' was Oyster l{iver, now l)urliam> 
N. 11. llayward's li.izeite.'r of New 
Hampshire, p. (II. .lohu I'ike, in 
'lis .lournal, (N. II. Hist. Coll., iii., p. 
.■),) says thre.' pirrisons taken, 13 
houses burnt, i)-l per.-^ons killed or 
laki'U. Aci'<ir,lin^ to Cotton .Mather, 
JMaHiialia, IVk. vii., art. '^O.tive oi'tlio 
twelvi^jfarrisoned houses were taken. 
Ilelknap, History of New Haiiip.-lurL' 
(Farmer's Ed.) i.. i). l:!.'\ eslimates 
loss at !)() or lUO killed, and 20 





Tho Alienuqui chiof was Taxons, ii'vcatly eelcbvatecl for 1694. 
roiinv exploits, and comuiL'mlablo atlichmeut to onr inter- — — ^-— -' 
ests. This brave man, not satislicd with wliat ho had just 
so valiantly achievc-d, chose forty of his most active men, ':^,i'^(';,[,,°J. 
and after three days' march, by makiiit;' a Iohl;- ciicuit,- ar- -i""- 
rived at the foot of a fort near Boston, and attacked it in 
broad day. The En.^lish made a better defence than they 
did at Pescadoue. Taxons had two of his nephews killed 
by his side, and himself received more Uian a dozen mns- 
ket balls in his clothes, but he at last carried the place, 
and then continued his ravages to the very doors of the 

These hostilities provoked Phibs all the more, in as upiisinqiat 
much as on the assurances which he had ^;ivcn of a speedy '^"*'""- 
arrangement with the Indians, all the country was in per- 
fect security, and after these sudden and unexiiected hos- 
tilities, the people of Boston rose up against him.' Ho 
had no great authority hi his g(}vernia('nt, and as mucli to 
esca[)e the fnry of a mutinous populace, which despised 
him, as to seek means to avenge the allVont which he had 
just received from the Indians, he resolved to proceed to 

As soon as ho arrived there, he sent to tell those with 
whom ho had treated, that they must surrendiu' to him 
two of their men who had been at the attack of the lirst 

houst'S Iniriu'd, .Inly 18. O. S. lO'Jl. 
Sue ton UutcliinsDu'H Hirtt. Mush, ii., 
p. Ti). WilliiiuwiiuV Miiiiic, i., \<. 
U40. Stouglilon's Lctti'i- to r\v Iii- 
(liiius. N. V. Col. hoc, ix., \:\>J)l-\- 

' Df la PotlK-ri.', iii., i).22i». Tax- 
us, (luisiirintt'd Tauoiif,) in said, p. 
24(), to liiiv(! killi'd or takoii 4). 
ViUiril, Ut'lulion, \<. 13. «;>'(• the cliirt' 
Lad oO uirii. Till' place auui'k.d 
was Oi'oluii, .MassaL'lui^<i'ttH, July 'J7, 
O. S. ilatlur, Maf^uaiia, lib. vii., 
p. tiO, Hays tliL'V wiTe tirst i-fpulsud 
at luk'nt. Laliiii's hou-su, Im!. ri'uru in;' 
tliu attack, killed tweuty people, aud 

took a dozen. Butler'^ History of 
(Irotoii |). !l:.!, cites no autlnn-ity but 
Mather. The (ieiieral Court, liow- 
ever, relieved the town from taxes 
on account of "their great distress 
and impoverishment by reason of 
the desolation made upon them by 
the enemy." lb., p. 05. 

'•' Phibs' troiililes had a diireiTlit 
cause. See lliitchiiison's Hist. 
Mas.s., i., PI). 7(J-Sy. He war recalled 
to Ku;;laud. and sailed No\. 1 r. <>. 
,S. Charlevoix here confuses mat- 
ters, and makes the treaty follow, 
wlien it really preceded the hostili- 


1 1" 



















I' V > t 


4,'f ':■■, 

i ■• : 

passed 1/0- 



the liuli:in 

allies (.f tlie 


riicy bcBi- 



of tlieir 
iei) prevents 
their treat- 
iu'jwitli thu 


fort, that othevwiso Lo would regard tliora all as accom- 
plicL'S iu ail act of hostility coiULnitted agaiust tho law of 
luitious, aud aftt.r au eugagomout to commit uoiio, adding 
that he was at Pemkuit iu a position to puuish this perfidy. 
These threats perplextsd the Indians not a little ; they had 
given hostages to the English General, their kindred woro 
prisoners at Boston, and those circumstances were more 
than sulHcieut to induce them to agree to anything to ap- 
pease Sir (William) Phibs, who, on his side, would have 
made a golden bridge to regain them, trusting to betray 
ti)em in future. 

Moreover, succor had long been promised from France, 
but came uot ; uor could be speedily hoped for; the French 
slii})s that had arrived ou the Acadiiui coast, after advan- 
cing as far as St. John's river, having siiiled oil' with a pre- 
cipitation that admitted a great superiority ou tho jjart of 
the English. All this caused the Indians serious reflection, 
and they hesitated long as to the course to bo adopted. 
At last the majority decided to send and apologize to the 
English Governor for the past, aud assure him that he 
shoukl in future have no reason to complain of them. 

This stop would have been certain ruin to themselves and 
us. Nothing was bettor calculated to expose their weakness 
and ours to the English, who would undoubtedly have avail- 
ed themselves of it, to involve these tribes so that they could 
never recoil. But Mr. do -Lhuri, seasonably warned of 
what was designed, succeeded in assurii g the more timid 
and showing them ill, the gulf into which they were phiug- 
iug, by thus throwing themselves into tho arms of a nation 
whose bad faith they had so ofteu experienced, aud whom 
they had injured too deeply ever to expect to be well 
treated \,y them, and who really feared them enough to 
make it their [xjlicy to exterminate them entirely, so soou 
as tliey siiould see them uo longer sustained by tho 

Ho theu advised them tu employ tho time given them 
for a decisiou, in galluihig the little grain they had i)lanl- 
ed, and after that to retire to parts where they could be 





sure that tho English would uot pursue thoia. Mr. do 

ViUicu at tho saiuo tiiuo iuducod tho ohiof.s to accouipauy 

him to Qiioboe, whoro thoy prosoutod to do Froutonac, tho 

.scalps of tho English killod at Poscadouu ; Fatlior Digot'a 

Abouaquis, who liad talcou uo [)art in tho nogotiatious bo- 

tweon tho Malooitos aud tho Governor of Now England, 

folio wod do Villioii closely, aud all renowcd thoir protosta- 

tions of inviolable fidelity to the French giiueral.' 

AVhilo tho English were thus severely luiudlod in Now „ . . 

^^ ■' Dc-icriptioa 

England, by a handful of Indians, they received in Hud- '^^ I'^rt 

sou's Bay a check, which they felt still more keenly. On 

the 'Jlih of St.'ptember, d'Iberviilo aud do Seriguy arrived 
at tiie mouth (jf 8t. Teresa river after running groat risk 
from tho ice with which they found the whole baycovorod. 
Tiiey lauded tlio same day, and tho next night forty Cana- 
dians invested by laud tho fort, whoso capture was thu ob- 
ject of tii is expedition.' I have elsewhere remarked that 
what is pro[)eil3^ called Port Neison, is a kind of bay, •which 
roeoivos tlio waters of tho St. Teresa and Bourbon rivers, 
aud that tlio fort to which the English gave tho same 
name, stands on tho bank of tho former river, half a league 
from its mouth.' 

On the 27th after, tho Poli, commaudod by de Soriguy, 
had transferred to tho Salamaudre, d'Ibervillo's ship, aU 
needed for the siege, the two brotiiors endeavored to ap- 
proach the i'(n't, but tho ice detained them a whole mouth,' 
and n(,'arly cruslied tiie Salaiuandre. At last on, tho 28tk 
of October/' this sliip anchored a mile above tho fort, aud 

'■ l)t! Ill I'otlicrii', llistoiiv ill' 
r.\iu<'fitiiii' S.'jii., i>. ;:.");>, I'i'.l. 'ill 

■■' They s:iil .1 IV mi tj.i •')••,•, .iil:;-u--l 
10. ,I('r>'ini.', l!rl;itio;i il.' lii \iy 
dr lliuUciii. Viiyiu;-cs (111 Niinl, lii., 
p. o-l'i. He calls the vi'ssoU i'uli 
iiuil I'hiiraiit;'. KiitluT'st, Li't- 
tri's EililiiiiiU's, vol. X. Travi-ls »( 
MitnioiiarirH, &;., |). 'iV.), ami ])'• la 

jic'ililidii liail bfi-ii wilk'iti'd by tho 
Niii-thiMM I 'niiiiiany. Cuiuula Uoc., II., 
vi. ;,. -J.:!, 01.-,. 

" ■li'ii'iiiii'. U'rUition, (If hi Hayi.' do 
llu.N.Jii. |i. i!'.'."). [h; la I'otliL'rie, 
UiBi'iiii' ill.' rAiiii'riiiui', Si'pt., i., p, 

* Aiiti', viil. iii., p. 2u7 

*■ TliiH Ki'i'ius to 1)1' an error, coiu- 

I'otlicrii', i., p. liiii, cull ilic hilt'jr [nirr .Jci'i'iiiii'. i., p. ;!iil. 
tliK Salaniauilri!. Miu'c-^t wriitc Imi^' ' I'liis slmulil appiircntly bo Si^p- 

afior, Hiiii iaapiiarrutly in I'Vi'iir hero, toiubcr. Ji'n'nii.', ;>. o'iij. 
tllimt;li, (111 Iht'cipcdilioil. ThiSoX- 












I ti 

, I 

I' i 

! I 

) !; ,■ 

^ '. 


'^'94- (VIbcvvilli) eiiciimpcd his whole force on shore. This fort 
^"^"^^—^ was ii sciuaro house, to which four bastious hiul beeu add- 
ed, the whole being of wood. 

Ou a lino with the palisade were two other bastions, one 
serving as officers' (juartors ; between the two was a kind 
of half moon, where there was a battery of eight eight- 
pounders commanding the river, and below it a platform, 
level with the ground, with six heavy guns. On the side 
of the woods, which was a copse in a swamp, there was no 
defence. The main body of the, place was fortified by a 
double palisade, and had thirty-six cabj; )u, and six i)ede- 
reros.' The garrison consisted of dfty-three men, command- 
ed by a good trader, who had never smelt powder, and of 
course fiiade a poor defence." 

The siege began, however, in a very Scid manner for the 
jv iiiTHr two comiuaudauts. Their brother (Jl: i^^oaugue, stdl vounijc 

-•11,1 D J ^ rj 

do Scrii.'iiy. and serviii;^ as ensign ou the Poli, having advaui-ed on tlie 
■4th of November to ])revent the besiegers from making a 
sortie, was killed by a muskei: Ijali. He was the third of 
his family, killed lighting for his pviucc.' From that day 
to the 9tli, they were engaged iiiH'-.iig c^uar^ers for them- 
selves. On the 9th, they '. '.'^an to '-.ork at the batteries, 
and place the morti'.rs, waioh wore rjudy at noon ou the 
13tli; hr^ before using them, dTbervilie sent to summon 
the ''.r' to surrender. 

' 'rii'i. '.,,;,. '/.ptioncoiTi'sponds with 
unit iu .It'it'iuir's iii'liitiou (If la 
Biij(! (If lluilsoii, [). 32")-(i, uxicpt 
tliiit the; liitto says ;i3 ciuuiou uiul 11 

• l''r. Giibi-iul llun^st, Leltur to F. 
UL' IjUiiilii'i-villc, (Ui-ttres Kdil'iiUitiH 
;t (.'uricusrs, vol. x. ) Tnivols of 
Ijoarui'il Misriioncis, p. "JliU. 

••The iiiliiT two wrri' lie Siiiiilc 
Ht'luUf iimldeliii'iivillc. 'I'ln' iiiuuc 
of (.'liiitcaiigiiay was trivtii lo tlu' 
youuiri'st of tile lir^jtlicrs, HOW (iov- 
eruor of Oiycniii'. I'linrl'i-iiii; Tin' 
Scigui'iiry of ('liati'aiii;uay, is on iic 
St. Lawruucf, ailjoiuiiij,' lliat of 

Sault St. Louis, and crossed by tlio 
Cliiitfaiigiay aud St. Ui'gin rivers. 
It was graiitud to Lo Moyiiu, Sieiir 
dc l.oiiguouH, Si'pt. 'J'.), I(i7;j. lioii- 
cliettij, Tdiiogr. Dcsc. Vii, ix., 
Liouis le Moyiio, Sieur di^ I'hatcau- 
t;uay, llic lUtli liou of tlic Siuur do 
lion^'iitniil, was horn at Jloutreal, 
Jan. 4, KiiU. He was kiilcd, not 
Nov. 4, as gLMiorally stal'.'d, lim Oct. 
4. Seo Fatliir -Marcst's letter, 
ill the Li!tl..'S Editiaul.'s et ("u- 
rinises, vol. X. Travels of Li-arned 
.Missioiiers, p. '-li'iU. Daniel, Nos 
(ilories Xatioiiali's, i, p. ."iJ. Uue 
Page do Noir.' Uistoire, \) '^ijli. 





That olHcoi", seeing himself ou the poiut of being bom- 1694. 
barilcd, destitute of fire-wootl, anil with no hope of getting a "— ~v— -^ 
supply, if the French persisted in wintering in their camp, 'J•^^^, 
and especially being inexperienced in war, replied that he crinituiatei. 
consented tu surrender the fort, and would send his lieu- 
tenant the next day, to arrange the capitulation. He kept 
his word. The lieutenant asked that all the otHcers should 
be lodged in tli" i'ort during the winter, that neither they, 
their property, nor their papers should bo touched, and 
that they should be transported to Franco as soon as navi- 
gation oi)ened, or be at liberty to pass over to England. 
All this was gi'unted : tho capitulation was signed on the 
14th, and observed in gooj faith. The next day d'lber- 
ville took possession of the place and named it Fort Bour- 

The booty captui'ed was inconsiderable ; but a large 
stock of provisions wns found. As the French ships had 
not been very well supplied, this enabled them to pass more 
agreeably a winter, which proved very severe, and 'onger 
than usual. The English, informed of the French design, 
had sent two frigates t(j the bay, which revietu. lied Forts 
Nelson and St. Aun(,', in August, reinforced the ;'i;arrison, 
and carried oji' all the beaver skins ou hand. A litt'o dili- 
gence would have prevented this, but while Louis XTY. 
surprised his enemies by celerity in taking the tielJ the 
vessels sent to America by his order, always s.'iied two 
or three months too late from our ports. TL<. seqne! of 
this history will show that this tardiness was alnvv-t the 
sole cause of all our losses. i want of success in ••ur 
enterprises in that part of tl >ew World. 

The crown the disappoiulment, the scurvy broke out 

Jeri'iuic, Ueliitidii dr lii Hnyc ilo voix evidiMitly errn in giving Nov. 

IliuUdii, snys I'lr firjrr lu.-tril ' 11 lorOct. Miii'i st, I.uttiT to (le Lam- 

Sipt. 2."). to Oct. 1 1 : mill lliiU <\ r InTvillc, in tlic Lcttrcs Kii'liantcg et 

villi- cutcfi'd till' lort '111 till* |.")lli. CuriiMiscs, X. TniVfN of Mis.^ioncir, 

l)c ill I'utlieric. ill his liri.f iicciuut, p. Sti'J. say.< liu cnlcri'd wiili .i'lljiT- 

vol. i., ]i. l(j(), is in error, in niiikiiiy villi'. St. '^l•l■e^•l^'s day, Oc:. !"), iiud 

this nuiTc'udi.r Oct. I'O ; nud ChuiU- said nia.'*s. 





J 1 1\ 


( I 








among oiiv men, iitfcaekin^ most ot tlioui ; Mr. do Tilly, 
Lieuteuaut of tho I'oli, uiiio other CauadiaiiH, aud tea sail- 
Cnns(!- ^^'^ diod, Ouo huiulrod aud lit'ty canous, l(;adod with Nor- 
"^'tliu'wii- tlieru furs, which reached Fort Bourbou iu June, recom- 
(lULst. pensed those interested for the furs of which the English 
disappointed them, liut the end of July a])proaclied with- 
out the ice permitting thorn to sail. It was not till tho 
28th tliat the}- wero able to weigh anchor. Ojily ii hund- 
red aud tiftcen men survived on the two French shii)s, sev- 
eral of whom were unfit for service. This induced dTber- 
ville to resolve to await and ca[ aire the English ships, then 
to send the Poll to Franco, and proceed with tho Sahimau- 
dro to winter at the head of tho Bay, iu order to capture 
Fort St. Anne.' 

The English not appearing up to tho 7tli of September, 
he changed his plan, aud resolved to sail for (Quebec with 
tho two ships. He appointed the Sieur do la Foret, Gover- 
nor of Fort Bourbon, assigning Mr. de Ivlarigni' to him as 
lieutenant. Ho left them sixty-four Canadians, and six 
Irocpiois of Sault St. Louis,' with anununition and stores 
for a year.' Ho then steered for Canada, but being long 
detained by head winds on tho Labrador coast, and his 
crews being <laily enfeebled by scurvy, he made for the 
coast of France, aud cm tho 'Jth of October arrived at La 

Aftairs rf-maiued on the same footing in the centre of tho 

In.,|ii()is colony; the Irociuois contnunng to make great in'omises, 
comi.iiie to ^ / ' . ^ _^^ n , " . ; , ' 

amuse (he and Ivcepuig none, it was atterwanls ascertanied that the 

greatest obstacles to a perfect reconciliation between the 

canton.-; and the French, did not come any longer from 

' Father Miibviel Mnrcst to Fullicr - La Plaque comiuaiided these 
de Lamberville, iilii suprn, and in Iroquois, aixiirdiug to De la Potherio, 
Travels of Missioner.s ji. ;i()'J-2T(), i., \i. Klii 

gives most of these t'act.s, but not 
tin; deaths. 

• Captain de Marigni went to St. 
Domiugo iu 1710. Uauiel, ii., \i. 

* Father Mare>t remained after the 
ships sailed ill September, 111'.).'). He 
makes the \vh<ile 1,'iirrison in round 
uuinlKTS, S(j. Travels of Learned 
Missiuners, p. •2'i'i. 

r I 

f ,;.^.f,. 



Now York -tlio Dutch, wlio liiid a iiowrrful party in that 1695. 
province, no loiiyor opposing' tlio pcaco— but from New 
Eii,L;hiiiil. Yot, coiiio wiieiicc they woull, there was uot a 
fioul iuNcw France! hut felt convinced of tlio urj^'eut uecos- 
sity of carrying out the threa,t so often made to these per- 
fidious Indians. Tiio king's council had long entertained 
the same opinion, for thus wrote Mr. de Poutchartrain to 
Froutenac, April IGth, IG'Jo. 

" I !.m very glad to iuioim you in advance, of his Ma- iy, uinsr 
jesty's view in regard to the war, and the negotiation ycni Vimuui' hi 
have kept up w:th the Iroipiois, from the autumn of 1G'J3 J^^;^^ 
to the sailing of the vessels, and to tell you that this nego- 
tiation seems to have been con dieted' by them in concert 
with the English. Both seem to have had more especially 
iu view to suspend and avert the expeditions that you wero 
to undertake against them, iu order to be better able to 
pursue their hunting and trade, and then bo better able to 
resist your designs, .nd even carry th j war into Canada. 
You cannot have more positive proofs of their insiucerltyi 
than in what you have discovered, that at the very time 
wheu they were sending you ambassadors after ambassa- 
dors, the}- wero tampering with tiie ui)per nations, our al- 
lies, to make peace with them, independent of you, lou 
have at least derived from this knavery, the advantage of 
having exposed them iu presence of the deputies of these 
nations, and iu letting the litter know from the Iroquois 
themselves, that the IroqucJs had no idea of including 
them iu the pretended treaty, .and you are more certainly 
assured of their tielelity, and the conlideu(;e they shouli'. 
feel, that the khig will not aband(Mi them. This being 
so, every means must be adopted to wage war vigorous- 
Iv on the Iroquois. His Majesty will make au eiibrt to 
put you iu a couditiou to do so." '' 

' Traitu should iiurluipsbe traiiu', K!, 10'.)."). N. Y.CdI. Doc. ix., p. 58S 
lironriistiimtci!, iiroloui;rd. rauadu Uoc, I. v., p. ii'JS. 

'■* FoiitohiuH'aiu lo Fruuteuuc, Apr. 








), 'I 


! ■■ 




! I- ,(. 

'I • 



'695' Pcoplo in j^fuural, wore far from roguriliug tlio Gov- 

'^^'^"'^ I'mor-tioiiortirs piitiouco us ffivorably us tho Court did. 
Thcyicncw Most of thoHO who saw tilings ulosciiy, iluuiui'd it an er- 
ror to allow the Ii'oqixois to supposo us dupos of thuir had 
faith, and thoy wore more than oonliruiod in this opinion, 
M'hijn these Indians, after several intrigues to seduce from 
us their countrymen of Hanlt St. Louis, and tho Mountain, 
wIkj had been well nigh gained, seeing all their tricks dis- 
covered, began to reappear all around our settlements, and 
peri)etrat(! their usual eruellii'S and [)lundering 

Tho vigilance and activity of the Governor of Montn;al 
foiled, indeed, most of their measures. One of the chiefs 
of Sault St. Louis, who had secretly entered into negotia- 
tion with them, wus e.\[)clled from the village ; the Sieur 
do la Motte Cadillac, who had succeeded Mr. de Louviguy 
at Michillimackinac, found means to induce tho Indians of 
his district to attack the common enemy, who were making 
great exertions to detach them from our side ; but all this 
did not prevent our farmers from being in constant alarm, 
the Iroquois lying in ambush everywhere, and swooping 
down to butcher them in sight, and almost under the can- 
uou of their forts.' 
Insolent These hostilities had been preceded by very insolent 
tioiis'iif propositions from the Cantons, who at tiie very moment 
dVaij.-i."' when they ceased to pretend a desire for peace, resunu'd 
their fcjrmer haughty attitude. They began by asking 
that tlie G(jverii'>r-General should send tluiu, in his turn, 
deputies to treat at their towns, and as a first i)relinuuary 
they insisted ou a total cessation of hostilities on our part, 
and that of our allies, either against them, or again.^t tho 

Such insolence in an I'uemy whom it was not deemed 
imi)ossible to humiliate ; the necessity of doing so, if wo 
would avoid losing all the credit wo had regaiuetl in the 

I N. Y. ('(.1, Doc, ix., p rm-8. Ca.lillac, Aug. 3, lO'Jo. 
Dt; la Potlicrii', iv., j). Hi. I-a Mottn '•' See N. Y. t'ol. Doc. ix., p. 500. 




minds of tlio Iinliixns, ami tlio mortificiitiou of liclioltliiij^ 1^95. 
tho very hoail ami coutro of tho colony boconiu iij^'ain tlio "-^r—- ' 
tlicatro of a war, wlicrc all was risktHl without any liopo of 
gain, niailo those whom jiast cx[)ui'ii'nL'o alanned for tho 
future, tlosire to havo all the forces of Canada assembled 
in order to go nnd make tho eaiitoiis repent their not 
profiting liy the inclination we had evinced to grant them 
a favorable peace ; hut the Count do Froutenac was not 
of this opinion. 

He made up liis mind positively, that tho best remedy ^ r'!",'',',!^^ 
for the dreaded evils, was to restore Fort Catarocouy, '' 'J.()j.„'jj'"'" 
and lie resolved to carry out this design, which he had 
never lost sight of a moment, since his return from 
France, whatever obstacles had to bo overcome to ef- 
fect it. No sooner did he avow this resolution, than 
^Iv. de Champiguy, and all jM.'rsous in office, strongly 
represented to him the dangerous C()nrte(iuences which 
might result from au enterprise in which ho alono ."-'aw 
advantages that no one was convinced of, adding that 
the regulars, and militia, who W(3uld havo to bo em- 
ployed at it, would be much better employed in curbing 
the insolence of the Iroquois. They reminded him 
that the cantons having more than once asked the res- 
t(n'ation of that post, it was not only granting them a 
favor that they did not deserve, but also receiving from 
them the law which *^hey seemed disposed to impose on 
us by force of arms. 

These representations did not influence the General. Asiainst tho 
Ho replied that if he stood alono in his opinion, ho Avould .I'lniuu. 
follow it. He at onco set out for Montreal, reaching it on 
tae 8tli of July, escorted by a hundred and ten Canadians 
from the districts of Quebec and Three Rivers. He raised 
also one hundred and i'dty militia, from that of, 
two hundred soldiers, and as many Indians, with thirty-six 
otticers. which made nearly 700, all picked men, wIkj under 
tho command of tho Chevalier de Crisasy, selected by the 
General for this cxpoditiou, would have been enough to 
bring the Iroquois to their senses. Tho prejjaratious were 

It ' 










1 1 

J* I 

1 l-< ■ 



And the 


juiulo witli incicdiblo ('X]ici'liti()u, (uul tlio army moved as 
Koouiistlio convoy was roiuly.' 

Tilt' noxt diiy Mr. il(! Froiiti'iiac roccivod a letter from 
Mr. do Poiitclmrtniiu, iu wliich that minister iu formed hi la 
that tiio Kinj,' did not approvo his dosi^'u ;" for he, himself, 
or perhaps some of those who dissuaded liim, had written 
to the court. Uut he took ui)ou iiimself to disrcigard (iiis 
intimation. " I believed," said Mr. do Champigiiy, in a let- 
ter to do Pontchartrain, dated August 11th, " that ho would 
chai) ^0 his design, as Iio might easily have done. For this 
purpose I suggested endless reasons," but all in vain, ex- 
cept iu that ho sent orders to reduce the garrison twenty 
men." In another letter on the 17th, ho adds, " The ex- 
pedition to Cataroconv has ri'turned ; the fort is n.'stored, 
forty-eight men have renuiined there, although Mr. do 
Frontenac assured mo that only tliirty were to stay. This 
expense miglit have been much more \;sefully employed in 
striking an important blow at tho Iroquois, who were otl' 
their guard, and supposed tliat they had lulled us by 
their pretended negotiations. Our allies had lost all 
thought of making terms with them, as they nre now do- 
ing, we are informed, seeing that wo do nothing against 
them. The Hurons have already scut three canoes there ; 
the Foxes and Mas'joutins are just the men to join the can- 
tons against the Sioux ; the former oven speak of going 
to settle iu their country. In one word, la Motto Ca- 
dillac writes, that wo are going to loso them all, unless 
wo remedy it, by forming a grand expedition against tho 
Irocjuois, and couviuciug our allies that wo really intend 
to destroy that nation. 

Count do Fronteuao thought very dillerently, both as 
to the designs which lie had just carried out, and as to 
tho expedition in which he had not deemed proper to 

) ; i 

' Di! la Mntti^ OmUllac, Relation, ' Pimtcliartrain to Frnulcnac, Apl. 

1G04-5. N. Y. Col. Ddc, is., p. UO'.). 10, 10U5. N. Y. Col. i)oc., is., p. 

De la i'..tln.'1'k', llistuire ilc I'Aiuu- OS!). 

riciiU! Sc'iil., iv,, \>. i'J. Cuuaila Dot'., ^ See hit* nasons, N. Y. Col. Doc, 

II., vii., !>. 2;i(i. ix., p. 591-1. 







\, IX- 




eiigaji^o ; and it may bo said that sotting asido tho sue- I'lQS. 
ccHs of tho rt'sulutiuu tliiit h(! udoplcd iif^'ainst tho opiiiioii 
of all tilt" (•iilit,'litt'U(!il jxisoiis ill tho colony, {Uul uiiich 
did not outin.'ly moot liis oxipoctution, lio smuod to ivasoii 
(jiiito correctly. E(iuity, fiKiu wliioli un historian should 
iiovor sworvo, compols nio to adduce his roiisons. In tiio 
uccount whicii ho f^avi! tlio niinistor of liis conduct in tho 
juuttor, ho thus oX[)rossoH hiiusolf ; 

"Tlio oxp(Hlition for Fort Frontonac had started several 
days hi'foro tho i( ropliou of your li;ttor, and any abandon- 
jnt.'iit of that ontorpriso, of which tho hoael chiefs of tlio 
Ottawas had Iioou eye witnossos, would so havo doproeiat- 
ed tlio Ficiicli ill tlioir minds, liy tho stronj^ iiupn^ssion 
they would rocoivo of our woakiuis", or of our dosir>' to re- 
new no^'otiations with tho onomy, that it wonkl havo suf- 
ficed to uliouato thein entirely from lis, or at least make 
thciu tliiniv ul contracting peace without our intervention, 
especially after tho joy wliicii they Inul pulilicly manifested 
that by this restoration thoy mij,'htho])o to liudau assnicd 
rofiif^o in any expedition they might undortalco against tho 
Irotpiois. This operation has boon successfully carried 
out at slight expense, and iu a short time. We havo not 
lost a single man, and though I ilid nut propose ;it present, 
to do more than repair with palisades the broaches found 
iu tho fort, thoy were able to rebuild them with stone iu a 

week, without its costing the king a sou 

Some wished mo to go this year with all our regulars, 
jn'ovincials, and allies, drums lioating, and cany Ononda- 
ga. I did not deem it oxpodiont • 1st, because I had not 
sulUcient force to do it ; 'indly, i.ot to leave the country 
stripped, exposed to tho iueuisious of tho English, who 
might pounce upon Montreal, by way of CImmbly ; IJrdly, 
from the'lessness of an enterprise which would result 
merely iu burning cabins ; for if tho Indians had no time 
to call iu the English, they would infallii)ly retire to tho 
woods with their families. The example of what occurred 





, J I 

i V 










|5o "^^ H^H 

■^ IM |2.2 
!^ 1^ 12.0 




U ill 1.6 

















WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 873-4503 








■ «^. 

i6(;5. after do Dciiouvillo's expoditiou agiiinst tlio Hi'Ui'c'iis, justi 
lies suliic'ieiitly nil I say, auil showa us that the dcstructiou 
of an Inxjuois ,;(> is uot the way to deliver us from 

their incursioiis. 

The easiest and least expeusivo inoaus to succeed, is to 
continue to harass and anuoy them so, hy constant war 
parties, that they will uot dare to leave their own towns. 
This the restoration of Fort Fronteuac "ill enable us to 
do. If his Majesty resolves to attack Fort Pemkuit next 
year, it will give a new impulsi- to the boldness of the In- 
dians of those parts. ... It would oven bo desirable 
that he slinnld extend that expedition so as to bombard 
Boston and Manhattan, which is not, in my opinion, very 
dilHcult ; this would at a single stroke enable us to put 
au end to the war in this country.'" 

It would not ha .o been impossible to answer a part, at 
least, of the Count do Frontenac's allegations in justitica- 
tiou of his enterprise ; yet it is true that it was not easy to 
decide whetlier this design had most drawbacks or advan- 
tages ; both of which wore exaggerated by the dillerent 
parties ; for if tiiero was obstinacy, or, if you will, private 
interest in the motives, which impelled the Governor-Gen- 
eral to act, the zeal of some of his opponents does not seem 
exempt from pique and prejudice ; it was his misfortune 
that too many people shared the discontent. 

However, no one can refuse to the Chevalier de Crisasy 
the justice of saying that in carrying out the orders ho re- 
ceived from his general, he dis[)]ayed a conduct which won 
for him commendation even from thosii most hostile to the 
exiH'dition committed to him. In a fortnight he advanced 
one hundred and twenty leagues through almost t«ontinual 
rapid.s, and rebuilt Fort Catarocouy. Nor did his zeal 
and vigilance halt here ; before r<turning to Montreal, ho 
lient out as seouts, I'ighty Indians divided into small 
squads, and to this precaution, it may be said, as much aa 

ThiB doppatch is not in the N. Y. Co], Doc., or Canada Documente. 

I . 





lliat Iho 


were on 

till' wiir- 


to tho valor of some of our oflicors soon to bo meiitioncJ, 

(lid the colony owo its being happily ablo to gather in tho ^^ 

crops in pence. 

In fact, forty of his scouts having gone towards Ouou- Tim; ly 

'' , waniina 

ilaga, some of thorn wIkj had advanced to the river Chou- 
guen,' saw thirty-four Inxjuois canoes come down, and even 
heard sonic of tlie lutlians telling each other that they 
would soon pay the French and their iSault St. Louis bre- 
thren a visit, that they did not expect. Tho other parties 
confirmed the statement that a great number of Iroquois 
were on the war path ; all returned with such celerity as to 
give llie Ciovernor of Montreal opportunity to put his posts 
lieyond reai-h of insult, and enable the Count do Fronteuao 
to collect a force of eight hundred men on Isle Perrot." 

The enemv, nevertheless, advanced to Montreal, and oven 

*' Tlic cncmv 

laniled in sniidl scjuads on that island, whore they toma- (icf.aicd by 

hawked some of tlie settlers. The Governor-General, on lymantiiyo. 
being informed of it, deemed it expedient to divide his 
little army, and scatter it among the parishes to cover tho 
r(>apers. This arrangement disconcerted all tho plans of 
the Iro(piois, a considerable body of whom were defeated 
back of Boucherville, by Mr. de la Durantaye." Thero 
were some other surprises at the hands of these Indians, 
but with no great result. Thus ended the campaign in tho 
centre of tho colony. Its commencement had been still 
more disastrous to the Irocpiois in the West. 

Mr. de la Motte Cadillac had, as we have remarked, at 
last induced the Indians near his post to make incuvsious 
on the common enemy. They met witli success and brought 
in a great many prisoners to ^lichillimackinac. Tho Iro- 
cpiois wished to avenge this on the French, and marched 
in force to compel the Miamis to declare against them ; 

i II 







'- I 

' Oswejro. Miiifran, I.i'airiii- of tin- iicilition to T'oitFrontrnaccoHt 12000 

IrDiiuois, )). ITl, ilitiiioH it : Swut,'t'li, livns, lli. p. (i.JU. Di' lu Potherie. 

FU'winirout. iv., pp. lll-.Vi. 

■■ H.'latinii, &(•., 101)1-."). N. Y. ' 111., pp., 7o-0. N. Y. Col. Doc., 

Col. Doc, i.x., p. OlS-0'.]-i. TUu Ex- ix., p. 02«. 




;: I 





•i'' ) 'i 






1695. lU'tt'i'iniiieil, if tlicy rofusoil, to drive thorn theiusflvos from 

^"""^ "" fit. Joseph's rivor, whoro thoro was a hirf,'i' town of thcwo 

Andiiy Mr. IiKliiiiiH. Fortunately, ^tr. Ho Courtf^iauucho wiis ii> tlio 

luali'l'i'io. tovu with soiuo Ciiuiuliiiiis, wliou tho Iro(iU()is iii)iH'!iroil. 

Ho joined tiio Miiunis, luid fell so snddinly on tiiosi- sav- 

ngoH, wlio uover droamod of Huch a tliinj,', and did not know 

tho Frcnc-li to bo thcro, that, after kilHnf,' and wouuihng a 

considorabK) number, he ol)h{^od tho rest to take lliyht iu 

great disorder. 

This rovorso was keenly felt ; but they woro soon con- 
soled by the peilidy of a Huron chief, styled by our Cana- 
dians, the Baron, lie was a dauj,'er()us man, and tho 
French, whose natural enemy ho was, did not sullleiently 
distrust him. lie had i)rovoutod the Michillimackinao 
Hnrons from f^oinj,' t) war like tho rest, and iio had for 
some time been iu eorn'sponiU-uco with the Irociuois. Ho 
uevertheless eoncealeil his intrij,'Uo with a dexterity and 
secrecy, of wliicli no one scare 'ly but Indians, and espe- 
cially the Hurous, are capable, and while ho wont him.solf 
with tho deputies of our allies to make loud protestations 
of eternal attachment before tho G(Jvernor-Cleueral, ho 
had sent to tho Sonocas, his sou, with thirty braves to- 
tally devoted to him. 

They cou(;luded a treaty with that canton, in which 
tiiey included tho Ottawas, and when the whole intri^Mio 
was disclosed, the bond was so well knit, that la Motto 
Cadillac was unable to break it. That commandant suc- 
cooded, nevertheless, iu suspi-mlin^ the execution of tho 
treaty, at least on the part of tho Ottawas, but the JJa- 
ron, who had thrown oil' the mask, no longc^r used any 
sul)torfuge, and tho French consoled themselves with lln> 
thouf,'ht that an unmasked onemy is to bo fi-ared 
than a i)erlidious ally, OHpecially of the character of this 
man, who moreover was neither avowed nor followed by 
all his village. 
Another thing annoyed iho Siour do la Motto Cadillac 

' Relation. &c., I(i04-i). N. Y. ('otliiTli-, Histoirc de rAmuriiiue 
Cv\ D()c, ix., p. 00:J, ^^■., Di' la Hi-pi , iv., p. 15, \c.. 

i f '! I f I \ 



and iiKlncod him to plan tlic dt'imtatioii iilludtul to. Tlio i^?. 
[iidiiiiis of Ills distiii't {■oiii])l;iiiH'd at ;dl times, of tlio "-'^•^-~^ 
dcariu'ss of our floods, wiiiidi wore, in fact, cxci'ssivcly i>,iii,.y (,f 
lii;^'li. Ct'i'taiidy iiotliin;,' lias doiu! us {^'loater pi'fjudii'C! in a,'.'"., >J',,','[u 
Canada, ospcicially in tliosi- critical times, than disre;,'ai(l *'"''"''^- 
to conduct that moro than once put us in danger of seeing 
tlie tribes, whose cominenv" was most necessary to us, pas3 
from our alliance to that of our enemies. 

Till! commandant of Michiliimackinac, unaWo of himself 
to remedy this evil, of which better than any other man, ho 
could foresee the <hin^erous (!onse(|neiices, endeavored to 
strike the (Joveinor-Creneral and Inteiidant on this essen- 
tial point, and ob'igo them to arrest it. Ho suggested to 
the deputies, >vhom he sent to Montreal uikLu- another pro- 
text, to present a licit to ask a reduction in the price of 
goods, and insist on the jioint, as one which they were de- 
termined not to give up. They did so, and even went ii 
little further than la Motto Cadillac inteudod ; tiny ap- 
pc^ared before the Count do Frontenac as men who pro- 
jiosed peace or war ; and on oll'eiing the belt, did not con- 
ceal their intention to pursue their (jwii ctjurse, if their de- 
maiul was not granted. 

Such a proposition, made with a menacing air, could not ,., 

' ' . U liiit oe- 

be fas.irably received, a:id the belt was haughtily rejecled. ninvd tio- 

Tiie treiu'ral reiiroachcd the depiitii's, as their insolence .ii|im'hs i.f 

desi'rved ; but as the mover of the plan had foreseen, he ;iii(l Cuimt 

new liow to mingle with liis marks ot resentment, expres- „ar. 

sions and manners which disclosinl more kiiuhiess than 

anger; so that it was easy for the Indians to uiiderst:ind 

that tho prices of the goods would be made satisfactory. 

But as in their aihlress they had used expressions to con- 

ve}- tho idea that, irdepi'iident of this coiisi(h'ration, they 

were not over anxious t(j continue tho, the Crcnoral 

evinced great compassion (or their lilindness, which pro- 

voutod their seeing their true interest. 

Ho added that for his part he was bent on c.irryiug ou 

tho war; that he would have been de'iglited to see .all his 

children joiu him to avougo the blood of so many of their 

19 . r 











i k 

1695. Vn-otliron ; Imt that lie rcnlly tlul not ncoil tlioni ; tlmt ho 
'-^^Y'"-' could not pnnisli thorn for their indocihty, bcUfr than l)y 
loiiviny thoui froo to do as they pkisisod ; tliat llicy slioulil 
only rcmombor thf) warning ho gave tlicm, that tho Iro- 
quois would novor havo any ]H)icy couooruiuy iiioiu, except 
to destroy them, and that oxporiouco sliould havo tau^^ht 
tliem, that tlio Irocpiois Houj,'ht to seduce theui from his 
alliance only to bo able more easily to ollbct their design. 
Firmness so well seasoned, astonished tho deputies, and 
especially set the Hunni ohiif thinking; but it did not 
make him break tho silenco ho iiad hitherto kept ; ho mere- 
ly said that ho had boon entrusted with no word from his 
nation ; that he simply had orders to hear what his father. 
Ouonthio might say, and report to his brethren. The Gener- 
al, however, informed of all his iutriguiss, told him that dis- 
simulation was listless ; that ho knew and did not fi.'ar him. 
Meanwhile the Ottawas and Nipissings, assured do Fron- 
tonac that they had no part in anything that man did to dis- 
please him, and the latter added that they would not re- 
turn homo ; but that thoy wore resolved to remain by their 
Father to witness tho outori)rise he was about to carry out.' 
A 8inu Some time bofovo,' Mr. le iSueiir brought to Montreal 
(ieiuiiirs quite a large convoy from the western end of Lake Su- 
proicctioii. pj^,j.jQp_ While do Frontenac was giving orders to the In- 
dians who had accompanied him, a Siou chief approached 
him with a very sad air, laid his hands on his knees, and with 
streaming eyes, begged him to take pity on him ; that all 
tho other nations had their Father, and that ho alouo 
was like a forsaken child. He then si)read out a beaver 
skin on which he arranged twenty-two arrows, and taking 
them one after another, he named for each a village of his 
nation and asked the general to take them all under his 
protection. This tho Count do Frontenac promised ; but 
since that time no means havo been taken to retain 
the people in our alliance. Nevertheless considerable 

' N. V. (.'ol. 1»(K-.. ix, ]i, (i:;i-2 Of la I'.jlli.'rii'. iv.. p. 32. 

' ThiH wan July 18. lb., p. (ilU : tiioux chief was TiuHkatin. 





l»>iithor and wool mi-^lit bo dtiivwl from thorn, tlio vast i^";?. 

plains whieh they inhabit bum- l-ovoiihI witli tho cattlo < ' 

uhoady moro than onoo dosciiboil' 

Moanwhilo tliu En^'lisli, suro of tho Iroiiuois and n-- 
liovod from idl foars as to New York, had onoo movo „'',','.'; i'',!; ,'r)„ 
luado it their wiiolo study to smliu-o from us tho tribes in ,„t;';u,l"'l'i,.. 
Acadia. Sevou Abon.niuis having gono to ri;mkuit with '^''^"■"i ''■•• 
u Hag of tnioo woro arrostod : throo woru taken prisoners 
to IJoston, and tho four otiiers were butchered on the way.' 
rhips had rocuutly died in England,' and no successor 
had been appointed. Uuo Stoughton commanded in 
New England under a simple commission." Erom him 
tho Abeuacjuis ilomamled their counrynieu arrested 
against tho law of nations, and tho Hag vvhich sIkhiUI 
have proved a safeguard ; ho replied only by furious 
reproaches as to their last hostilities, and he added tho 
most terrible threats, if they did not surrender all 
those concerned in them. 

They replied in a similar tone;' nevertheless both 
sides grew calmer; Stoughton not wishing to exasperate 

' Lo Sueur wu nt up to thy Sioux 
CDuntry from IvouiBiaua, in l(J!i'J- 
ITUO. 1,11 llurpt*. Journal Ilititoriiiuc, 
I). 38, Early Voyugi-u up iind down 
till' Missiswippi, ii. s'J ; Penicuul, Ue- 
lation, MSS.cli. ii., § 1, ch. iii., c;' 1, 
2. Le Sueur wan a kintjuiiin of 
dibervillf, aud wan at IJlifgoiniegon 
in l(i!):J. ill! returned lo France in 
170J, and died on Lin way l>uck to 
Louisiana, La Harpe, p. 21. Fa- 
tlier Ouiguaa iicconipanied unot'.icr 
French party to the Sioux country in 
1728. Early Voyages, p. U!r. 

The extended use of \nxt\ of the 
bisoQ waH alBoouu of La Sulle'ei pro- 

■■' They were killed at Saco. Re- 
lation, 4c., 1094-.'). N, Y. Col. Doc, 
Jx., p. Ol;j ; De la Potherie, Uigtoire 
de lAmerique Sept., iv., p. 3l>- 

^HediedFeh. is, ii;i».-), llutcU- 
innon, .\Itt»«icliu.s(tis, ii., ;>. ,sl. 
cites a h-tler of .lolin I'ike to tho 
(ioverniir. l'einiii|ui(l. .Iiiri. 7, l(i',)l, 
(V'O unrriiting the nei/uri' of Honia- 
zeeu aud othriH al l'iiimc|uicl noon 
after the iitiiiirn al (frulou aud Oyster 
river, llutcliinniin says hecouldfind 
nothing as to any killed at Saco. 

' NVilliain Sloughlon, n<pu of Col. 
Urael Stougliton,(:<iiuinaiidiT in tho 
l'e(|Uot war. Hi' was a graduate of 
Harvard, and wan a cliTgyuiau in 
Kngland. llr came to New Kng- 
laiid in lOOJ, and becaine a iiiagis- 
trate. councillor, chief juntice, and 
in l(i!W lieutenaut governor, adiuin- 
intering as surli from KIDl to KiUU, 
Ileilieil ,Inly 7, 1701. 

' Mee this correnjioudfiice, N. Y. 
Col. Doc, ix , p. Oil ; Do lal'otherie, 
iv., p. 40-2, Jan. 21, 1G95. 







•f ' 

I 1 1' 


They ro- 

Kolvi^ on 

lliSTOUY or NKW lltANCK. 

utterly nioii, w)i<» could inspire fear, ami tlii-y, willing on 
any tnius to rescue their kiiisnieii from the hands of 
the Englisii, fully resolved, after succeeding in this, to 
nvengo the Mood of those Ixitchorod. But loiirning that 
tho English while negotiating wen* actually taking steps 
to Huri)rise them, they Hew to arms. 
They were nevertheless still convinced that their enemies 
vcnjfiiiucu. y^.^,y^, musters at soa, and that tho French durst not ajjpear 
before them. Tlijs consideration arrested tiieni ; imt the ar- 
rival of a royal vessel' commanded Ity de IJonaventure, who 
umdo several captures on the neighl)oring coast, and liie 
presents which that ollicer handed them in his Majesty's 
nurau, disabused them, and made them resolve to do tiie 
English all tlio injury they could. Wo shall soo in the 
following hook how tiiey earritul this out. 

Towards the close of the year there was every reason to 
boliovo that a considerable armament was preparing in 
England and at Boston, intended for Newfoundland. Pla- 
coutia was in a wretched position, and do Frontenac con- 
jointly with de Cliampigny represented to the Minister 
that the loss of that place would entail great embarrass- 
•uui ^ in tho negotiations for peace which wore likely to 
-.uionce soon. 
KronKnac Tlicso gentlemen then proposed that iu tho spring ten 
piuiiv pro- or twelve men of war should leave the ports of Franco to 
engage the English s(juadron, which was to go to sea about 
the saiU(! time, and then i)rocecd to capture Boston. Tlu^y 
represented that that city carried on an extensive trade, 
aud that once mast(>rs of it, wo would absolutely control 
all tho tisheries. Tiiis was a very liue project, aud nioro 
easy to l)e carri(!d out than was supposed in France ; but 
the King had other views, and men were not as well in- 
formed in France as they were in Canada, of tho importance 
of weakening tho English power on tho coutiiieut of North 

' Till' Eiivirux at l'<;ntnfroi"'t, N. tin' St. .lolin's. .ind liondlcd it so 

Y. Col. Doc., ix., p. (ilT, Dclii Pothc- roUf,'hly tlint Euuis whh j^lud to va 

rie, iv , p. 47. Hi' entingi^J tlii> ISnr- cii\iv to Uoston. UutcliiusuD, Hia 

linjrs, C'npt. Earns, at the nioutb of tory of MaeeachuBt-ttB, p. 87. 


f ^ 


iiisrouv i) Ni:.V m:amk 


His MajoHty's couiicil m'c<)nliiii,'l\- liinitnl il-< imij cIh i'.; ■ 
for tho onsuiiif^ (■iiiu|)iii;4U to cxpclliir^ tlio I'ii;,'lisli I'lom '— , — ' 

tho postH occupioil by tlioin in NV\vf«»iiiitIliui(l, from Fort ,,|., , ,,, 

roiulvuit, l)y which Uusy kispt all Acadiu in check; ,hkI '""yM; ''-.'" 
from all llicy hail left Hiiilson's Hay. Tho Pomknil ex- !•''•• • 
poilitiou was, it seems, to be mado at tho Kiu^^'s oxponso ; 
niitl tho two others at tho oxpoiiso of tho Northern Com- 
pany. It is certain that his Majt-sty committod tho first 
to (I'lberviilo, and ile Bonaventun-. 

As early as Fel)niary, orders were siMit to >[r. l$oj,'ou, 
Intondant of Kochellts to eijuip at llochofort tho Envioux 
nnd Profond, and the instrnctions fjivt^n to the two com- 
mandants dirocteil, after rodueiiij,' Fort Pemknit, to raze it 
to tho t,'round. and tiien proceed to restore tho fort at tho 
month of tho St John's; tiieiico to dispa'ch do SeriL^ny 
with tho Draf^cm.commaudtd by him, to the head of Hnd- 
sou's Bay, while they proceede<l to Nowfouadland, there 
to join several vessels from St. Malo, which would In* there 
awaiting' him, and all, in (-onctirt with Mr. do Bronilhiri, 
Oovoruorof Placontia, attacked tho English by land and 
by sea. Wo shall see in its proper place the succoss of 
those various expeditions. 

In regard to tho Iroquois war, tho count do Pontchartriiin ^^'}y}* "m 
thus wrote to tho Governor General and Intondant in th" tiiomjiit of 


montii of May, lt'>9<5 : " It seems to his Majesty that tlu! war. 
Inupiois war, especially in these later limes, has had no '^'9^'- 
cause except a jealousy of th<' commerce; with the upper 
tribes, and with New York ; their position ^'ivinj,' tiuiii a 
great advantaj^e ft)r botli. He uNo thinks that tin; aliena- 
tion of tho Ottawas and other tribes of tlioso remote ((uar- 
ters sj)rings from the fact that tho French by their ex 
tended excursions into tlie interior have usurped tho 
trade, which those tribes had witli tlio others lyin;,' fur- 
ther north, ami that, in fine, bushlopinfj; more unbridled 
than ever, in spite of prol-ibitions, is tlie source of all tho 
troubles of the colony, and has ^'iven toestablisliments 
which, by dividing, scatter it and defeat the views en- 
tertained by his Majesty for reuniting and encouraging the 
colonists iu agriculture." 












•u I 

i'x/k T\u) ininisttT luMs tliiit tlio Kiii^', after coiisi.lcriii;^' tli'» ro- 
"'■^'""^ jMirt of ill* FroutoiKU! iiiul dn ('liiiiu|iij^'ny <>ii Hn' mifiivor- 
iililo tlispositioa of our iilli<vH ami tin? (litliciillii's of iiii f\- 
cosrtivo (ixpoiiHo for coimuuuu'iitiou with thoin on iicirouiit of 
tlio wnr, liml resolvt-d, \)\ tlio iulvicoof tln' most cxiu riciiciMl 
persons, to iil)iUiiloii Mifliilliniiu-kiiiiic and tlie other ad- 
vanceil posts, excojit l''orl ih' 8l. Louis in tht) llhnois, wiiieh 
tlie Kill},' wislieil niaintiiini'd, on condition that tho Sii'UiH 
de lii Fovi t and Tonti, to whom iio rosorvod tho conees- 
hion, should not briuL; or causo to bo l)rou;4ht any heaver in- 
to tho c'oh)ny.' 

I have been unabhi to ascertain on whoso advice tlio 
Kiiif^'s eouneil adopted tiiis resohition. Tho oxcursions of 
the Canadians into now countries certainly mined tho 
commcrco of Now Trance, introduced fearful libertinaj^'e, 
rendered the nation contemptible amonj^ all tho tribes on 
the continent, and raised au iusurmountablo obstacle to tho 
l)ro;,'ress of reli;^'ion. Still the romodies which his Majesty 
seu.^ht to apply, were utterly imi>racticablo in tho actual 
position of th(! colony, since it is ctu'tain that the Euj^lisii 
would have seized tin* advanced posts as sooii as we evacu- 
ated them, auil we sl.ould thus at ouco have as euomios all 
tho tribes f;athere 1 near tho posts by our intluonco. Now if 
those tribes onci! joined the Iroipiois and En^dish, one 
siiif^lo campaign would suffice to expel tho Frouch from 
Now Franco. 
On tho other hand, Frontenac was at last convinced of 
«)iii;iiHi<M til,; indisi)ensable uecossity of makin'' an oll'ort to subduo 
towMKtd US. tho Iroipiois. Ho had especially seen this in tho disi)o- 
sitiou evinced b}' tlie Iroipiois at the last :uidienco ho liad 
given them; but what completely decided hhu to show 
himself in. tho cantons with all his forces, was tho intilli- 
genco which came in from all ([uarters, of tho bad imjires- 
sion produced evtn'ywhere by the inaction of tho French, iu 
spite of tho hopes with which he had so long cajoled his 
allies, of a groat oxpoditiou against tho common foo. 

' Ijoiiis XIV. to Fronu-nac and Yurk Colonial Docum'.'utB, ix., p. 
("lmiii|i{j:iiy, \l;iv 'ill, UiUii. NfW 6o7. 

■I ■. 

'■ i 



TluH nisoliitioii iul()|itci], |i(' notified the (•oiiuimiKlaiit (t( i'"y'' 
Micliilliiimkiimc liy u Frt'iuiliiimii, whom lu( Hciit up with ■— > — ' 
tlio Ottiiwii ilopiitifH wlioii ii'tuniin^ homo. This I'uvoy 
foiiiKl tli(! HiiMir (1(1 hi Mott(» Cudilliu; in f^'icat (lillioulty. 
liiKluois iimhiissadors liad Ixiin nu-civ^d by tlio Iiidiiiiis of 
hin post, and hud olitiiiucd from thisin nil tliny di'sircd. 
Thin cumo of tho Huron's iiitrif^nios. Not only had they 
fonchidcd u treaty with tlio Jiiirons and Ottawas, but had 
also induced lliem to join our onemics to make war on us. 

In vain did la .Molti Cadiliai; exert himself to obtain ad- Mr, .ic u 
niissi(m to their oonfereuccs ; but Uua»k(', chief of tho Kis- , ^'I'l'i |'^,, 
kakon Ottawas, had informed him of all that had passed. {',','!";v,h"J,'', 
Tliere was notiiiii-' to do liiil to disconcert these intriuues, •"■'k'' w^ir 
but this became still more dillicult idler the return of tho Ir'"i"'»ii. 
deputies who had bueu at Montreal, and durin^^ whose ab- 
Honeu all this had been plotted. On arrivinf^, hcso deputies 
announced that all the French were dead; this is a com- 
mon expression with the Indians, to mean that everythinj^ 
is desporatt'. They declared, in particular, that wa durst 
not appear at sea, that wo had neither wine uor brauily, 
aiid that they came back in tho very shirts they had worn 
to Montreal, Onouthio not beiny in a ptjsitiou to givo them 

In this extremity la Motto Cadillac was not disconcerted ; 
the Frenchman who had accompjinied tho deputies having 
handed him l(>ttors from the (rovernor (ieneral, informing 
him of the various advantages recently gaincil by our men 
over the Iroijuois, he made tho very most of them, es- 
pecially of hi Durantaye's action n(;ar Douchervillc. IIo 
then ded.ired thitt in spite of the scarcity of goods, caused 
hy tiie delay of the vessels from France, which hud laieii 
prevented by head winds, and not by any fear of the En- 
glish, from arriving as early as usual, ho would givo all that 
was left in his stores, at tho same prices that thoy had 
always brought, and would even allow them credit. 

This oiler had a very good ell'ect ; Oaask('' and somo 

t ( 



iz., p. 

' Itolation, &c., 160.V0, N. Y. Col , Dm-, is., p. 044. 





^ >y 

' 1 

■■ i 

1 69^. 

Defeat of 



otlior ciniMfmricH of 11 c foimimiMlaiit ])r<>filt'(l liv it to op u 
IIk^ eves of tilt' most cXfitcd, to tlm ('oiihci|||('IIC4'S of thi) 
Hti'p tlu'V liii'l just tiikcn, ami whoii tlm Siciir ilo l:i Mottn 
('julilhic Hiiw tliciii wiivcr ho iiHscinlilcil tlioiii. \lo told 
tlii-m tlmt IiDWcvcr littlo tlicv rttli'ctcd rn nil tliiit had oc- 
curred siiici' hi' hiid hciii miioiij^ tht'iri, thtiy would sci' Hint 
it was not lii> who hud (h*t'i'ivt«d tln'iu, nn th«>y liiid t-oni- 
liliiiiicd ill iiiiniciisnn'd tonus; liiit thi\v had ht tvil- 
iiiiiidt'd iiitMi, whom tlicy oii<,dit to distrust, scdun' tiiciii. 

As Im perceived that this reproach touched them, Im 
deemed it useless to inaku them a Ioniser a<ldress, and 
without K'^'"';-> tlieiu time to consult, he proposed to them 
to send out several parties aijainst the Iroipiois, who were 
actually hunting' with the lliiroiis and some Ottawiis. 
Such is the deplorahle condition of those, who liave to 
Rovurn Hrtvaf,'es without faith or principles of honor, never 
to rely ontheir word, and often to seo no otlior means to 
avoid heiiit^ victi'iis of their porlidy, than their very facili- 
ty ill i)etrayiiiL{ tlieir oath, from no motive liut their natur- 
al tickleiioss. The Ottawas had just violated tho faith thoy 
had so often sworn to us, new oaths had bound them to 
tho Iroipiois, and thoy becamo their cuomios again on tbo 

Sc.ircely had la Motto Cadillac coasod speaking when 
(liiaske, Ouilamek, a Pcmteouatami chief and an Algoiupiin 
named Alikinac, having declared themselves chiefs of tho 
expedition, they soon gatheri'd a consichu'ablo body of 
warriors. Some Hurons at onco hastened to warn the Iro- 
quois, who at tirst took Hight, but our braves woro so ex- 
peditious that they overtook tliem. They fought fiercely on 
the banks of a river ; but the Iroijuois wen? at last forced 
to omhtavor to escape by swimming. The victors brought 
back thirty scalps to Mieliillimakinac, and lert in thirty-two 
prisoners with a booty of about tive hundred beaver skins. 
Among the prisoners were many Hurons. These wero 
handed over to their nation, wlio seemed aUected by this 

' Ui'lation, &c., 1095-^, N. Y. Col. Doc., ix., p. 040. 


i ' ;i 

HIHT OHY (tFNi;W rit\N(E 

Aftnr tliiH Hi>,'iiiil l)lt>w tlmro wiih ho fciir i»f iiuy nrranjro- 
iiiKiit, lit loiiHt for tlitt iiioiii(<nt, l)i>twi'('ii tlio ()tt;i\viiH ami ^ 
till' lr()(|UoiHor tlio Kii^^lisli, wlm wi'ni tlin loscix liy tln' ,,^ 
raplini' of.tlin booty, tlitty liiiviM;^ inlvaiu'otl j^ooils to tin* "' 
Ii-oquoiH, who wiTo to ^ivo tluiii llir in'oi'i-i'tlsof tlii'ir limit. 
Homo timo lifter, d'Aij^ciitmiil iirriveil at Mii'liilliiiiiickiiiiic 
from Moutreiil, with tiiliii^,'s of l-'roiitidiiii-'s (,'ifiit pii'itiini- 
tioiiN to ^o iiiul iittiu'k till' Ii'o(|iiois ill their own coiiiitry. Do 
III MottiiCadilliiciiiviti'd the Indians to join thfir FalluT; luit 
lin inforiiiiMl tlunu that hu luadu this invitation on his own 
ri'spoiisihility, having rmtoivcd no orders from his j^eimral. 
On.iski' fust (U'claird that ho would j,'o and fi^lit undor 
Ononthio's haiim r, and for sonio tiiiio tho ouiiiiiiandiiiit 
thittorod hinisolf that a body of four hiiiidrod warriors 
would go to swoU tho French army ; but various iiicidoiitH 
broke up all his nieasures ; and there was evi-ry rt'asou to 
believe that tho Huroiis had diverted this blow, out of ro- 
ven^^o for tho injury iloiio tluuu at tho defeat of tho Iro- 




' Itolntloii, l(ill5-il, N. V.Cdl. Duc.ix., p. (il8. 





B ■ 



, if: 





;f ihl 



i, i 


1 ' '* 

f ■ i 



M t 

1 ■ 






I HAVE judged it impossible to close this volume better than by making 
Known to those sincerely interested in the triumph uf religion, to what a 
degree of sanctity, grace can, in the \ery centre of barbarism, elevate the 
souls that are faithful to it. Only a few are selected, but they will suf- 
fice to disabuse readers who are in good faith, but have allowed them- 
selves to be easily prejudiced against these Indian missions ; to con- 
found sinners who have not courage to burst the fetters at which they 
blush, if they have still any religious principle ; and to make the true 
faithful exalt the mercies of the Lord. 




New France has had her apostles and martyrs, and has given the 
cluirch saints in all conditions, and I do not hesitate to say that they 
would have done honor to the primitive ages of Christianity. Several I 
have made known so far as the coiu'se of this histoiy permitted me. The 
lives of some have been published ; but God, who exalted his glory 
during their life-time by the great things which he eflectcd through 
them ; by the lustre which their sanctity has diffused over this vast con- 
tinent ; by the courage which ho inspired them to found with untold toil 

' This lif« is drawn Crom that by Father 
\Mvi Ch()lcu"c, (born July 29, 1040 ; 
died at Qui'btc, Oct. 13, 172;i,) in the Let- 
tres Eilifiantes, vol. sii., (Paris, 1717.) 
Ki\)'8 Ji'suit Missions, pp, 81-11(5. The 
source \vat> n more extended bi<igra])hy, 
" La Vie de la B Catharine Tegakouita, 
dicie a i)resent la Saincte Sauvagesse," 

still in manuscript, written in 1G9.'), by 
Father Claude Chauchetiere, of the Pro- 
vince of Aquitaiue, who came out to the 
Canada mission in 1077, and died at Que- 
bec Apr. 17, 1709. He also from memory 
painted her portrait, often since copied, 
and published in the Lettres EdifianteB, 
and in La Potherio. 


ij ■'![.'¥*! 


i,i ■• 



I • , 



a new Cliristoiuloiu auiiil tlio most f-arfiil li;irl):irisiii, luid to coiiu'ut iu 
with their bhjoil, choso uoim of thiina to disphiy on their tDiuljH, iill thu 
riehcH of his powor Mini nicroy ; but fMiif/rrod tlii.s honor on a young 
uoopliyto, unknown to thu wliolo country duriny her hfe. For 
iiioro thiin sixty years Hho hivH been reffurtlud as the Protectress of Ciiuad.a, 
and it has been impossible to oppose a kind of ciiHm publicly rendered 
to lior.' 

This holy virrjin, so cclcbriitod under the name of Catharine Tegah- 
kouita,-' was born iu lO.Ki at (landidiouague, a town in tho Mohawk 
canton,^ of a lieatlien Iroipaois father and a Christian Algonquin mother. 
She lost her motlii^r at t!ie ago of four, and was still (piite J'oung whot 
her father died, leaving her to tho caro of one of her aunts, and 
under tho control of an uncle who had tho chief authority in his village. 
Tho small pox wliich she had in her infancy having weakeneil her sight, 
she was long coinpoUod as it wore to remain in the corner of a cabin, lior 
eye.i being unable to stand tho light, and this ri;tiremenl was tho lii'st 
source of hur h.ippiness. What she did at lirst fi'om necessity, she con- 
tinued to d ) IVoui ouoico, thereby avoiding whatever could cause hor to 
los>! that mjral parity so dilliciilt to prosorvo amid idolatrous and thou 
very dissolute youth. 

As soou as she saw herself of age to act, she took on herself almost all 
tho toil of thu household ; and this shielded iiur from two dangers, fatal 
to most Indian girls ; I mean, private conversations and idleness. Her 
relatives however wished her to usj tho decorations common to young 
persons of hor sex, and altiiough slie yielded from simple compliance with 
Ihiiir wishes, and with all possil)l(i r.^pu^n unite, it was a matter of much 
scruple to hor, when, favored by tho light of faith, she learned how dan- 
gerous it is to seek to please men.-' 

The first knowledge that she acquired of Christianity, was imparted 
by some misssionaries sent to tho Iro(p;ois afttn- Mr. do Trac3''s expedition. 
On their way they passed through the town wliere she lived' and wore 


' As to this gcmeral veneration of C'ath- ■* Cluiuclii'tiere, Vie, cli. iii., enters into 

aiine'l"i>>riililiimiia,Bee theMSS. ef lieniy, details ou lu.'r r-kill iu nteille-work, and 

run' of La t'liiu'; Uialiop de St Valicr, tlie orimm .iital work iloue by Indian wn- 

Ht;it l'resi"it. (llJSS,) pp. 48-9; Uo la men, as will as en her clieerl'ulnesa. 

I'otherio, (1 (:JJ) i., p. a57. ■■ Tiiese missiDnaries were Freniin, Urii- 

' Tlie nuui- Toi^alikouita means "wlio ya-s, and I'ierron. Tliey reached CaUijIi- 

putB tiling.-^ ill order" (Marcouxjaud is uawiij^a in August KiiiT. Auto. voL iii. 

itill in use 111 I'aughnawagii. p. lO'J. itelatiim, KiUS, p 'i-(J. 

" .'^ce aute, vol. ii., j>. 14(5, n. 

• r I / 



recL'ivc'tl at lior cabin. She was appoiiituil to tak<! care of them, and 
waited on theiu in a niiiuuor that Hurprisoil them. Slic had herself, on 
hchohlin;^' theiu, been moved by an impulse that e.\cited scntimeuts in her 
heart, regarded bubse(iiniitly Ijy her as the first sparivs of tlie iieavenly 
fire, by which she was iu the Hetniel ho compk'tely inllamed. The, fervor 
nud recollection of thoso reli^^imis in their devotions, inspinnl her with 
the desire of prayin^; with them, and .«hu iuformeil tlu'in of it. They un- 
derstood nnieh more tliaii she oxi)rusHed ; they instructed lior in tho 
Christian truth, as far as the short stay which they made in that town 
permitted tliem, and left hor with a re;^'ret that on her side was heartily 
rocijjroeated. Si>mu time after, a match was projtosed to her ; as sho 
showed strouL? opposition, her relatives did n(jt press it ; but they soon 
returned to the crharyi;, and to sav(^ thnmselvcs the trouble of overcoming 
her resistance;, they, without nn'ntioiang it to her, betrothetl her to a 
young man, who at once went to her cabin and sat down beside Ler. To 
ratify the marriagi;, it only HMiuired that she should remain near tho hus- 
band selected for her, such be ing the way of tribes;' but she abruptly 
left till' cabin, and protested that she would n )t return till he withdrew. 
This conduct drew on her much ill treatmeut, which sho endured with 
unalterable patience. She waa more sensiiyc to the reproach made that 
she had no allection for her kin<lred, that sho hated her triije, and gave 
all her attachment to that to whiija her mother belonged. Nothing how- 
ever could overc(jme her rejjugnanco for tho state of life iu which they 
sought to involve her. 

Meanwhili,' Father James do Lamberville arrived at Gandahouhaguo,'^ 
with orders to found a mission there. Tegahkouita them felt her former 
desires to become a Clirisliiui revive : but she was still for souki timo 
without mentioning it, (nther from respect to her uncle, wh > did not 
relish our religion, or from i)ure timidity. At last an oiiiiovtuuity eamo 
for avowing her conviction, and she was not wanting. .V wnuud iu tho 
foot W'hich sh(! had received, ki'pt her in the cabi'i, whih; all the other 
women were busy harvestuig the Indian corn. Fatln'r de Lamberville, 
compelled to suspend liis pul)lic instructions, which no one would attend, 
took this time to visit the cabins, and instruct those whom age or infir- 
mity retained there. One day he entered that where Tegahkouita 

Unable to dissemble tlu; joy which this visit caustid her, she did not 

' Liifitau, >ra;urs dcH Siuivages, i., ]>. iiK'iitioiiiil iiiojinK'ctioii witli this miiaion 
.'lOO. De 111 I'otlierie, iii., \). 11. in the Ktiit I'rwuut, lOT."). 

■' ratliir JiiiiH's (le l,iuiil)i rville is Ihvl -^ CluiuclicrnTe, vio, cU, 0. 













^1, • 

hesitate to open her iiiiiul to the miHsionarj' in tbo presenco of two or 
tlifoc women, who wv\v in company with her, on her desirfn of embracing 
Christianity. She added that shi' would liavo yroat oljstaeles to over- 
come, but that notliing appalled her. The energy with which she spoke, 
the conraj^o she displayed, a certain modest yet resolute air, that liyhte<l 
up her countenance, at once told the missionary that his new proselyte 
would not be an (H'diuary Oiiristian. He accordingly carefully taught 
her many things, which he did not explain to all pi'eparing for baptism. 
God doubtless infuses into hearts, of which he has especiidly reserved 
possession, a sort of pun^ly spiritual sympathy, forming even in this 
life the sacred bond which will unite them hereafter in the abode of 
glory. Father dc Lamberville, whom I knew well, was one of the most 
holy missionaries of New France, where ho died, at Sault Saint Louis, 
spent with tuil and austerity, and, if I may the expression, in the arms 
of Charity. Ho often declared that in his tirst interview with Tegah- 
kouita, he thought ho could discern that God had great designs as to 
that virgin ; yet he would not exercise any haste in conferring baptism 
on her, and ho adopted in her case all the precautious that experience has 
( onnselled as necessary, to mak" sure of the Indians, before administer- 
ing the sacrament of regeneration. 

The whole winter was sjient in these trials, and on her side the young 
catechumen employed this precious time in rendering herself worthy of a 
gi'aco, whose importance she fully comprehended. Before granting it to 
adults, the missionaries take great pains to inrpiire privately into their con- 
duct and morality. Father de Lambervilhi aslc(!d all who knew Tegah- 
kouita, and was greatly surprised to find that there was not one, even among 
those who had given her most to sufl'er, but sounded her praises. This 
■was all the more glorious for her, as Iiulians are much given to slander, 
and naturally inclined to put an evil interpn.'tation on the most innocent 
actions. The missionary accordingly no longer hesitated to grant her 
what she solicited with such earnestness. She was baptized on Easter 
Sunday, IdlG, and received the name of Catharine. 

The grace of the sacrament received into a heart which her upright- 
ness and innocence had so well prepared, produced wondrous effects. 
Whatever idea the missionary had already conceived of the young Iro- 
quois mai<len, he was astonished to find in her, iiiiuiediatoly after baptism, 
uot a neoiihyte needing to bo contirmed in the faith, but a sold I'llled with 
the most preciims gifts of heaven, and whom he too would have to guide iu 
the most sublime spiritual ways. In the outset her virtue excited the ad- 
mii'atiou of those even who were least iuclijied to imitate her, aud.thobf 



; ?■ 




on whom slio dopondcil, left lior froo to follow ovorj' iiupnlso of bor zoiil, 
but this (lul not lust lony. Tliu iimoconco of Iht life, the prcciuiticjiis 
which sho took to avoid all thiit could iu the loivHt iiffoct it, and especially 
her extreme reserve as to whatever couM iu the sli^,'iitest dij^ree otVeiid 
purity, appeared to the youuj^ men of Iku* villaj^e a repntacjh on tlio 
dissolute life they led, and many laid suarea for her with the solo view of 
dimming a virtue whi h dazzled them. 

On the other hand, althou^'h she had relnxe 1 nothing in her do- 
mestic occupations, and was ever found ready to give her services to all, 
bor relatives were displeased to see her give to prayer all the time left 
ber, and to prevent her suspending on Sundays ami holidays the work 
which the church forhids on those days consecrated to the Lord, tluiy 
made her pass them without food. Seeiug, however, that tlioy gained 
nothing by this course, they had recourse to still more violent means ; 
they often ill-treated her iu a most unbecoming manner ; wh^'u she went 
to the chapel, they sent young men to pursue her with hooting and pelt 
her with stones ; men either really or pretendedly drunk ruslicd up )u 
ber, as though they designed to take her life ; bat, uudismayed by these 
artifices and acts of violence, sho continued her devotions as though she 
enjoyed the most perfect liberty. 

One day when sho was in her cabin, a young man entered abruptly, 
with flashing eyes, brandishing his hatchet as if intending to tomahawk 
hoi'. At this sight she displayed no emotion, md bowed down her head 
to receive the blow ; but the madman, seized at the instant by a panic 
fear, fled as precipitately as though pursued by a war-party. Thesi; 
storms were succeeded by a still more dangeious persecution. Catharine's 
aunt was a woman of morose disposition, who was displeased 
with all that her niece did to satisfy her, for the simple reason that 
she could find nothing to reprove. One day the virtuous neophyte hap- 
pened to call the husband of this woman by his own name, instead of 
calling him Father, as usual ;' her aunt imagined, or pretended to belie\e, 
that this famihar mode of speaking showed an imi^roper connection be- 
tween the uncle and niece, and she hastened on the spot to Father do 
Lamberville to assert that she had surprised Catharine soliciting her hus- 
band to sm. The missionary promised to examine the case, auel when 
le learned on what this atrocious accusation I'ested, he gave the slanderer 
a rebuke that covered her with confusion ; but which ultuuately increased 
the annoyance of the innocent girl. 

Had all this involved merely suffering, than which nothin;^' \v,is more to 

' L. U. Morgan Las treated ably of the peculiar Iroquois terms of rulatioosbip. 









luT tiutf, hIic would iicvor Imve Ihouj^'lit of cliiingiiig her position ; l)ut 
filii' fiiircil tli:it she (MJiilil not iilwavH hctld tiriii iiyiiiiist the Hcdiictioii of 
liiid cxiiiiiplc, or oscajM! bciti^,' ovfrcomo ^{riidually by human roHpect, 
HO powerful in the Indiiiu mind. She ii(!conlinf,'ly boj,'!in to look for nn 
iiHyluni, wliuro lior iunoconct; and her religion would bo Hbioldinl from 
diinj,'er. Lii Pruirio do In Mii;,'doloino, wliero Hovorivl Iroquois Cliristinnd 
bogiiu to sottlo, seemed to her well adiiptcd, and hIio folt an ardent desire 
to remove lliithor ; bnt this was not easily done. 

Her iin(!li' beheld with ;,'rciit di.splciisuro the depopulation of his oiintou, 
and he declared himself the avowed enemy of all who contributed to it. 
It was therefore apparently impossible to obtain his eonsent, and it was not 
easy for Catherine to leave him without it. But God, who had destined 
her to bo tho example and ornament of this transplanted Christian col- 
ony, facilitated what had at first seemed impossible. She had an adopted 
sister, a neoj)hyte like herself, married to a Christian very zealous for tho 
conversion of his countrymen. This man had alreiuly taken up his abode 
at La Prairie do la Magdeloino, and ho was one of those who, under vari- 
ous pretexts, traversed tho Iroquois towns in order to make proselytesi 
He knc'W that the j, favor ho could do Catherine would bo to take 
her to his homo : ho .spoko of tho matter to his wife, who confirmed him 
in his design, and earnestly exhorted him to give her sister this conso- 

Ho resolved on the project, and to efifect it more siu-ely, ho pretended 
to go a hunting with ono of his friends in the dii'ectiou of New York, and 
set out, after warning Tegahkouita to hold hoi'self in readiness at a fixed 
time. Fortunately for her her uncle was away, though not far distant, 
an<l he was almost at once informed of his niece's departure. Without 
losing a moment he set out in pursuit, bout on bringing her back dead or 
alive, and on tomahawking the first who resisted him. He soon overtook 
tho two hunters, but not finding his niece with them, because, whenever 
thoy halted, tlu'y took the precaixtion to conceid her in tho woods, he 
tlioughl that he had been misinformed ; accordingly, without avowing 
his purjiose, he convei-sed for a time on iudiflbront topics and left 
thom, convinced that Catharine had taken some other I'oute and followed 
other guides. ' 

Tho holy virgin, I'escuod fi'om this peril, gaily pursued her joiu'ney, and 

' Charlevoix liero follows Cholonec Cendre Chaude (ante vol. iii. \>. 289,) and 

(coinparo his letter in Kip's Jesuit \ris- differs in the account of the pursuit. She 

sions, p. 01 :) l)ut ("hauchetiere repre Iwro letters to Fathers Fremin and Cho. 

seuts Catharine's going as effected by lenec. 



at liiHt rciicliL'il tln) houriK! wliicli Im.l bocii tlin object of Ik.t pniyoi'H. 
This wiiH in tho munth of Oct(.lur, 1(J77. Hu>- sistur hud uut yot a (mMu 
to hornclf, iiiul dwelt witli hi;r huHbiiml iu thiit of a forvont CUristiiui wo- 
iiiiui iiiuufd AuiistiiHiii,' whose- solo uinployiucut it was to proiiarj ixji-hous 
of her HL'X for bapti.siii. A hostess of this cluiniftor iiiul such exor- 
cises wore greatly to the tasto of Cathariue. Sim was, moreover, ohanued 
with all that she l)ehoKl douo in tho village, nor could she mifBcioutly a<l- 
miro tlie omuiivttcMee of irracc, whicii could transform wolves into lambs, 
nor eliant th<! mereios of the Lord, to se- men now dwellnig in the purity 
ot gospel morality, whos(! del)auchery hau moro than ouco paralyzed hor 
with horror.- 

Animated l>y new fervor at this sight, sho gavo herself unreservedly to 
God, renouncing iu future the least thought of self, and b.'gan to run 
with groat steps iu the career of sanctity. Prayers, toil, spiritual conver- 
sation, was henceforward her solo occupation ; ami after the (;xample of 
fcjaint Anthony, she made it a duty to imitate every edifying trait that 
she perceived in ihoae who composed this new church. Sho spent at the 
foot of the altar, all her spare time ; she Uved solely by her (iwu labor, 
and busied as she might bo exteriorly, hor heart was ever in conslant 
communion with God. 

She had not jet made her first communion whou sho arrived iu tho 
colony, and it is not usual in these missions to grant this favor to neo- 
phytes till after long trials. Catharine was fearfiu that she would be sub- 
jected to this rule, but her \ iilui', far more than her r(;i)eated entreaties, 
soon induced her du-ector to make an exception iu her favcn-, nor had ho 
any reason to repeut. The frotiueut communions, which she was permitted 
to receive, did uot diminish iu the least her fervor in prep.iring for tlu-m. 
It was enough to see hor iu h(>r most ordinary acti(jus to be rousi d to 
devotion ; but when she pfirtook of the divine mysteries, it was impossi- 
ble to be near her, and not be filled with most tender love for God. 

When she was obliged to go with a hunting party, the di.sti'actiou in- 
sei)arable from that time deranged in nothing her interior life • she built 
an oratory within her heart which she never quitted. Sho avoided coiu- 
pauy as much as she could, and when she could uot, siie imiiartod ln^- 
recoUectedness to others much moro than she took part in ilunr 
amusements. Yet there wasuothing constrained in her manners, and her 
devotion was neither forbidding nor troublesome. She was oven wonder- 
fully dexterous in concealing from the public her pri\ate practice;) of 

• TegonLatsihongo, ChaucLeiiere, ch. ix. 





Iim-.-oifV .^y »;.;-,.,■ ;;;.j.^vi.; 


•f " 

l)i('ty, and licr iiiiHtcriticM, wliidi wi'ii' ;,'rr.iK (>ii(< <>( her moHt couinion 
Was to iiiiii'^dt' ciirtli Willi :ill slir ntc, iiiid very ffw iKTccivcd it.' 

IJcHiilcs iuT tliri'C'tor, witli 'lit vvliosi' piTiiiisMiDU hIic iliil nothing' of 
this kind, siin concealud iKjthiii;.,' fr. mi twn ".•■r.iii.ii ot i^rwit virtiir, wlioso 
iiiutiml iiitir('-iiiH(! served i^Tciitly to rouse tlioiii to nn eiiiiiiciit suiictity. 
One WHS the Aiiiihl'isiii, who hud widcomed her on her reitchiny tlie eoi- 
ony ; thu other .<■ youii;,' widow uiinied Teresa,' wlio after Hvinj,' 
tiiuo i" r.lier for^'etfuhiess of lier biiptisiual proniisoH, returned to her duty 
on the occasion of a j,'reat dani^'er, from wliicli sht! was convinced (iod 
had miraculously delivenal her. Yet even after this she leil (juite a Uike- 
warni life, deferring from (hiy to day tho exceutiou of tbo design bhe had 
conceived as atoning by penance for past disorders. 

A conversation with {.'atharinc; completed her conversion. She; was ono 
d ^y attentively looking at llu^ churcii, then erecting at Sault .Saint Louis,' 
to which they had just transferred tho Irocpiois town from La Prairie de la 
Magiltleine ; Catharine perceiveil her and felt inspired to address her, 
although she had never yet spoken to her. To open conversation, sho 
a.sked her v.iiich part of the new church was inteniled for women, and 
Teresa pointed it out to her. "-Uas !" replieil Catharine, "it in not in those 
material tci.iples that God takes most pleasure, our heart is tho sanctu- 
ary most ayrc cable to him. But how often, woe is me, have I driven him 
from that heart, where he wjshcs to reign alone ? Do I not richly deserve 
tliat he should, for my ingratitude, forever ou iiio tho door of his 
Siinctuary, erecting to his glory?" 

These words touched Teresa to the (piick ; she rejjroached herself with 
her tepidity, and felt stnmgly urged to fultill at last what she had so fre- 
quently promised the Almigiity. Sla; at once revealed it all to Catharine, 
and f(jund in that holy virgin an open heart, whicli induced her to with- 
hold nothing that was passing in her own, and which completely gained 
her to Christ. Her penance was of the character of those, which almost 
without intermediate ste|)S raise the greatest sinners, and what is still 
more difficult, the most cowartlly souls to the most heroic perfection. 
She became attached to Catharine by bonds which divine love drew still 
more closely, and henceforward these two chosen souls concealed fi'om 
each other notnuig bearing on their interior life. They consoled each other, 


' Ab to her auBteritics, see Chaucbetiere, tho point where Ciitharino'a cross stil I 

ch. vi. stimds. Tliu village hml a fort with four 

' Mary Trrcsa Tcguaiafruunta. Imslions and ii neat utonr church, com- 

* Not where the village in now, but at jileted curly iu lUTb, but uo truce rouiaius. 

t-lM V 

1 ,' I 

lusiuiu oi' .'.i.w iiw.aM c;. 

2 '.II 

, will ISO 


!(• t'ol- 
J,' HOtlXO 


•III (JiiJ 

ii liikc- 

hIic hiiJ 

;,'iivi' ooiiiiKcl in (loiihts mill ^trrii;;!!! in tiu! ttsHiiultH which lioU ami the 
>V'irhl iiiiirt.' than micii niudo on tlicin. 

Ahout thiH time Ciithiiiini- hml ii very Hovcro ono to HUHtiiin, comiuf^ 
tiM) fritni tho very iilthohh h\>in whom nho HUppOMiil hci-Hflf IcuHt likily 
to iiutii'iiiatc jiuytliiii^,' of liic kiml. The sanio luluptiil sister wlio hiid 
tittracti'd licr thitlicr, took it into lier hfiid tu her oil', iind tlurt.' ia 
iintliinf,' tliiitHhi'did not ivsort to, to ovorconio hur rcNistanco. Sho bci^jart 
liy tcliiii;,'lii'rtiiiit thou^fh sht; 1111(1 lu'rhinl),iuild(iiiird il ii iiliMsim'tiiiucit 
nil her witiits, still it minhtwiU lie thiit, hiinhiind »vilhii lar;^.! I'aiiiily, tiicy 
iiii^fht Hot alwiivH 1)0 in ii position to oontiniii! siipiilyiiii,' hrr with iircrs- 
Kiirits, and thiit moroovor, iu ctVHO of thoir dciith, hUo would bo lufl with- 
out Hll|lpOI't. 

The virtuous vir;,'iu was tho more iifVoetod at tluisc words bcciuisc sho 
was not a biirdon to hor sistor : sho ncvortholoss thankod her for her 
iittuutiou and proniiuod tu rotluct on what Hhu had just said. Sho immu- 
diatoly wont to lur coufossor, and oxprossod hor <^v'n!f that a sister wiio till 
thou had j^ivou hor so many markn of sineoro friendship, now wished to 
liampor hor iu tho only thiii^' iu whioh sho wished to bo free. Tho Falhor, 
after huariuy hor uiilmly, told hor, that, iu roality, iior sister was not so far 
wrong iu spcakinj,' as sho had doiK^ ; sho should thank her for tho 
l)rooiuiti<jus whioh sho wished hor to take iu order to assure a ih^oriit 
Bubsisteuco ; iiud that tho matter doservod oaliu cousidoration. " It is 
no loag(tr timo todchberato," roiiliod Cathiiriue; " I am uo longer my own, 
I havu given myself unreservoiUy to Jesus Christ. ' "But," rejoined tho 
missionary, " who will nourish you, and assist you in your inlirmitios, 
Hhould God rinuovo your sister?" " Tlhil is my least iinxioty," replied 
tho generous neophyte ; "he who fi.'ods tho birds of the air, will not let 
Uio want tho little I need to live V" The missionary did nol, seem to 
yield ; ho dismissed his poiiitont, bidding her again consult the Lord on 
)i point iu which he did not yi't seo manifest the Divine Will. She then 
i-otirod very sad. 

The same day hor sister again pressiil the matter, and linding her iu- 
lloxible, induced Auastasia, whoso ago and virtue caused both to regard 
her as a mother, to speak to In.'r ou the point. Auastasia at lirst ontorod 
into the young woman's views, bciuaine it was unexaiu])led among tho 
Iioijuois, for a girl to persevere iu celi!)acy ; tin; Missioiiai-ies liaving so 
far doomed it iuoxpodiont to give ihoio Indians tin.' eoun-iel which St. 
Paul gave the primitive Christians. Auastasia accordingly undertook to 
persuade Catharine to conform to her sister's wishes. Sho gaiuod 
nothing, and seemed sumo what uutllod. This she showed Catharine by 






iifmtohy op new hiance. 




■ jiictuchL'S aud thrcutM of iiitLT|>imiiiK H"' uiilliinity ol' ilaii tiiiiiiin n 

Thti holy viri;iu uiiticipitU'd lii'i', ami ultci' aNxiiriii'^ lar r«|>iiitual 
Father thai Hho cuuld no lon^or doubt of thu will of (^)d, Hho ho^^^cd 
liiiu to eoiiHi'iit, ill nrdor to put uu und tu this porHecutioii, that hIih 
should fake a vow of virf,'iiiity. Tlui luiHHJonurv replied liuit an eii^jaj^'e- 
iiieiit iif llial kind hIiouM not bu taki^n li^litly, that he ^^avi* her three 
diiyH to Ihiiik it ov r, und that during that tiniu ho permitted Ik i' to re- 
diiul)l(] her prayerH and aiisteritien to obtain from the Almi^^'hty to know 
whiil hi) desired of her. Catharine left him ]>roiniHin^' obedience, but ii 
(piarter of an hour after returned, and approaching^' him with an air th;it 
was not natural to hor, exclaimed : " Father, I havo considereil it all ; I will 
never have any spoiiHe but Jemis Christ." Her action and the tone in 
which nho Hpoko, tout;hod the diriictor; ho Hiiw clearly that it woiiM Uu 
vain to oppose a niovomunt which had ovory mark of divino inspiration. 
He consoled his ponitout by givin;^ her hopo of his consent to what sho 
(le.siied ; he exhorted her then to think of nothing' but ^aininj^ the hiiirt 
of the heavenly Spouse whom sho hadchoseu, and promised hor to stop all 
further importuuity ou the part of hor sistor or her friends. 

She had scarcely K"Uo, when .Vnastasia entered the missionary's abode 
with loud complaints of Catharini stubbornness. After lusirinj,' her 
without inti!rruption, tho missionary rebuked her nnldly for her precipita- 
tion in bliiminy whiit sho did not know, and for tho slight esteem which 
sho seemed to entertain for a state which raises mortal creatures to tho 
condition of aui»els. An;istiisia riiciiived this correction with hiunility, 
and Catharine ever after found iu her a truly Christian friend, disposed 
to secoud hor iu her pious desii^us, and attentive to roliove her in her 
wants and atUictions, On her side, Catharine beli('ved herself bound by 
tin? resolution she ha. 1 just taken, to live more .sooluded than over, and prac- 
tice humility, charity and penanco. Sho was soeu to advance visibly in 
virtue. Already nauj^ht was spoken of iu tho country except hor emi- 
nent sanctity. The peoi)le were never weary ailmiriufj tho secret sprinj^ of 
Divine (roodness, which, amid a n;ition the most hostile to tho establish- 
mout of Christianity, had drawn forth a youuy virgin, to make hor a 
perfect model of all Christian virtues. 

There then reigned in the mission of Sault Saint Louis a spirit of mor- 
titication which went to great length. These neophytes htid just been 
declared, by all the Iroquois cantons, enemies of their country, and they 
coulidently expected that after this outburst, all who fell into tho hands 
of their idolatrous brethren, would be given over without mercy to the 



Iv ., 


Ill.^roIlV OK NK'.V KliANCB. 


most fiMrfiil ti)rtiiroM. Hi'iuio Hii'y tlii»ii;^lil mil) uf iiri>|t,iriii>| fur miirtyr- 
(loiii liy III! tlio luiiiiiis lli^it iiiistcrily citi Hii^-'^i'-it liir cliii.stiHiii;^' tliii tlisli. 
Mfii, woini^ii iitid cliililri'U even, in tliiN iiiiitti r pruceeilt^il to exceHM'H 
wliieli fl"; luiHHioiiiiriUH a'<vor would hiivo puriuiHud h;iJ tUoy boeii fully 
iiifiu'ined ill re^iird to them. 

('iitliiiriiie, luiife fully poHseHHcd hytlie interior Hpirit tliiiii all tlieotlierfl, 
WHS t()i> tliii luoHt unsparing' to liernelf of nil. Slie coiiHiilted iiiui^'iit liut 
lier ferviir, mid Inilinved liernulf in ii) wise b lund to depend in tliiH on lier 
din'ctor iis formerly, lielievill;.; lll:lt tlliw j,'eiieliil eoiicert of the whiije vil- 
la;^!' ciiiild nut lie unknown to him, iind thiil his Hilenee in re^urd to it 
wiiM II (Miimt'iit. She was mjcordiuj^ly soon reihieed to ii st.ite of liiii^iior iiiid 
siillrriii;^ from which uhu iiuvor rocoverod.' S>me time tifter shu paid a 
visit to Moiitreiil, svliere thu Hi<^ht of the ilospitiil Nuns, whom sho hu<l 
never even heiird mentioned, incroiiHed her dt^sire to corisecriito herself 
til (ii)d l»y the vuw of chtiMtity ; nhe ruuowcd her eiitreiities to her coii- 
I'essor, who judi^'ed it his duty uo lonj^er to withhold luH consent. Hho 
iiecordiiij,'ly took the long doHired vow, with ii joy thiit Heemed to revive 
nil her strength, and who was thu tirst of her tribu who took upnu herself 
HUch an eiigagomtiit with heavon. 

The heavenly spouse of chaste souls was not slow in giv'iig lier mani- 
fest proofs that he had acei'pted hisr saerilici!, and in treating her as his 
well-beloved spouse. She, on her side, exerted herself to correspond to 
liis caresses and the iutornal communications with which ho favored her 
bv perfect lidelity and unreserved love. But her strength could not king 
sustain its ardor, and ♦he tlesh soon gave way beneath the i tVorts of tlio 
Bpirit. Sho fell into a dangerous di.sease, which htft her only i lingering 
oxisteuee subject to constant pain. In this state sho unite<l In-'iself more 
and more tu Jesus Christ by meditating on His death and sulVerings, and 
the frecpnuit reception of the sacraments. Sho i«uld no longer endnro 
human conversation ; Anastasia and Theresa wore the only two persons 
with whom sho retained any kind of intimacy, because they spoke to her 
only i>f (Jod. 

Siio felt well only at the foot of the altar, where, buried in iirofonnd con- 
templation, and shedding torrents of tears, whoso iuoxhaustiblo fountain 
was His love and the wound it had inllicted on heart, she oftiai so 
forgot the wants of her body, as not even to fed the cold, with which her 
whole frame was benumbed. She always camo from this contcmplatioi: 
with renewed love of sull'eriiig, and it is unconceivable how ingenious 



' CliHuclii'tirri' intiniufi'8 tliat tliiH occurred wliilc Fatlii;r Freinin, liur prudent 
diri'ctor, wii« iibseiit in Kmope, cli. vl. 





H ' M 

be. iniud was in iiivcutiiig menus to iMiu-ify Ik r iKsli. SnnKtiincs sho 
\valk(.'(l liiii'i'foL)lL(l on the ice, iiutl snow, till she lost all feeling. Soiiie- 
tinies she sitrewed her couch with thorns. She roUeil for three davs in 
snccessiou on branches of thorns, which pierced deeply into her tlesh, 
causing intxplicablo ptiiu. Another time she burned her feet, as is d(3ue 
to pri.souers, wishing thus to give herself the stamp and mark of a slavo 
of Christ ; but what attests far better the solidity of her virtue, is the 
unalterable gentleness, patience, joy even, manifested by her in the sutl'er- 
iiigs which she ex])erieuced toward the close of life. 

It would seem that no sacrifice should bo dilKcult to those who carry 
niortilication as far as this holy virgin did. Yet this is rarely the case. 
Men are often astonished to behold those who practice the greatest aus- 
terities, more sensible than others to. any annoying or humilating event 
that Inippens, simply because there is nothing of their own choice in it. 
Self- will is always the last victim, and is often found missing from the 
holocaust. Catharine understood the superiority- of tin; crosses presented 
by the hand of the Lord over those which are self-imposed, and sulTerings 
in which her wiU h:id least share, were always dearest to her heart.' 

She was at last attacked by a malady, which was at once deemed mor- 
tal ; and that at a time when the labors in the Held so engaged all, that 
she could scarcely expect care from any one. She remained alone wlu)lo 
days with a platter of Indian corn, and a little water beside her bed. 
Delighted to behold herself thus forsaken of men, she communed constantly 
\vitL her God, and found the days only too short. On Tuesilay in Holy 
AVeek, 1(578, she grew worse, and received Holy Viaticum. The mis- 
sionary wished also to administer Extreme Unction at once, but she as- 
sured hun that it could be deferred till next day. She spent all the 
ensuing night in a loving colloc(uy with her divine Saviour, and \vith 
His Holy Jlother, whom she had always singularly honored, regarding 
herself as a spouse of Christ, attached to the retinue of the Queen of 

Ou Wednesday morning she recei\iHl the sacred anointing, and about 
three o'clock in the afternoon she expired after a gentle agony of half an 
lK)ur, retaining her complete consciousness and sound judgment till lur 
last sigh.-' Thus lived and thus in her tweuty-Hfth year died Catharine 


' Clmrleviiix aoems to iilhulc tj ii tiilsi' 
accusation iiinlcr whicii CiUlKiriiir lulmrcd 
I'nr 11 liiui'. ('luiuclii'tieri', B'k II. cli, ix. 

■•' C'liiiuchitirrc ill-tails lnTlast niomi'iits. 
B'k 111., c'.i. :;. Shrdhd .\:.rl iT. H'.so. 
Sec, too ("licU'iK'k's loitji'. l,^■ttlv^' IMili- 

i)(' la I'otluTic, Ilistdiro ili» I'Ann'riquf 
S •iiti'iitrioiiulc. |). ;!.")1, gives the same 
vear, UlSO. If it had oecuri-ed in UIVS, 
tlie Helaiion l(17;i-l) would not have! been 
silent as to it • but tlnreip no allusion lo 
it iu that volume, or in the matter for 

aule-— Ki|i"s .[esiiil Missions. y\>. SO, 11:!. 1(JT8 in the Uelations laedil^es. 

' • i 



Ton;ahkoiiitii. The ox!\nipl(> of her most holy lifo had I'voducod a V017 
gri'iit fervor aiuon^' tlui Iroiiuois of SauU SI. Louis. Tho womlcrs whic'a 
God .soon begun to work in favor of those who had recourse to her iuter- 
cession, are still at this day (174:i) for these ueophytes and indeed all for 
New Franee a powerful motive to serve in spirit iiud iu truth so liberal a, 
JIastor, who, without respect of persons, lavishes his mobt precious gift.s 
on those who abandon themselves to Him without reserve. 

Her countenance, extremely utteniiated by austerity and by her last 
illness, suddenly changed as soon as she ceast'd to live. It was seen as- 
suming a rosy tint that she had never had, nor were her features the 
same. Nothing could be more beautiful, but with that beauty which love 
of virtue inspires. The people were never weary gazing on her, and. 
each retired, his heart full of the desire to become a saint. As a distinc- 
tion her body was placed in a coilin, and her tomb soon became cele- 
brated by the concourse of the faithful, who Hoiked from all parts of 
Canada, and by the miracles wrought there. There are preserved espe- 
cially the juridi'-al attestations of two persons, whose character leaves no 
d )ubt as to the truth of their deposition. Oue is the Ab'oe d.' la C,)i.>ii.- 
bii're (brother of the Jesuit Father, Claude de la (,'olobibicre, celebraud 
for his virtues and eloquence, ) Grand Archdeacon, and Vicar-deueral ;! 
Quebec, and Clerical Councillor in the Superior Council of N\ w Franc. 
The other is 'Sh: du Luth, captain of au infantry company, one of the 
bravest officers the Kmg has had iu the colony, and whose name is frs- 
quently cited in this history. 

The former declares in writing under his own hand that h;',ving been 
siek from the monvh of January to that of June, 1G1)5, with a slow fever, 
which had ballied all remedies, and adysentery that nothing could check, lie 
was advised to bind himself by a vow that if it pleased God to restore his 
health, ho would proceed to the Mission of St. Francis Xavier at Suilt 
Kt. Louis, to pray at the tomb of Catharine Tegahkouita ; that ho 
yielded to this advice, and that the fever left him that very day, and that 
the dysentery diminished considerably ; that having set out some days 
afier to fuliill his vow, he was entirely cured before he had proceeded more 
than a league. 

The second certifies juridically, that having been for twenty-five years 
tortured with the gout, accompanied by excessive pain that sometime.'? 
lasted for three mouths without respite, he invoked Catharine Tegah- 
kouita, au Iroquois Virgin, who died at Sault St. Louis iu tlui odor of 
sanctity, and promised to visit her tomb, if, tlu-ough Iu r intcivrv^on, G-.J 
delivered him from this cruel disease • that at the end of a uoveua which 






ijHa I 









I.' ( 



111' ]K'rfornu'(l in lior honor, hi; wan purfecUy cured, aud that for the last 
tit'tccii months ho had felt no wyinptoiu.s of gout.' 

Evi-ry yoar on the auuiversary of tho death of Good Cathariiic — la 
/i'liuw Callwriiw, (this being tho name under which, out of I'espcct for tho 
Holy Sec, this holy virgin is honored in Canada) several parishes in tho 
neighborhood como to cLaut in tho Church of Saiilt St. Louis a solemn 
Mass of the Holy Trinity. A pai'ish priest at Lachiue, a town on Mon- 
treal Island, by name Mr. Remy, who had recently arrived from France, 
on being informed by his parishioners of this custom, replied that he 
deemed it a duty not to sanction by his jn-esence a public cultus not yet 
permitted by the Church. Most, on hearing him speak thus, could not 
refrain from saying that he would soon be punished for his refusal, aud 
in fact he fell dangei'ously ill the same day. He at once understood tho 
(■"Use of this unexpected attack. He bound himself by a vow to follow 
the example of his predecessors, and was instantly ciu'ed. Thus New 
Fr uice, li. ; tho capital of Old France, behold tho glory of a poor In- 
dian girl and of a shepherdess, shine above that of so many apostolic men 
martyrs and other saints of all conditions of life. God doubtless wish- 
ing for our instruction and the consolation of the humble to glorify His 
saints in proportion to theii" having been httlo aud obscure on eai'th. 





The Iro(iuois tt)wns were visibly depopulated by the withdrawr.l of tho 
many families that took r<'t'iige in the ^Mission of '■':.",ut St. Louis, there to 
embrace Christianitj', or profess it in gi'eatcr liberty, or be removed from 
the allurements of the heathens ; the latter were so exasperated at this, 
that they declared enemies of their country all the ChristiiMi Iro{jUois 
who had aV)andoned it, and this rago won for many tho crown of mar- 
tyrdom. I have spoken of some in my history. I now proceed to make 
known others, who could not be introduced without interrupting the nar- 

' Tlu'se ntlcslntions iu full are in Let- 
tresEditiniiti's, vol. xii., truuHlatedm Kip's 
Jepuit Missions, p. 115-6. 

'■' The following; lives are ilriuvn triim 
the Li'tlres M liiiiuiles, vol. xiii., Paris, 
1720, in Eng'>h iu Kip's Jesuit -Mis.-ious 

p. 117 Tlicy were probably based on a 
work of Father Chuiichetiere "On tho 
Perseverance of Indians who gave their 
lives for tho Faith amid the fires or bo- 
neatli llietoiuahawk of the Irajuois," no 
longer extant. 



Tlio first is Stophon Tegjuiaiiokoa. llo cimu ti) S;\ali St. Louis with 
his wifo, sistur-iu-l:i\v ami six childrou, Ijoiiig at thi^ tiiui,' thirtv-livi' years 
of ago. Ho had uothiug savage iu his ilispositiou, ami his siucoro and 
tendor attachiuuut to his wife, iu a country wluni! licunso reigns, and uieu 
■io commonly chaugo wivos, would alouo stand as a pro(jf of tiie iiuiocenco 
ol' his previous lifo. As soon as ho arrived iu tlie now town, he earnestly 
solicited baptism, with all his family, anJ thoy obtained it after the ordin- 
ai'y trials. They were soon tho edification of that rising church. Sto- 
2)lion watohud over tlio education of his cliildnni with the z.oal of a mis- 
sionary. Ho sent them (ivery day to morning and evening prayers, and 
to tlio iustru(^ti(jn givi.-n to tho young, himself sotting thoia an exci-lleut 
example by liis regular attondauco on all tho o.vorcisos of ri'igioii, iuid Ujs 
exactness in rocoiving tho Holy Eucharist freipiently. 

By this pious lifo ho so;'mod to bo preparing t'l triii.upii over the eucmy 
of Josiis Christ and to defend his faitli amid tlio most crue! torL.ents. in 
tho month of August, KJ'JO, ho sot out for tlio fall hunt, accojiiiianii'd 'oy 
his wife and on(! otlua- Indian. In tho month of .Se[/.i,'nl)er tlioy wi re 
surprised by a band of fourtLou Cayugas, v>ho bound tlu; i and took tlu-m 
to Uicir canton. As soon as >Ste;)hen beheld himself in tho lian<l,s of 
these savage moll, ho had no doubt but that he would bo coudonined to 
the stake. Ho warned his wife of this, exliortod her to persevere in tho 
faith, and iu case she returned to Sault St. Louis, to bring up their chil- 
dren iu tho fear o*' God. 

The three prisoner.s were taken to Onoudaga ; God wishing ap[i;iroiitly 
that Stephen's constancy and fortitude should shine forth hi a place thou 
famous for the assemblage of a host of Indians from uU the Iro(iiii'is can- 
tons and for the fearful licentiousness prevalent there. Although it is 
the custom to await prisoners at the cntrauco of tho village, the joy telt at 
Onondaga on their having in their hands some of tlio setlh^rs at Sault St. 
Louis, made all stream out far in advance to meet tliom. Each had 
decked himself iu his attiro, as for a day of trium])h ; all wore 
armed with hatchets, knives, clubs, or whatever they laid hands on, and 
fury was depicted on every couuteuance. 

When thoy reached the prisoners, one of these Indians approaching 
Stephen, said : " Brother, thou art dead : impute thy misfortune to thy- 
self alone, for thou left us to go aud live among tlioso dogs of Christians 
at the Sault." "I am a Christian," rephod Stephen, "and I glory iu be- 
ihg one. Do with me what you will : I fear neither your outrages nor 
fires. I willingly give my lifo for a G(od who shed aU his blood for me." 
Scai'cely had he ended these words when tho furious savtujoa apraug on, 



s ' 







iinil j^'ashed biin deep on the arms, legH and whole body ; tbey then cut 
oil' si'veml of his tui;,'(;r.s and tore out all his nails. One of the hand then 
C'l'ied to him : " Pray to (rod." "Yes," replied Stephen, " I will i>ray," 
and raisiuy his fettered handp), hu made, as well as he could, the sign of 
i.ho cross, prou(juuciug aloud in his own languajjfc^, those words : " In the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." Hidf his 
rcniiiiuinj^ lingers were immediately hacked oil', and again they cried : 
"Mow pray to your God." Again ho ma le the sign of the cro.ssand they 
instantly cut off all the rest of his lingor.s, then for the third time calltd 
on him to pray, loading him with insults. As ho endeavored to make 
tho sif.fn of the cross again with the palm of his hand, it was cut oil' eu- 
tiuly, and iio was slashed wherever ho had made the sign of the cross. 

After this bloody prelude, the prisoners were led to the village, and 
ue.H" a great tire in which stones had been heated red hot. Several were 
placed between Stephen's thighs, which ^voro thou violently pressed to- 
gether. Ho was uoxt ordered to siujf in the manner of the country ; as 
he refused to do so, but began to repeat aloud the prayers which he was 
daily accustomed to recite, one of tho .-savages took a burning brand and 
(irove it far into his mouth ; then, before he had time to breathe, he was 
tied to the stake. When tho courageous neophyte beheld himsiilf amid 
♦ he instruments of his t(jrture and a crowd of cxocutioncrH, he looked 
calmly upon them and said ; " Satiate yoiu'selves with the pleasure of 
burning me, spare mo not, my sins deserve oven greater sufferings than 
you can intiici ; the more you torture me, tho more you increase the re- 
v;ird prepared for mo in heaven." 

These words renJ ii'ed them still moi'O furious ; each seized a brand or 
red hot iron, with which they slowly burned all the body of this Loly 
mm, who endured the cruel martyrdom without breathing a sigh ; he 
I .I'll seemed as calm as though he suffered nothing, liis eyes raised to 
heaven, and buried as it were in profound contemplation. At last his 
strength beginning to fail, he asked a few mo'.nents' truce, and tlien ral- 
lying all his fervor, ho nuv^j his last prayer. He comniouded his soul to 
Christ and implored him to pardon his executioners. Tliey at once re- 
sumed his torture ; his constancy did not llag and ho gave up his soul to 
his Creator triumphing by his courage over all tho Iroquois cruelty. 

His wife's life was .spared, as he had foretold her ; she remained 
some time a prisoner in the country, where neither entreaties nor threats 
could shake her faith. On recovering her liberty, she proceeded to 
Aguier,' which was the pliico of her birth. There she remained till her 

' The Moliiiwk Ciiutdii iiiul its liiiif town are l)otli thus .styiid in Kniich 

I ! 




s.'ii came fur her ami took her biu-k to Hiiult SI. Louis. Tlw Tadiaii 
who liaJ Ik'ou captunnl '.vith Stephen, escaped with the loss of soiiu' tiu- 
g(a's aiul a (li'e[) wound in the kig. Ho was tlien taken to Ca^yuga, 
where all means were cniijloyed to force him to niiirry aj,'ain, and phiiiyo 
in all the debaucheries in which that trilje was sunk ; but he constantly 
replied that his relij,non forbade b(jt]i. Having at last come towaisls 
Montreal with a band of warrior.s of that canton, ho secretly withdrew 
and returned to his Mission, where ho over after lived a most edifying 



Twc -vfar.s after a woman displayed a constancy, in no wise inferior to 
that o*' the virtuous Stephen. Her name was Frances (jriMianuhateuha, 
and sht! had been baptized at Onondaga, her native place, whence sho 
had taken refuge at Sault Saint Louis. Tiiere slie edilied all by her 
piety, her modesty and especially her charity ; and as she w,is in easy 
circumstances, the poor always found hef an assured resource in their 
necessities. One day when she was thret; leagues from the village, en- 
gaged in ti.shing, she heard the enemy were making a desc(!Ut on Sault 
Saint Louis ; sho at once embarked in a canoe with tw(j of lier friends to 
"o to the assistance of her husband. The women arrived iu time to 
save him ; he jumped into a canoe, and this httle baud deemed them- 
selves safe, when the caiuje was suddenly surrounded l)y a whole Iro- 
quois army about a quarter of a league from tlu' villagi\ The husband'a 
head was at ouce cut off and the tlu'eo women led to tlie camp. 

The cruelties perpetrated on them the lirst- niglit they spent there, con- 
vinced them that they wire coudemuod to deatli. The savages amused 
themselves with phiekiug out their nails, and t'lien burning tin; blei-ding 
lingers iu their pipes. The two companions of Frances wer(^ then givcv 
one to the Oneida, th<; other to the Seneca canton. She l^n'self wa.s 
given to her own sister, who was of high rank in Onondaga. This wo- 
man, discarding the affection which nature and blood should have in- 
spired, left her sister to the discretion of the sachems and braves, which 
was equivahnit to condemning her to the stake. In fact, as ;;oou as sho 
arrived at the village, she was compelled to ascend a scaH'old. Tliere, in 
presence of her kindred and of all who crowded around to witness her 
torture, she declared in a loud voice that sli.' was a Chriatiau, and 

>l «. 





^ ■ 




deciujcl liorsolf hiippy to dio in bor own comitry jiud by the linnds o 
I" L- kin.saion, Jilcu Ji>.siis Christ who had hooii enicilii'd by liis own conn 

)ii ')( hui' kiii-iiiiL'ii, who prosoiit, had tivo years previously ^^ono 
tiJ Siali Saint L )iiis to iiidtico Frauccss to I'otiirn to hor own canton ; and 
havin;^ tailud, still harboiMd rosoutiui-nt. Tho words just nttorod by this 
forvent Christian roinod iiitii to t'uiy. Ho sprang on thu scallold, toro oil" 
the crucilix which sho woro on hor uock, and with a, knifo which he held 
in his hand, ho cut a cross on hor broast. " Thoro," ho criod, " is the 
cross you love so much and which provontod your leaving tho Sault, 
when I took tho pains to go for you." " Tliank you, brother," ropliud 
Fr.;ucos, " tho cross you have torn from me I might lose ; but you give 
me one that I shall not lose cvi^n in death." 

She then spoke of the Mysteries of tho Faith with an unction and a 
power far above the capacity of an Indian woman. "Fearful as the tor- 
ments are tcj which you condemn me," said she in conclusion, " do not 
tlimk my lot one to bo deplored. It is your own that calls for tears and 
sobs ; this lire that you hivo lighted to torture mo will burn but a few 
hoars ; but another lire that will never bo extinguish( ^., is prepared for 
you in hell. Yet it is in your power to avoid it ; follow my example, Iks- 
>mc Christians, live up to ihti laws of that holy religion and you will 
e'cape tho eternal fiamos. Moreover, I declare that I wish no evil to 
those whom I behold rea<iy to take my life. Not only do I forgive them 
my death, but I pray tho Supi'omo Arbiter (A life to op^Mi their eyes 
to the trutli, to touch their heart, and grant them grace to be converted 
and die in the sentiments with which He inspires me." 

These words of tho holy widow, far from moving the savage hearts, 
only increased their rage. Thoy led her for three suceessive days through 
all the lodges, to make hor the sport of a brutal mob. On the fourth 
da^' they took her b.ick to her stake, and bound hor. Tlioy then ap- 
plied to all parts of her body lighted torches and gun barrels lieated red 
hot. This Listed several hours without hor uttering the least cry. Her 
eyes were tix.od on heaven, and one would have said she suF;red nothing. 
This is tho testimony given by the Sieur de Saint Michel,' then a prisoner 
at Onondaga, but who escai^ed some time after, as they were preparing to 
burn him aiivo. He witnessed aU the tortures inllicted on Frances, and 
on arriving at gave an account, which drew tears from tho 
wliole town. He declareil that iie had been unable to restrain his own, 
especially when the courageous martyr, having had her scalp torn off and 

I Aule, 11. 2VJ. 



the bloodiiiff wknll covcrc'il witli hot hsIicm, w;ih imboniul ; fi)v insfpiul of 
rmiiiin^', iw others do, whom this tortiirinj^- riiRhTH t'raiitii', .slic Iciult 
down, and riiiMin:^' liur eyes to hoiiven, offtirod to tho Ahiiighty tho hist 
broiith of hfo left hor. A showur of stones tliat iiistiint riiiu(!d njjon her 
consummating her sucrilice, in tho very act of prayer, and most intimate 
union with God. 


A THiitD victim whom me mission of S;uilt St. Louis sent to hoaveu, 
was immolated the next year in tlie same vilhige. She was a yonni^ ,\o- 
man of twenty-four, named ^largaret Garangouas, also an ()iii)i;da,i;'a, 
and Ijaptized at the ago of tliirtemi. SIk; niai-ried soon after, and God 
blessed her marriage by giving her four ohildron whom she brought up 
in piety. Tho youngest was still at thi; breast, and actually in her arms, 
when, towards tho fall of IGt):!, whihi visiting her held, a (lua.ter of a 
league from tho fort, she fell into the hands of two Indians of hav canton 
who led her to Onondaga. On the th'st tidings of her arrival, all poured 
out of the village to await tho captive on a knoll which she had to pass. 
As soon as she appearcnl, the air resounded with fearful cries, which 
awakened only gloomy forebodings. 

No sooner had she reached the knoll, than she was surrounded by four 
hundred Indians. They began by tearing her infant from her arms, the-n 
stripped her naked. After this, numbers rushed upon her, slishing her 
^vith their knives till her body was nothing but one wound, and tho blood 
streamed from every pore. A Frenchman who had witnessed this pitia- 
ble sight, considered it a prodigy that she did not expire on tho spot. 
Margaret perceived this man, recognized him, and addressing him by 
name, said : " You soe to what a state I am reduced. I have only a few 
instants to live. Thanks bo to God, I fear not death, and horrible as that 
juay !,e now prepared for mo, my sins deserve still more. IJcseoch tho 
merciful Jesus to pardon mine and give mo strength to sutler." 

She was then led to a 'abiu where a Frenchwoman from ^loutreal was 
a prisoner ; the latter seized the tirst moments to exhort M;irgaret to en- 
dure with constancy a temporary torture in view of the eternal rewards 
that would follow it. Marga/et thanked her for tho charitabU! counsels 
which she gave her, and repeated what slie had alreiuly stided to tho 
other French prisoner. She added thai siiu'o she had tl;e happuiess to 


1 ,1 

a: I I 




!|■^ j: 

I 'A 


■J! W 



bo baptized, h1>o hii'l never cpftsod imploriiii.,' G.iil for the >^\\n'o to sufT r 
for his love; tli;it now she conM not (loa')t Imt tli;it iiciivcn had heard Iht 
^ows, that she dicsd hapjiy, without any feeUni,' of roHontnient a;,'ainst lier 
kindred and conntrynion now transformed into oxeeutionerH ; that 'in th" 
contrary she C(jnjiircd tho Ahuighty to enhghten thorn with the hght of 
faith, and that her only anxiety was for the salvation c/f her sou. 

Tho two (.'aptive women were still eonversinj^ on the truths of Fiteinity 
nnd tlu! liappinoss of the Saints in hoavon, when a baud of Indians ci.mi) 
to load ^largarot to a spot where she was to bo biu'ned alivo. No regard 
was shown to her youth, her sox, or her bn-th, although who was tho 
daugliter of tho ono who was in a manner chief of tho village, and in whom) 
narao all tho affairs of the nation were transacted.' As a Chriatian and of Sault Saint Louis, sho was too gentlo to find favor with 
these heathens. She was accordingly bound to the stake an 1 her whole 
body burned with an inhumanity that could have b(!en inspired, espe- 
cially in the case of a woman, only by hatred against her religion. Sao 
euibu'od this long and rigorous martyrdom without b(!traying any sign 
of pain, and as long as a breath of life remained sho was hoard invoking 
tho holy names ; Jesus, Mnry, Joseph. 

At first she asked from time to time; a little water ; but she soon i-e- 
pented this weakness, and begged them to refuse her if she asked again.' 
" My Sanour," she said, " sufteri'd gi'oat thirst when dying ft)r mo on th(3 
cross ; is it not just that I should suffer the same torment for Him ?'' 
Her executioners burned her from noon to sunset ; then, impatient to seo 
her expire before night obliged them to withdraw, thoy unbound her 
from tho stake, scalped her, covered her head with hot cinders and bade 
her run. Sho knelt down, however, and raising her hands and ey(>s to 
heaven, commended her soul to tho L(n'd. Although struck repeatedly 
with a club, she continued to pray. At last one of these savages, crying: 
" Will not this dog of a Christian die ?" seized a lai'ge knife and at- 
tempted to plunge it into her belly, but tho knife broke and foil in pieces 
on tho ground. Another took the stake to which she had been bound 
and beat her over the head. As sho still showed some signs of life, she 
was taken up and thrown on a heap of dry wood; this was set on tirc^ a^^d 
she was soon consumed. 

Her son had been given to an Iroquois, who wished to revenge on this 
little creature an insult which ho considered himself as having receiveil 
fi'om the French. Three days after the mother's death, a death-cry was 

' Evidently tho Atotarlio or Tedoilaho, the most (liiriiifiid of all tlie hereditary 
sachems of the League. Mor^jjan, League of the h'o<iuoi8, \>. (31 



lu'iu'd lit iiirflitfiill. All thi^ Iii.liiius mil to tho Hpot from wliicli it (viiu-, 
11.11(1 tlio riviicliwoiiiiiii from .M )iitrciil willi tlio vi^M. Tlicn,' llicy foniul ■\ 
llro kiiidli'd, iiu.l till) b;ibi! which they wuro prci);iria.; to cast into tlui 
divmi-'s. Tho very riuliiius could not hut \m movuil ;it tho si'^'ht ; hut tlioy 
woro still laoro so, whoii they snw ii littlo Iimocoiit, only ii yoiir old, raiso 
its hiiiids to hoavi'u with ;i swuot siuilo, niid tliriou call its laothor, show- 
ing- hy its j^osturos tliat it sou'^ht to oiuhmco hor. Tho Frouohwoiuiiii 
t'''lt assured that its mothor lia<l app.^aivid to it ; and it is nioro than 
])nil)al)!(! tiiat sIk; had h.s )ii^'ht tho .Vlio.i'^hty to rostoro it to hor at oncu 
in order to socun' its otiTual salvatii)u. Bo that as it may, thu child was 
not j^'ivon to thu tlamos. Oiio of tin- most inlluontial mon iu tho village 
seized it by thu feet and dashed its liead a^'aiust a stuue. 



1 CONCLUDE with the history of a neophyte, who, after eseapinj,' tlu' 
stiiKo which was prepared for him, had nevertheless tho happinev^ of 
j^iviii;^- his life, not to be exposed to tho danger of losing liis faith. ifo 
was a yijung Mohawk, named Stephen HoonhoUi.'ntsioiitaoiicl. llr w.u 
(•ai)lui'ed by one of his own nation, who took him to hi^ cantou, .Vs iio 
had many relatives his life was spared, and ho was given to tho people ot 
Lis own lodge, who earnestly porsuatled him to follow tho customs of 
the nation, that is to say, plunge into the most fearful debauohory. He 
nii^t their solicitations with the truths of salvation, which ho explained 
very well, and never ceased exhorting them to follow him to Sault Saint 
Louis, ill order to embnico Christianity there. But ho spoko to people 
boru and bred iu vice, which they had made too alluring a habit, to 
bring themselves to renounce it. Hence his example and exhortations 
only served to harden their hearts. 

When he saw that his stay at Aguier was of no advantage to his kindred, 
and became dangerous even to his own salvation, ho resolved to return to 
his Miss'ou. On imparting his design to his relatives, they consented all 
the more willingly as his departure would relieve theiu of an importunate 
censor, whom they could no longer enduro. Ho accordingly for the sec- 
ond time left his family and country, to put his religion in safety. If 
Lad scarcely set out, before the news of his departure reached a In! 
where some young men were on a debauch. The tidings inflamed thoir 

\. , 






'^ i 

h f ** 


IioikIh ;iii(l c imidi'tcil wliiit rmu \\;u\ lii'i^nm, .Vl'lcr many invectives 
n;,';iiiist the CJIiristiiviiH, thoy oouclii lod that, tliey hUouUI not .siilVer iiny 
one tlms to prefer tlieir s)C'iety to tliat of the I'eiil [roqiiois ; tliiit i' w.isa 
Hhir oil tile whole nation, uiul tli at Stepli.'ii mast hi; coinjH.'lkHl to return 
to the viila^'e, or he toimihawlied if he refaned, inoi'dor to intiniidato any 
will) nii;,'iit ho tuinpted to follow bin oxaniplo. 

Immediately tiu'eo j^avo cliasi! to the neophyte, whom thoy soon over- 
took, imd approacluid, tomahawk in Laiul. "llotnico yonr wtepn," they 
ciiod, "and follow us; you dio if you roHist ; wo havo the ordors of the 
Hachums to tomahawk you." Tiio j^eiierous Christian nii;ekly replied 
that they were masters of his life ; l)ut that ho preferrod losiiij,' it to 
riskinj^- Ins faith and his salvation ; that he was ;^oing to Sault Saint Louis, 
rosolvinl to (aid his days tlu;vo, if ho was so happy as to reach it. As he 
saw that after this distiiKit statenicnt, those brutes pr<>))ariMl to kill him, 
bo iK';^god tlnan to give him a few moments to pray. They ^'ranted his 
roqiiost, and tbo holy yoitug man kuoolinj^ down tranquilly (illored iip bis 
devotions. He tbanked God for the grac j bestowed ou bim of dying a 
Christian and a martvr ; bo prayed for bis infidel relations, and especially 
for those wiio now turned his exeeutioiKirs, and who that very instant clove 
open bis bead. Those details wei'o learned from some Mohawks, who 
subsequently camo to settle at Sault Saint Louis. 


I close by a trait well adapted to sln)w with what fervor God was 
served by tbe Iroquois of Sault Saint Louis. Paul, one of In- 
dians, bad u daughter who passed among the Indian.s for a beauty • 
bis wife, no less virtuous than himself, begged bim to join her in ask- 
ing God to di'prive their ebild of an advantage wbich might imperil her 
innocence. Ho consented witb joy ; they joined in prayer and were 
beard. A cataract formed in ono of their daughter's t^yes, deforming 
ber greatly. She soon after became consumptive, and died at tbe age of 
seventeen, iu ber mt)ther's arms, exborting ber witb ber last breath to 
persevere in tbo faith. Her virtuous parents, deeming ber salvation 
assured by sucb a boly deatb, rendered sincere thanksgiving to God. 



I'lT iiiiy 

i' WllHIl 

ato liny 


Tmt Huron MiHsioiiH, ns long as thoy HubHiKtcd ; thd Aboimqui Mis- 
BioHH, wbiuli Htill Hubsist ; tho MiHsiouH iK^iiror Qiiobuc, sucb iih thost! of 
Thrco RivorH, Syllori, Lcrutto, ivud Tmlouasao, biivo not, oxcopt tho lirst, 
bail tbo sumo opportunity as tbo Iro(iiioiH Mission of Sault Saint Louis 
ami tbo Mountain to givd martyrs to tbo Cburcb ; but bavn fiiruisbud no 
loss examples of all Cbcistiau virtuos, at wbicb tbo Froucb, daily witnussoa 
of tbu fact, wur<j unweariuil in tlioir admirations. Dutaih aro found in 
tbo Letters of Motber Miry of tbo Incarnation, tbe trutb of wbieb it 
cannot Ijo permitted to doubt ; and 1 cat., I tbink, assert tbat tbeso os- 
tcemod letters, botb by tbo manner in wbicb tbcy aro written and by tbo 
Spirit of Ood wbicb tboy broatbo, will ha an eternal monuiuout of tho 
fecundity of grace in barbarous and savai^e boarts. Tbus wrote tbat il- 
lustrious foundress to iier son Dom Clamle Martin, a Bonodictino monk 
of tbe congregation of St. Maur, in August, 1(544.' 

" You ask me, moreover, wbetber our Indians aro as perfect as I state 
in my letters. I will toll you tbat in point of manners, I mean their 
nn)de of acting and paying compliments, you will not tind Frencili juiUte- 
nt'ss ; we have not sought to teach them this, but to impress tirmly .bo 
Commandments of God and of the Clmrcb ; tbo Points and Mysteries of 
our Faith, the Prayers and Practices of our religion, such as tho sign of 
the cross, examination of couacionce, and like actions of piety. An In- 
dian makes bis confession as well as a religious ; ho is candid to tbo \.> 
most, and makes much of the least tritles. When they fall they perform 
public penance with admirable humility. Take an example. Indiana 
have no other drink than the broth of tho sagamity kettle, be it moat, or 
Imlian corn, or boiled water, or pure water. When tho French gave thom 
a taste of brandy, they found it so to their taste, tbat they prefer it tcj all 
other cheer ; but tbe mischief is, tbat when they can got it, they ha"<3 
only to take one drink to become madmen and frantic. Tho reason is 
supposed to be that thoy eat only fresh things, neither knowing nOr using 
salt. This drink generally kills them. Our Governor has a(;cordingly 
under severe penalty forbid giving or trading any to thom. Nevertheless 
when tbe ships come in it is impossible to prevent tho sailors selling 
them some secretly. Old Christian Indians and their families do not fall 
into these excesses ; it is the heathen with a few dissolute young men. 
Yet this year it happened tbat some fell into this fault, and to punish it 

' Cliojs de LettrcH llistoriqui'S, p. 104. 

', t. 

'^' i-ti; 




tln' -tiiohoms, witli llic Ilivcicii.l Kitlur Superior of thm Mission, con- 
«li';iiiii>l tliciii to |)!iy II ^'I'cMt iiiiiiiliiT of skim for tlic (Icooriitioiis of tiin 
fli;ii>..'l, and moreover to puss tlii'ec days wiUioiit ciitvjriujj; tlie clmrch, 
nil I to go only twieo ii day to olter tlioir jiniyors iit tlui door, iitteiidcd liy 

the innocent in onler to uid tlienito ohluin mercy Otliers 

ra.'ilce n pulilic deeliiriition of tlieir hIiis in the chnreii of thi^ Fri'iicli : 
otluTs fiiHt tiireu (hiys oil Itreiid and water. As they do not ofUnfall iiit i 
thusi! oxoosHos, this kiiul of peiianco is vory raro. Still it is with In liiii-i 
as witli the Freneii ; there are more and tlioro are less dov )iit ; but :j;en- 
erally spcakiiii^ the Indians are more dovont than the French; and for this 
rovsoii they are nikt- minified to;,'ether, the Imli.ins i)i»in;f put into a sepa- 
riito town, for four of thoir imitating the manner of somti Frenchmen. 
Not tmt that the latter are pretty well behaved in this country ; but lii- 
diiiis uro not capable of French liberty, even when in bounds. 

" I cannot toll you all that I know of tho fervor of those now plants : 
although wo aro perceptibly touched by it, wo boj^iu to lose our astonish- 
ment, .so accustomed aro wo to witness it ; but Fronohiaen just arrived, 
\\.\ ) had seen nothing of tho kind in Franco, weep for joy to behold 
w lives transformod into lambs, and wild boasts into childrou of (I )d. 
Tao Chief of tho Sylleri Indians, bofoi'o sotting out for tho war against 
tlio Irixiuois, caiuo to mo ami said : ' Mother! I como to seo you, to toll 
y.)U tliat Wo aro going to moot the enemy : it tliey kill us it m.atters not, 
indood it is long since thoy began to do so, aud even take and kill tho 
FiMiicU, our friends, with those who instruct us. Wo go to war not 
bsuusij they kill us but because thoy kill our friends. Pray for us ; for 
we have olfinided God, and therefore Ho chastises us. Tho young 
in n especially do not behave well. I toll them; You ofTei- 1 God, and 
Ho puni.shes us ; amend your lives and Ho will bo appease \. Such a,' naming him, ' has again committed a serious fault for which I 
wisliod to expel him from among us ; but tho Faiaisr Superior told 
me : Wait till spring and he will reform. Tho Fatlior is too good to 
h.ivi; waited SO long ; Spring is past ;iud he has not reformed. lie 
draws the devil amtJiig us, aud that is the source of all our misfor- 
tunes. Tray then for us, all of you ; for wo know not what will bo- 
cjme of us on account of our offences.' 

" In a pul)lic harangue made in tho churcli, in which Rev. Father lo 
Qiiieiii had rebuked the young men, this chief raised his voice aud 
made a public and general confession of all tho faults that ho had com- 

' Father John de Quen. Ante ii., 




luillcd from tho ftf,''' "' hovoii ycarH, when ho hcfiitno •» ('lirintiaii, iidil- 
iiig : ' It iH I, l)i'ctlii'i'n, wlio ilniw down idl llirwd iiiiscrics tlmt liffiill iis ; 
you Ht'O it l)y wlmt I liiivu jiiHt iiiiidc kiKtwii of my iiilldrlity to (linl's 
graces, oitico I became Hm child ; hut Ho is ^'ood ; tiiku heart, do ikpI 
deHpuir ; if we Hcrve Hiii , Ho will nhow us mercy.' 

" An ludiiiu womiui siiid iit oiu' lultioo : 'dod iloes mo iiiiiuy fiivorn ; 
formerly flie deiith of my ciuldri'U ho iiiUieted me, thiit notliiu>( in tiio 
world could console me ; now my mind is so convinced of (lod's wisdoiii 
iind j^'oodiU'ss, tiiiit hIioiiM Ho deprive me of tlicm nil, I should not I'cil 
Hiiil; for I think in myself, if ii lonyer life were iioeessiiry for my child tiio 
better to work out its Hiilvntioii, Ho who mndo nil, would not, rchise it, 
since Ho is HO good and n.itliiug is impossible to Him: now thiit Ilo 
Hunuuons it to Himself, we must siiy, since Ho kiu)ws nil, tliat H(t per- 
haps sees that it would ceases to believe in Him, luid commit sins wiiich 
would plun^'e it into hell. In this tliouf^dit I siiy to Him: ' I)i,spos(- of 
mo, Thou who hast made all, and of my eliildren. ShoiiUlsl 'I'iiou try nn^ 
in all possible manners, yet will I nvwv (;ease to Iji'lieve in Thee, or lovo 
and obey Thee, for I will all that Tiioii wilt.' Tiien I say to my childreu 
whom I see die : ' Go, my child; g.), beh )ld in licaven Him who made all 
when you are there, pray to Him for me, that I too nniy <^l^ thither when 
I die. I vv-ill olVer up prayers for your soul, that you may soon leave pur- 
gatory.' This same woman, Louisa, one day came to mi- to recite a 
long prayer that she had composed for the warriors. It was conceived in 
such touel'-ng terms, that my heart was melted, (iod .se<'nis to<leli;,'lit in 
trying her faith, depriving her uf all her eiiiUiren one after iinolher sinco 
her baptism. 

" You tec by tho little that I have said, tins sentiments of our good 
Christians. Their conseieuccs are so tender, that a young man and wo- 
man having this year taken their child on their hunt, it died in the woods 
in their arms. They had so gixat a iear of displeasing (iod by burying 
it in unconseerated earth, that for three or foia- months, the mother al- 
ways carried it around her neck over precipices, rocks, through woods, 
snow and ice with untold hardship. They came here for Easter, and in- 
terred their child, which they presented wrapped up in a skin." 

" It is ravishing," says she in another letter to ihe same, September 10, 
IG'IG,' " to see our good SyUeri Indians, and the great care they tala; tkat 
God be properly served in their town ; that the laws of the Church \k, 
inviolably kept and faults punished so as to appease (lo,l. One of tho 
great auyieties of the chiefs is to banish all that can occasion sin In general 

I (.'lioix dc Li'ttrcH IliKtoriqiRS, \i. 140. 






or in particular. Ton cannot visit the chapel without finding some In- 
dian at prayer with so much devotion that it is a ravishing sight. If 
any one is found who belies his faith or Christian morals, he withdraws 
into self exile, well aware that, wilUng or unwilling, he must do penance or 
be shamefully expelled from the town. Some days ago a young man had 
a disagreement with his wife ; they were brought before the chiefs, who 
condemned the man to be put in irons in a cellar of the fort, there to fast 
three days on bread and water ; and the woman was condemned to the 
same punishment, which was executed in our monastery. These poor 
people performed their penance with so much devotion, that I believe 
their fault was remitted the moment the sentence was pronounced. The 
woman would not have even a handful of straw under her ; ' for, said 
she, 'I wish to pay God, whom I have offended.'" 





Portrait of Mgr. Laval, first Bishop of Quebec (to face title). 


Map of the Eastern Part ok New France, ok Canada 9 

Medal struck by Louis XIV. on the Victory at Quebec 1 90 

Fac-similes.. of Canadian Officers 211